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' f: 

( ^i c^cc / f/ '^rf :fu \ , .;c-^/< 







Third Edition 

London : SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, & Co., Ld. 
Tokyo: THE SHUYEISHA, Ichigaya. 

Yokohama, Shanghai, Hongkong, Singapore. 


\AU rights reserved] 






This edition, though revised with great care, 
practically reproduces its forerunners of 1888 and 
1889. A small quantity of new matter added to the 
** Theoretical Part," or Grammar proper, for complete- 
ness' sake, has been absorbed into the old paragraphs 
without disturbing their order. Thus, references to 
the Colloquial Hattdhook in a manual of Japanese 
writing which the author has in view, will be equally 
intelligible to students, whichever edition they may 
happen to possess. In the ** Practical Part," or 
Reader, one or two pieces that had lost their interest 
have been dropped, and a new piece — an extract from 
the debates in the Imperial Diet — has been substituted. 

Thanks are due to many correspondents — some 
of them personally unknown to the author — for correc- 
tions and suggestions. Similar criticism will always 
be gratefully received in the future ; for in the case of a 
language so exceptionally difficult as Japanese, the 
utmost that any grammarian, however painstaking, can 
hope to produce necessarily falls far short of the ideal, 
and here, if anywhere, the saying holds good that in 
multitude of counsellors there is safety. 


Such students as desire to pass beyond modern 
colloquial practice into the field of philological research 
are recommended to peruse Mr, Aston's Grammar of 
the Japanese Written Language^ — an admirably lucid 
work embodying all the best results obtained by the 
native school of grammarians, — and the present writer's 
Essay in Aid of a Grammar and Dictionary of the 
Luchuan Language (** Trans. Asiat. Soc. of Japan," 
Vol. XXIII. SuppL), wherein an attempt has been 
made to attack some of the problems of Japanese 
philology from the outside. 

Tdkyd, December y i8g*j. 



.OR . 



I, Method of using this Handbook.—^ 2, Necessity for much 
Teaming by Heart. — ^ 3, Relationship of Japanese to Other 
Languages. — ^f 4, Differences lietween Ancient and Modern Japa- 
nese, Introduction of Chinese. — ^ 5, Pronunciation of Chinese. — ^ 
6. Preference for Chinese Words. — ^ 7, Japanese Writing, the Kana 
Syllabaries. — ^f 8, Colloquial Literature. — \ 9, Parts of Speech. 
— \ 10, Errors into which European Speakers are Apt to 
Fall Page i— ii. 



II, letters. — \ 12—13, Vowels, Short and Long. — ^ 14 — 19, Vowel 
Peculiarities, Quiescent Vowels. ^^f 20 — 22, Diphthongs. — \ 23 — 
25, Consonants, Simple and Double. — f 26, Final Letters. — \ 27, 
Accent.--^ 28 — 32, I^etter-Changes, the Nigori, Reduplication of 
C'onsonants. — \ 33, Change oi e \o a in certain Compounds. — \ 
34, Japanese Inability to Pronounce certain Combinations of Letters, 
Changes hence Resulting in Imported European Words. — ^ 35, 
Euphonic Contractions Pa e 12 — 26 




T 36—44, Nnmber and Gender.— f 45 — 49, Compound Nouns, 
Synthesis of Contradictories, Diflference between Native and 
Cliinese Compounds, Hyphens.— f 50, Word -building, Proper 
Names. — f 51, Honorifics in Word-building. — ^ 52, Nouns in /^ 
and mi. — T 53 — 54, Koto i^nd Mono,^\ 55, Names of Shops. — ^ 56, 
Names of Trees, Rivers, Islands, and Mountains. — f 57, Aida, 
Hazu, Toki, — ^ 58, Tokoro, Dokoro, — ^ 59, Verbs used as Nouns. 
— f 60—63, Nouns used as Adjectives.— f 64, Nouns used as 
Adverbs Page 27 — ^45. 



f 65—71, Personal Pronouns.— f 72, Reflective Pronouns.- T 73— 
79, Demonstrative, Interrogative, and Indefinite Pronouns and 
Adverbs (^ 74, Table of Pronouns and Adverbs).— f 80—86, 
Relative Pronouns, 7<?i^r^ »<7 Page 46— 61. 



f 87, Postpositions Proper (including f 88—90, Z'^.— f 91—94, 
Ga. — f 95 — 98, Ka,—\ 99 — 100, Kara.—^ loi, Made.—% 102, 
iWi?.— If 103, Motte.—^ 104— 109, M'.— T no— 114, No. — f 1 15, 
Dano.-^^ 116, Shi,—^ I17— I2i, To, ToU.—% 122—125, Wa.—^ 
126 — 128, Diflference Mween IVa and Ga, — ^ 129—132, ff^.— f 
U3» ^^.— t '34, ^'f.— f 135, Yori),—^ 136—140, Postpositions 
Combined, No ni, Woba, To wa. — ^ 141 — 145, Quasi-Postposi- 
tions Page 62— too. 


U 146, Cardinal Numbers (including f 147— 151, Native Numerals.— 
^ 152, Chinese Numerals.— If 153, Letter-Changes of Chinese 


Numerals.— f 154—156, Sundry Pecaliarities of Namerals).— 
f 157—160, Chinese Auxiliary Numerals.— f 161, Native 
Auxiliary Numerals. — f 162, Counting of Human Beings.— 
f 163—165, Interrogative Numeral Words.— f 166, Ordinal and 
Fractional Numbers.— f 167—172, Counting of Time,—!" 173— 
174, Miscellaneous Numeral Locutions Page ioi— 119. 



1[ 175—185, Primary Inflections in ki, shi^ ku (1, ^, fi). Adjective 
Stems, Table of Primary Inflections. — f 186 — 187, Secondary or 
Tense and Mood Inflections, Tables of ditto.— f 188, Negative Adjec- 
tive A^<if.— fi89, Negative Conjugation of Ad jectives. — \ 190, Ex- 
amples of Tense and Mood Inflections, f 191, Compound Adjec- 
tives*— f 192, Beki,^^ 193, Desiderative Adjective in Tai, — f 194, 
Raskiif Reduplicated Stems. — f 195, Garu and Tagaru^ Verbs 
Derived from Adjectives. — ^ 196—210, Quasi-Adjectives (including 
Tf 197, No, Na, Na no, and Emphatic Nan, — f 198, So «j.— f 205 
—207, Verbs used as Adjectives. — \ 208 — 209, Common Errors of 
Foreigners. — f 210, Diminutives in ko. Augmentative! in J, and 
Honoriflcs tf,^tf, etc.), — \ 211 — 214, Comparison of Adjectives. — 
^215 — 219. Miscellaneous Items Page 120— 148. 



\ 220, Fundamental Differences between Japanese and European 
Verbs.— f 221 — 222, Analysis of Verbal Forms into Root, Stem, 
Base, and Agglutinated Suffix. — ^ 223, Roots. — \ 224—225, 
Bases. — \ 226, Verbs how Named.— f 227, Introductory Remarks 
on the Paradigms,— f 228 — 230, Paradigms of the Three Regular 
Conjugations. — \ 231 — 233, Paradigms of the Irregular Verbs 
Kuru, Sum, and Mas^, — \ 234, Verbs for Practice.- f 235—237, 
Peculiarities of First Conjugation (with Table).— f 238, Kydto 
Peculiarities. — ^ 239, Rationale of Phonetic Changes in Stems 
ending in x, /, or a Vowel— f 240—267, Analysis of the Formation 
of the Moods and Tenses. — f 268 — 272, Irregular Verbs, viz.. 


Am, GozarUy Iras sham, Kudasaru, Nasam, Ossham, Iku, and 
Shi num. — f 273 — 29!, Remarks on the Use of the Moods and 
Tenses (including f 273—276, Present, Past, and Future. — \ 277, 
Infinitive. — f 278 — 279, Indefinite Form and Negative Gerund. — \ 
280—282, Gerund. — \ 283, Gerund of Adjectives. — \ 284, Emphasis- 
ed Gerund. — ^ 285, Desiderative Adjective and Adjective of Pro- 
bability. — \ 286, Form in sd.~^ 287, Conditional Mood, Old 
Hypothetical Mood, Nnraba, Elliptical Idioms Corresponding to 
English Would, Should, Could, etc. — \ 288 — 289, Concessive Mood 
and Idioms. — \ 290, Frequentative Form. — \ 291, Imperative 
Mood). — If 292 — 302, Auxiliary Verbs (including ^ 292, Stems 
Built up by means of Auxiliaries. — \ 293, Am — \ 294, Iru and 
Om. — f 295, Kuru, Illative Tenses. — \ 296, Mim. — f 297, 
N^araba. — ^ 298, Oku. — \ 299, Shimati. — -^ 300, Sum, Itasu, — 
^ 301, Yarn, — \ 302, Auxiliaries make the Sentence Lifelike 
and Picturesque) Pack 149—197. 


\ 303, Passive Voice. — \ 304, Origin of Passive explains 
Peculiarities of its Use. — \ 305 — 308, Curious Examples, Wo in 
Passive Constructions, Am. — \ 309, Passive passes into Poten- 
tial. — 1 310, Dekim. — \'>^\\y Kaneru, — If 312, Morau, Iladaktt. — 
^313, English Passives expressed by Japanese Intransitives.— ^ 
314, Aversion of the Japanese Language to the Use of the Pas- 
sive. — ^ 315 — 316, Intransitives in eru. — ^ 317—318, Difference 
between Intransitives in em. Potentials in areru or rareru, and 
Passives in areru or rareru. — \ 319, Second and Third Conju- 
gations how Treated. — ^ 320, Examples of Intransitives. — 
^ 321 — 323, Transitive and Intransitive Pairs of Verbs.— f 324, 
Absence of Reflective Verbs.— T 325—333, Causative Verbs.— 
^ 334 — ^340, Compound Verbs.— ^ 341—349. Equivalents of 
the Verb " to Be," Aru, GozarUf Da^ Desu, Iru, Oru, Irassharu, 
O ide nasaru, Ja, Nam, Suru.—% 350—358, Suru (If 353, Zuru, 
Jiru). — If 359 — 361, Verbs Liable to be Mistaken for Eacli 
Other. (^ 361, Paradigm of Iru, Ireru, and /r«).— Tf 3^2 — 365, 
Verbs used as Other Parts of Speech (^f 364, Reduplication of 
Present Tense) Page 198—230. 




f 366, Al)sence of True Adverbs. — ^ 367, Adjective Forms in ku 
used Adverbially. — \ 368 — 370, Nouns used as Adverbs.— 
\ 371, Phonetic Decay. — \ 372, Gerunds used as Adverbs. — 
T 373. List of Adverbs.— T 374— 376, "Yes" and "No."— ^[377, 
Adverbial Phrases. — f 378, Onomatopoetic Adverl>s. — ^ 379 — 
384, Interjections (f 382, Naruhodo,—\ 383, Ne\—\ 385, 
Bad Langage. — ^ 386, Baby Language. — If 387, Women's 
Language. — \ 388, Court Language.— If 389 — 391, Conjunc- 
tions Page 231— 243. 


T 392 — 393, General Considerations. — f 394, Honorifics only 
Partially Replace the Pronouns of other Languages. — \ 395 — 
396, O and Go.—\ 397, Sama applied to Things or Acts. — 
\ 398, Honorifics used Objectively. — \ 399, Saki, — \ 400, 
Meaningless Use of Honorifics.—^ 401, Otiy Mi. — ^f 402 — ^404, 
Honorific Periphrases for Verbs. — \ 405 — 406, Special Honorific 
and Humble Verbs. — \ 407 — 410, Honorific Imperatives. — 
If 411, " Please" and •♦ Thank You." — f 412— 413, Special Honorific 
and Humljle Nouns, Names of Relationship. — \ 414, Written 
Language Forms. — ^ 415, Scantiness of Self- Depreciatory 
Forms. — If 416, Sir, Madam, Mr. — ^ 417, Mrs, Miss. — If ^*^» 
Women's Names.— ^ 419, Use of the Word " Mr." ... Page 244 — 259. 


If 420, The Fundamental Rule is that Qualifying Words precede 
the Words they Qualify, — ^ 42'> Postpositions only an Apparent 


Exception, — f 422, Correlation of Sentences. — ^ 423, Subject 
of Sentence. — ^ 424, Examples of Construction. — ^ 425 — ^426, 
Examples of the Correlation of Clauses by the Indefinite Form 
and the Gerund. — ^ 427, General Sabjectlessness of Sentences. 
—If 428, Order of the Direct and Indirect Objects of the Verb. 
— ^ 429, Ellipsis, Final Verb often Omitted.— f 430, Syntax 
of Postpositions. — ^ 431, Inversion. — ^ 432, Negatives mutnally 
Destructive — f 433—434, Peculiarity of Japanese Negatives owing 
to the Absence of Negative Pronouns, Adverbs, and Conjunctions. — 
t 435—436, Quotation generally Direct, f 437, How to Avoid 
Quotations within Quotations, Peculiar Pleonastic Idiom. — ^ 438, 
Interrogation. — ^ 439, Passives. — ^ 440 — 441, Absence of Personifica- 
tion. — ^ 442 — 444, Extreme Tendency to Synthesis as shown in the 
Integration of Sentences Page 260 — 282. 




f 445. Short Phases IN Constant Use Page 285—299. 

f 446. Additional Useful Phrases „ 300—306. 

f 447. Easy Questions and Answers „ 307 —309. 

f 448. Proverbs „ 310—315. 

f 449. Fragments of Conversation, including : i. The Post ; 2, 
An Exhibition ; 3, A Request ; 4, Engaging a Teacher ; 5, What 
Salary ? 6, Meal Hours ; 7, An Enquiry ; 8, Another Enquiry ; 
9, Talking to a Child ; 10, Talking to a Father ; 11, The Telegraph ; 
12, Speaking Japanese Well ; 13, No Thoroughfare ; 14, Compli- 
ments on Meeting a Friend ; 15, A Message ; 16, Feeling Unwell; 
17, On Board Ship ; 18, A Picnic ; 19, A Visitor ; 20, Asking the 
Way; 21, Compliments on First Meeting ; 22, Taking Leave of a 


Friend ; 23, Thanks for Assistance Received ; 24, New Year Con- 
gratulations; 25, An Earthquake ; 26, Hiring a Jinrikisha ; 27, Letters 
for the Mail ; 28, Nearing Yokohama ; 29, A Christian Church ; 30, 
A Fire ; 31, The Theatre ; 32, Early to Bed ; 33, Difficulty of the 
Japanese Language ; 34, Asking the Way ; 35, The Way to the 
British Legation ; 36, A Toast ; 37, Keeping a Visitor Waiting ; 38, 
Looking in on an Intimate Friend ; 39, Arriving at a Tea-house ; 40, 
A Meeting Dispersed ; 41, Shopping at Miyanoshita ... Page 316 — 343. 

T 450 — 7, Anecdotes, including : ^ 450, True Economy ; ^ 451, 

Thankful Kichibei ; f 452, If they Wait, their Ages will Come 

Right ; If 453, An Illiterate Dog ; f 454, A Dream of Liquor ; ^ 

' 455, The Pursuit of Fashion ; f 456, Radishes ; f 457, An Eye on 

the Top of the Head Page 344— 365. 

T 458 — 9. Two Chapters from tho " Botan-D6r6," a Novel by 
Encho Page 366— 403, 

% 460. A Newspaper Article, entitled «*Why?" ... „ 404—413. 

T 461 — 2. Lectures including: f 461, A Talk al)out Investiga- 
tion ; f 462, A Point of Moral-Culture Page 414—427. 

f 463. Extract from a Sermon „ 428-^433. 

Tf 464. A Scene in the Diet „ 434 — ^447. 

f 465—473. A Word about Poetry „ 448-^52. 

f 474. Anglo-Japanese Vocabulary of over 1,700 Useful 
Words „ 453-473. 

IT 475' Vocabulary of all the Japanese Words occurring in this 
Work Pace 474— 557. 

f 476. Index of subjects „ 559—567. 

^ 477, Additions and Corrections , 568— 569* 






Introductory Remarks. 

^ I. '* How can I learn to speak Japanese ?" — This question 
has been so often addressed to the present writer that he 
has resolved to put his answer into a permanent shape. 
He is persuaded that no language was ever learnt solely 
from a grammar, — least of all a language like Japanese, 
whose structure and idioms are so alien from all that we 
are accustomed to in Europe. The student is therefore 
recommended only to glance through the Theoretical Part 
at first, in order to obtain a general idea of the territory he 
has to conquer. He can pick up by the way such of the 
examples as strike him, committing them to memory and 
seeking opportunities for using them to his servants and 
his native teacher. He should then go on to the Practi- 
cal Part, and attack the ** Fragments of Conversation" and 
the ''Anecdotes" as soon as possible, however baffling it 
may seem to be confronted with such long sentences. 
After all, as Japanese consists chiefly of long sentences, 
one cannot too early decide to face them. A little prac- 
tice will rob them of much of their terror. Every now 
and then the Theoretical Part should be consulted on 


difficult points. It should be read through carefully, a 
little at a time, after a diligent study of the Practical Part 
and a committal of a few pages of the latter to memory 
shall have caused the student to make some way in the 
mastery of the language. 
^ 2. The necessity for memorising cannot be too strongly 
insisted upon. It is the sole means of escape from the 
pernicious habit of thinking in English, translating every 
sentence literally from a whispered English original, and 
therefore beginning and ending by speaking English 
Japanese instead of Japanese Japanese. It is not only 
that the words and idioms of Japanese differ from our 
English words and idioms, but that the same set of cir- 
cumstances does not always draw from Japanese speakers 
remarks similar to those which it would draw from 
European speakers. Japanese thoughts do not run in 
quite the same channels as ours. To take a very simple 
instance. If an Englishman wishes to make a polite 
remark to a friend about the latter's sick father, he will 
probably say, ' ' I hope your father is better to-day. " In 
French, German, Italian, etc. , the phrase would be pretty 
nearly the same. . In each of these languages the same 
kindly hope would be expressed. In Japanese it is different. 
The phrase must run thus : 

Otoiisan zva, do de gozaimasu ? 

Honotirnhle'fiMther-'Mr. as-for, how ia? 

or, more politely. 

Go shimpu wa^ ikaga de irasshaimasu ? 

Auffttst retd-fitiher as-fm*, how deigfis-to-he ? 

The idea of hoping or fearing, which to us is so familiar, 
does not present itself with the same vividness and 
frequency to the less anxious, less high-strung Far-Eastern 


mind. The characteristic phrase here is rather the ever- 
recurring fatalistic 

^,^, ^ . ( ''There is nothing to 

n/ w. • r . ,-/^/"!i-|be done." "There is 

The Student should endeavour to place himself from the 
outset at the Japanese point of view. This he can do only 
by dint of much learning by heart. The trouble thus taken 
will be of infinite advantage to him, even if his ultimate aim 
be the indoctrination of the Japanese with foreign ideas. It 
will put him in sympathy with his hearers. It is true that, 
of late, English idioms have begun to penetrate into the 
Japanese language. But it is chiefly into the language of 
the lecture-hall and the committee-room. The style of 
familiar every-day speech is not likely ever to be much 
affected by this new influence. 
^ 3. It is still doubtful under what family of languages Japa- 
nese, with its sister-tongue Luchuan, spoken in a little archi- 
pelago to the south between Kyushu and Formosa, should 
be classed. There is no relationship between these and 
Aino, the speech of the hairy aborigines whom the Japanese 
conquerors have gradually pushed eastwards and northwards. 
In structure, though not to any appreciable extent in 
vocabulary, Japanese closely resembles Korean ; and both it 
and Korean may possibly be related to Mongol and to 
Manchu, and may therefore claim to be included in the 
Altaic group. Be this as it may, Japanese is what is gene- 
rally termed an agglutinative language, that is to say, it 
builds up its words and grammatical forms by means of 
suffixes loosely soldered to the root or stem. It also shows 
faint traces of the 'Maw of vowel harmony" or "attraction," 
which characterises the Altaic languages. This manifests 


itself in a tendency to uniformity in the vowels of 
successive syllables, as oiotoshi, **the year before last," for 
ato ioshL Similarly in several of the words recently adopted 
from English, such as niishin^ ''a (sewing-) machine;" 
Goiio, *^ (the Christian) God ; " bukku, **a (European)book. " 

^ 4. The earliest Japanese literature that has come down to us 
dates, in its present form, from the beginning of the eighth 
century after Christ. The general structure of the language 
at that time was nearly the same as it is now ; but the 
changes of detail have been so numerous that a page of 
eighth century Japanese is unintelligible to a modern native 
of Tokyo without special study. One of the chief factors in 
the alteration of the language has been the gradual infiltration 
of Chinese words and phrases, which naturally accompanied 
the borrowing of Buddhism, Confucianism, and the various 
arts and sciences of China. Chinese established itself, so 
to speak, as the Latin and Greek of Japan. It retains 
this position even at the present day, supplying names 
for almost all the new implements, sciences, and ideas, 
which are being introduced from Europe and America. 
In this manner, one very curious and quite unexpected 
result of the Europeanisation of Japan has been the flood- 
ing of the language with Chinese terms at a rate never 
known before. Thus we have : 

jo-ht-sen^ lit. ' * steam-vapour-ship, " ' * a steamer. " 

jb-ht-sha, , , * ' steam- vapour- vehicle, " ' * a railway train. " 

min-kerty ,, ''people-authority," ** democracy. " 

sha-shifiy ,, ''copy-truth," "photograph." 

ron-rt-gakuj , , " argue-reason-science, " ' ' logic. " 

ieisii-doy . , , " iron-road, " "a railway. " 

ban-kohl ko- , , " myriad-countries ' ' international 

ho, public-law," law." 


jb-yaku hai- lit. ( * ' treaty amend- ) , , ^ ^ . . „ 

set, \ ment," \ ^^^^'^ '^^'^»°"- 

., , ... C ''set-up-law gov- ) f ''constitutional 
n^./f ^« sei'jt, , , I ernment, " [ | government. " 

yU'Sho rep' ,, ("superior-conquer] j " the survival of 
pai^ \ inferior-lose," j ( the fittest." 

\ 5. The Japanese do not pronounce Chinese in a manner 
that would be intelligible to any Chinaman. They have two 
standards of pronunciation, both of which are corruptions of 
the Chinese pronunciation of over a thousand years ago. One 
of these is called the Go-on, the other the Kan-on, from the 
names of certain ancient Chinese kingdoms. Usage decrees 
that the same word shall be pronounced according to the 
Go-on in some contexts, and according to the Kan-on in 
others. Thus the myb of dai-myb, "a feudal noble" (lit. ''a 
great name "), is the same as the jjiei of niei-butsu, * ' the chief 
production of a locality " (lit. ' 'a name-thing, " L ^. " a famous 
thing"). In this case myb is the Go-on, and mei the Kan-on, of 
the same Chinese character ^, which in China itself is pro- 
nounced ming. The practical student will do best to 
learn words by rote, without troubling himself as to whether 
each term, if Chinese, be in the Go-on or in the Kan-on. 

\ 6. The effect of the steady influx of Chinese words during 
more than a millennium has been to discredit the native 
Japanese equivalents even when they exist. A foreigner who 
wishes to be considered an elegant speaker should, therefore, 
gradually accustom himself to employ Chinese words ver\' 
freely, except when addressing uneducated persons. He 
should, for instance, prefer 


jin-ryokuisuru), "to endeavour," to chikara wo tsukusu, 
myb-cho^ "to-morrow morning," to asfiita no asa. 


sak-koji, ''yesterday and to-day," to kino to hyb lo. 
tai'hoku, ' ' a large tree, " to oh' na ki. 

Wa-set] ' ' Japanese make, " to Nihon-deku 

Some thoughtful persons, both Japanese and foreign, regret 
the fashionable preference for Chinese words. But the 
fashion exists, and to follow it is considered a mark of 
refinement ; neither is it possible, even were it desirable, for 
an outsider to set up a standard of his own, different from 
that acknowledged by the people themselves. The copious- 
ness of the Chinese tongue, and the marvellous terseness 
which generally enables it to express in two or three syllables 
ideas which would require five or six in Japanese and indeed 
in almost any other language, form an argument in favour 
of this species of Japanese Johnsonianism. On the other 
hand, much confusion is caused by the fact that numbers of 
Chinese words are pronounced alike. The consequence of 
this is that it is often impossible to know what a term means, 
without reference to the Chinese characters with which 
it is written. In any case, whether he speak simply or 
learnedly, the student should at least avoid speaking vulgarly. 
Japanese resembles English in being full of slang and 
vulgarisms of every sort. But what should we say to a 
young Japanese, who, having been sent to London to learn 
our language, should return home with the hacceni of 'Jghgale 
and the diction of the street Arab .? Japanese has also 
many provincial dialects, some of which remain more faith- 
ful in certain respects to the traditions of the Classical 
language than does the dialect of Tokyo. But the dialect 
of Tokyo (itself a slightly[modified form of the Kyoto dialect, 
which was formerly considered the standard Colloquial) has 
on its side an ever-increasing importance and preponderance, 
?is the general niediupi of polite intercourse throughout the 


country. Practical students are strongly advised to devote 
themselves to it alone. If they speak it well, they will be as 
generally understood as a man who speaks standard English 
is generally understood in England, that is to say, they will 
be understood everywhere by all but the peasantry, and in 
most provinces even by the peasantry. 

^ 7. Japanese writing consists of the Chinese characters, — 
ideographs, as they are sometimes styled because represent- 
ing sense not sound, whole words not individual letters, — 
mixed with a syllabic writing called the Kana, Speaking 
generally, the Chinese characters serve to figure all the 
principal words of the sentence, such as nouns, adjectives, and 
verbs, while the function of the Kana syllables interspersed 
throughout the text is to transcribe phonetically such lesser 
elements as particles and grammatical terminations. We 
cannot here treat any further of this important subject, — 
important because Japanese, like every language boasting 
a long history and extensive literature, may be said to live 
and move and have its being in its written system. Students 
desirous of pursuing it can avail themselves either of 
our work mentioned in the preface, or of one of the 
*' Readers" compiled for use in the primary schools, for 
instance, the '' Shin-tai Toku-hon" published by the Kinkodo 
at Tokyo. The characters may advantageously be attacked 
very soon after the Colloquial, say, as soon as oral com- 
munication between the student and his native teacher has 
become established in however lame a way. 

^ 8. A peculiarly intricate system of writing is not the only 
barrier that divides the Colloquial from the language of books. 
The Japanese still remain at the stage in which we were 
during the Middle Ages. They do not write as they speak, 
but use an antiquated and indeed partly artificial dialect 


whenever they put pen to paper. This is the so-called 
''Written Language." Of the few books published in the 
Colloquial, the best are the novels of a living author named 
ICncho. The student who does not wish to trouble about 
the characters, cannot do better than write out one of these 
books from his teachers dictation. It should be added that 
they contain not a few passages to which lady students would 
take just exception. This is the case with all Japanese 
fiction. It is not that the Japanese novelists love to wallow, 
Zola-like, in vice. On the contrary, their sentiments mostly 
leave nothing to be desired. But they have a stardingly 
realistic way of calling a spade a spade. The titles of 
Encho's two best works are :— 

* ' Boian-Dord, " the story of a last century vendetta. 

^^ Ezo-Nishtki Kokyd no leztiio,'' an adaptation to modern 
Japanese social conditions of Wilkie Collins' **New 

There is a periodical entitled '' Hyak-kwa-en,'' which prints 
Enshi's and other popular story-tellers' pieces verbatim. 
Occasionally, too, the newspapers and the ''Transactions" 
iDf the Educational, Geographical, and other learned Societies 
reproduce a lecture exactly as taken down by the short-hand 
writer from the mouth of the lecturer, and the reports of 
the debates in the Imperial Diet are given verbatim in the 
"Official Gazette" {Kwampo). The more usual practice, 
however, is to dress everything up in the Written Style before 
it is allowed to appear in print. 
^ 9. A word as to the parts of speech in Japanese. Strictly 
speaking, there are but two, the verb and the noun. The 
particles, or "postpositions" and suffixes, which take the 
place of our prepositions, conjunctions, and conjugation al 
terminations, were themselves originally fragments of nouns 


and verbs. The pronoun and numeral are simply nouns. 
The true adjective (including the adverb) is a sort of neuter 
verb. But many words answering to our adjectives and 
adverbs are nouns in Japanese. There is no article. 
Altogether our grammatical categories do not fit the Japanese 
language well. They have only been adhered to in this 
work in so far as they may serve as familiar landmarks. 

^ 10. In conclusion, the following warnings concerning errors 
into which European speakers of Japanese are apt to fall, 
may be found useful : — 

Do not confound long and short vowels. (See ^13.) 
Do not use personal pronouns too freelyt (See T[ 71.) 
Do not insert the postposition no between a true adjective 
and the noun to which it belongs. (See ^ 208. ) 

Do not apply honorifics to yourself For me to ask any 
one, for instance, to shinjo something to myself, or to kaiken 
something belonging to myself, would be as if I should say : 
' ' Have the honour to give it to me," or '* Have the honour to 
look at this thing belonging to me. " As explained in Chap. 
XI, honorifics can only be applied to other people, while 
contrariwise humble terms must be used in speaking of oneself. 
I shinjo (lit. ''respectfully lift up ") something to you ; but I 
ask you to kudasat {\it ''condescend") something to me. 
\ hatken {}\t "adoringly look at") something belonging to 
you; but I ask you to goran nasai (lit. "august-glance 
deign ") something belonging to me. (See ^ 405. ) If you 
hear beggars in the street shouting after you to shinjo a copper 
to them, it is only because, having learnt from experience 
that foreigners constandy misuse the honorifics, they think 
to ingratiate themselves and to be more easily understood by 
doing likewise. Were they addressing a Japanese, they would 
never dream of saying anything so rude and so absurd. 

Pronunciation and Letter- Changes. 


^11. Japanese, ^when written phonetically with the Roman 
alphabet, according to the phonetic spelling sanctioned by 
Hepburn's and Brinkley's dictionaries, requires the same 
letters as English, with the exception of /, q, v, and x. The 
letter c occurs only in the combination ch, which is sounded 
nearly like English chm '' church," but a little more softly, 
as cha, '' tea ;" chichi, "• milk." 

N. B, Dr. Hepburn's system, M'hich practically coincides with that 
recommended by the Royal Geographical Society for the transcription 
of hitherto unromanisecl languages generally, has established itself in 
[almost universal local use by reason of its simplicity. Not a few authors 
have, it is true, deviated on minor points, either from inadvertence or 
in order to satisfy their individual notions of phonetic perfection. 
Probably no language admits of being written phonetically with absolute 
precision ; and the present writer, for one, gladly sacrifices some minute 
personal preferences for the sake of what is far more important in such 
a case, — unity of usage. 

^12. The vowels are sounded as in Spanish and Italian, but 
are always short, unless marked with the sign of long 
quantity. It is impossible to express the values of the 
Japanese vowels correctly in English ; but, speaking ap- 
proximately, we m2^y say that 


a resembles the a in ^* father/' but is shorten 
e ,, ,, e ,, *' men." 

/ ,, }, 2 ;> ''machine,'' but is shorter. 

,, ,,<?,, " for " (not " four "). 

u ,, ,,«,," bush." 

c/ ,, i, ,, "bone," but is a purer o. 

u , , ,,<?<?,," food. " 

T[ 13. Very great care must betaken to distinguish the short 
from the long vowels ; for there are many words totally 
distinct in meaning, but differing, so far as pronunciation is 
concerned, merely in the quantity of their vowels, thus : 
dozd, " a mud godown ;"* ddzOy "please." 
koko, "here;" kokd, " filial piety. " 

saiOy * ' a village ;" said^ ' * sugar. " 

ioru, "to take ;" IdrUy " to pass through." 

isuji^ ' ' a cross-road ; Isuji, ' ' an interpreter. " 

zu/su, "[one, etc.] at a time ;" zu^su, " a headache." 
The only long vowels of common occurrence are o and u. 
Long a hardly occurs, excepting in the interjections a I ma I 
fial and sa / and in the words obasan, "an old lady," 
' ' grandmamma," and okkasan (but also okkasan), "mamma. " 
Long e hardly occurs, excepting in the interjection ne. Long 
i does not occur, its place being taken by double ii^ as in 
yoroshii, "good," as it is considered that careful speakers 
sound the two 1% separately. 

^14. When preceded by another vowel or by n, the vowels e, i, 
and are pronounced j/'^, yi, and wo respectively. Thus ue^ 
' ' dibovQ '" kon-iUy "marriage;" and shio, "salt," are pro- 
nounced (and by some tran si iterators written) uye, konyttiy 

* " Godown *' is Far-Eastern EnglUli for a store-house or warehouse. 
It comes from the Malay word ^fl^<?;(^, " a warchousG." 


T[ 15. /and u are often inaudible, or nearly so in the mouths 
of natives of Tokyo after/J h^ k, s, shy and /s, as 

pronounced j> J'' ^^ 


^16. Initial « is silent, and the following m doubled in the 
pronunciation of the four words 


''two," prone 




HI " 


"much," "many," , 


"there is," 




"the moon," , 









umaref u, 

"to be born," 




" a plum-tree," 



^ 17. The quiescent vowels are distinguished in this work by 
the sign of short quantity, as IniOy shilay iakusan, uma. But 
it should be noted that the Japanese themselves are not 
conscious of failing to pronounce the f s and «'s in question, 
and that these letters often recover their proper power for the 
sake of clearness or emphasis. They count in prosody, and 
are always sounded even in ordinary' conversation by the 
natives of many provinces. That is why they are allowed 
to remain in the transliteration, most persons writing them 
without any diacritical mark. 

^18. The vowel «, when following sh or/, is often mis- 
pronounced as i by the Tokyo people, thus : 

ieishiy for leishUy " a husband." 
* The h here has the Boand of German ch in ich^ 


They are also apt to mispronounce >'« as i, thus : 
ikij foxyukiy * * snow ;" but this is distinctly vulgar. 
^19. Be very careful to discriminate final e from final u 
Englishmen are often unintelligible owing to their confound- 
ing such words as 
sakCy ** rice-beer," and sakiy ''front," ''before." 
iakCy "a bamboo;" ,, iaki, " a waterfall. " 
yumey ' ' a dream ;" , , yumiy ' ' a bow. " 
Tf 20. The diphthongs aey ai, aOy auy et, oi, ui, call for no 
remark, each vowel retaining its own proper sound, as in 
Spanish or Italian. Englishmen and Germans must beware 
of mispronouncing ei as in " eiderdown " or German 
" klein." Japanese ^1 being simply e-^t] the second syllable 
of such a word as hreiy "p)retty," sounds nearly like the 
English word ' ' ray " or the German ' * Reh, " not at all like 
"rye." Be equally caref^;! not to give to au (ai-u) the 
peculiarly English sound of "awe;" but pronounce, for 
instance, /caUy "to buy," very nearly like English "cow." 
In the case of verbs, however, ending in aUy such as ^aUy 
"to buy ;" 7noraUy "to receixe ;" shilagaUy " to follow," it 
is optional to pronounce the letter au like a long o. But 
this is more characteristic of western Japanese than of Tokyo 

^21. The vulgar in Tokyo say ai for aey and o/'for oe ; thus 
maiy instead of »»a^, " before ;" ^o«* (which means "love"), 
instead of koey ' ' voice. " They also often contract at into a 
long e, as narane for naranaiy " it won't do." But this is as 
bad as the dropping of the letter h by cockneys. 

\^2, It is usual to write iu (rather than^/;) in the case of the 
verb meaning *'to say." 

N. B, This is a concession to etymology, the other tenses^ being 
itUf itta^ etc., with initial u 


It is usual to write ou rather than o in the case of verbs 
like omou, *' to think ;" sorou^ ** to be in order." 

iV. B. Tliis is done in order to show the original and theoretical 
conformity of these verbs to the general rule whereby the present tense 
[must always end in tt. 

^23. The consonants are pronounced approximately as in 
English, subject to the following remarks : — 

F\^ a true labial, not^'the English labio-dental ; that is to 
say, it is formed by means of the lips alone, not, as ouryis, 
by placing the upper teeth on the lower lip. 

G never has the sound of/ At the beginning of a word 
it is pronounced hard, like the ^ in '* give." In the middle 
of a word it has the soifnd of English ng in ** slangy." 
Thus Kiga, the name of a place near Miyanoshita, rhymes 
almost exactly with '* singer." (Not with ''finger," where 
the ng does double duty, first to .render the sound of «^, and 
then the sound of ^' alone. This double sound is represented 
in Japanese by the combination ng, as kin-gin, ' ' gold and 
silver," pronounced kin-ghin). Foreigners constantly err in 
pronouncing such words as Ktga like Kinner or else Kigger, 
instead of uttering the nasal sound of ''slangy," "singer," 
" Bingham," etc. 

h\ B. In western Japan, g retains its hard pronunciation in all 

^is pronounced as in English, except before the vowel <*, 
when it assumes nearly the sound of the German ch in ich. 
The syllable hi has, '"moreover, a tendency to pass into shi 
and even into simple \sh, especially in the mouths of the 
vulgar of Tokyo, ^^vho pronounce, for instance, the word 
higCy "beard," as shigCy and hilOy "person," as shio. 
Careful Japanese speakers attempt (not always success- 
fully) to avoid this error. 


N final is pronounced half-way between a true n and the 
French nasal «. When (as happens chiefly in Chinese 
compounds) a syllable ending in n is followed by a ox u in 
the next syllable, the n sounds very nearly like English ng, 
and a distinct hiatus is made before the vowel. Tlixxs gen^an 
(dlmost geng an), ''the draft of a document," — quite dif- 
ferent from ge-nan, which may equally weir be written genan, 
' ' a man-servant. " When the vowel next to n final is e, /, or 
Oy a different method is resorted to (see ^ 14). 

R is the very softest of English r s, and is never rolled 
or gargled as in French and German. Some speakers 
pronounce it almost as if it were a dental d, especially 
before the vowel t\ 

S is always sharp as in " past,'' never assuming the soft 
or z sound heard in *' misery." 

^ 24. W (pronounced exactly as in English) shows so 
strong a tendency to become obsolete after k and g, not 
only in Tokyo, but in most parts of the country excepting 
the west, that it is optional to write, for instance, kwa- 
shi or kashi, "cake;" Gwaimusho or Gaimusho, "the 
Foreign Office." Even between two vowels, as in omo- 
{to)anai, ** I do not think;" kama{w)anatf *'it does not 
matter," many natives of Tokyo drop it. In the present 
work the w has been retained in all such cases, in order 
to conform to the usage of the dictionaries. Frenchmen, 
Germans, and other Continentals are apt to sound a v 
instead of a w. This bad habit should be carefully guarded 

F is always a consonant. Thus the syllable mya in 
myakuy ''the pulse," is pronounced as one syllable^ like 
tnia in the English word "amiable.*'. Care must be taken 


not to confound the monosyllable mya with the dissyllable 
' miya in such words as miyako {tni-ya-ho)^ ** a capital city." 
Z, when preceding the vowel «, has the sound oidz, 
and is accordingly so written by many transliterators, 
as midzu, for viizu^ '* water." We write a in this work, 
rather than dz^ somewhat against our personal preference, 
and merely in order to conform to the usage of the 
dictionaries. (Conf. second foot-note to p. 31.) 

•f 25. Double] consonants must, as in Italian, be sharply 
distinguished from single ones, thus : 

ana^ *'ahole;" anna^ **such." 

ichi^ " one ; " t^M (for ichi-cht), " union." 

oto, ** a sound;" oito^ '* a husband." 

N, B, Though plenty of consonants are written dou1)Ie in English, 
few are pronounced so. Such words, however, as " bookkeeping," 
" uimeighbourly," mirxent, will serve to exemplify the peculiar insistance 
on the consonantal sound that is here spoken of. 

Where, however, no confusion is liable to ensue, the 
natives of Tokyo often pronounce as double a consonant 
which is properly single, thus : 

ammari, for amart, "too much." 

minna, ,, mina, **all." 

iokkuriy ,, iokuri, ''a bottle." 

This peculiarity, which seems to have originated in a 
desire for emphasis, is slightly vulgar. 

N, B, Only the following consonants are liable to reduplication : 
ch{tch)^ M, m. If, /, s, sk{ssh), and /^ (//j). 

T[ 26. All Japanese words theoretically end either in a vowel 
or in the consonant n. But the fact of the occasional 
quiescence of t and u produces the impression that there 
are words ending in other consonants. Thus, the polite 


terminalion masii (e.g. in artmasH, "there is") mostly 
sounds like mas, excepting in the mouths of unusually 
careful or old-fashioned speakers. In no other case is the 
clipping of final vowels to be recommended. 


^ 27. Generally speaking, the Japanese pronunciation both 
of vowels and of consonants is less broad and heavy than 
that current in most European languages, and especially 
in English. Particularly noticeable is the manner in which 
c^, j\ shy and is are minced. Tones, such as those of the 
Chinese, are entirely absent. There is little or no tonic 
accent, and only a very slight rhetorical accent ; that is to 
say that all the syllables of a word and all the words of a 
sentence are pronounced equally, or nearly so. Students 
must beware of importing into Japanese the strong and 
constantly recurring stress by which, in English and in 
most European languages, one syllable in every polysyllabic 
word, and the chief words in every sentence, are singled 
out for special notice. Thus, to quote the names of places 
familiar to every traveller in Japan, you must articulate 
HakonCy Miyanoshtia, Ashmoyu, with every syllable equal 
(excepting the t of MiyanoshUa, which quiesces), thus : 
Ha-ko-ne, Mi-ya-no-shia, A-shi-no-yUy all short and all 
without emphasis. Europeans excruciate Japanese ears 
when they say HakSne, Miyandshiay and Ashinoyu. Only 
occasionally, among the lower classes, does the desire for 
exceptional emphasis cause a word or syllable to be accented 
in a peculiarly declamatory manner, which Europeans find 
difficulty in imitating. The strength of the entire body 
seems to be concentrated on the production, on the labori- 
ous squeezing out, of the word in question. 


N. B. The statement made in the above paragraph concerning 
the absence of accent in Japanese is intended rather for purposes of 
practical instruction than of scientific accuracy. There is a slight 
tonic accent in Japanese. But so extremely slight is it that it has 
never been marked in any dictionary whether native or foreign, it has 
no influence on prosody, it varies from province to province, and 
inhabitants of the same province contradict, not only each other, but 
themselves in their usage and in the explanations which they give 
concerning it. Most of the Tokyo people distinguish by a faint 
difference of stress such pairs of words as 

dme^ "rain;" arn^, "a kind of sweetmeat.'' 

hdshij "chopsticks;" hash'iy «* a bridge." 

kdki, ** an oyster ; " kakl^ " a persimmon." 

kdtOy " a sort of harp ; " kotd^ "a thing." 

ki'imOy **a spider;" kumd^ "a cloud." 

take, " a mountain-peak ; " take, "a bamboo." 

The difference between such words may be compared — not in kind, 
but in degree— with that made by careful English speakers between 
"morning" and '"mourning," or between the verb "to advocate" and 
the substantive "an advocate," the verb "to elaborate" and the ad- 
jective " elaborate," or again between two such phrases as " re-covering 
an old umbrella " and " recovering a stolen one." The interest of the 
question is rather for the theoretical than for the practical student. 
The tendency of Englishmen, and indeed of all Europeans excepting 
Frenchmen, is always to accentuate Japanese much too strongly. 
New-comers caimot do better, at least for the first few years, than 
endeavour not to accentuate it at all. 


^28. Nigori, lit. *' muddling," is tlie name given by the 
Japanese to the substitution of sonant consonants for surds. 

N. B. In contradistinction to the sonant letters {d, g, z, etc.), the 
surd letters (/, k, s, etc.) are said to be sumi, i.e. " clear." The two 
categories together are termed sei-daku by the native grammarians, 
sei being the Chinese word for "clear," and daku for "muddled." 

The consonants afifected change as follows: — 






j\ (anciently 
}l j* probably/) »' 









The broad law governing the use of the nigori is that 
the initial surd (ch, sh, /", //, k^ s, Is, or /) of an in- 
dependent word — especially of a noun — changes into the 
corresponding sonant {j\ b, g, z, or d) when the word 
is used as the second member of a compound. The law 
affects, not native words only, but likewise those borrowed 
from the Cliinese. Thus : 

From ryoriy "cookery," and ohqya, ** a tea-house," is 
formed ryori-jaya, ' ' an eating-house. " 

From shma, "an island," repeated, is formed shima- 
^ima, ** various islands." 

From yan€y "a roof," and f««6?, '* a vessel," is formed 
yaneAiuney **a house-boat." 

* In western Japan, where the rules and analogies of the ancient 
language have been more faithfully preservevl thnn in the present 
capital, the nigori of ch is pronounced like English /, and the tngori 
of sh like the softer French/; thus/«;V, "the wistaria" (hard), but 
Fujiy " Fusiyama " (soft). The Tokyo pronunciation ignoresj this 
delicate distinction, and has English / (but just a trifle softer) for both 

f In the western provinces (following ancient usage), the nigori'jA 
s is «, while the nigori of /j is dz; thus mizu, "not seeing, "Jbut 
midzti, "water." In Tokyo these two^'sounds are confounded, both 
being alike pronounced as tfz. Conf. the end of •] 24, page 18. 


From hi, " fire," and \kachi, " a pot," is formed hi-hachi, 

"a brazier." 
From the ''indefinite forms" of the verbs ktru, "to 
wear," and "kaeru, " to change," is formed ki-^aey 
" a change of clothes. " 
From kaku, "an angle," and s^/^, "sugar," is formed 

kaku-aaidy "loaf-sugar." 
From isuki, "moon," "month," and s«^, "end," is 

formed fsukt-zue, " the end of the month." 
From kwan, a Chinese word signifying a "jar" or 
"gallipot," but not used alone in Japanese,* and 
the indefinite form of the verb t&umeruj "to pack," 
is formed toa«-Ztt;;^^, "tinned (provisions)," "can- 
ned things." 
From draty " a thoroughfare," and the indefinite form of 
the verb tomeru, "to stop" (trans.), is formed 
orat'-domey " no thoroughfare. " 
iV. B. NigorVeA syllables are not limited to compounds. Kaze, 
•* wind ;" ab/ZA*^, " oil," and numerous others offer examples of the 
occurrence of the nigori in the middle of a simple word. The nigori 
is also found at the beginning of many simple vvorJs in modern 
Colloquial , but it may then almost always be traced to the action of 
phonetic decay. Thus d^, "by," is from Classical nite ; ^ore ? 
" which ?" is from Classical id{z)ure ; and so on. Many other words 
with initial rtigori come from the Chinese, such as dozoy *' a godown ;" 
^o, " august ;" zashUi, *• a room," etc. 
^ 29. A rider to the above law is thaty and /i in Chinese 
compounds sometimes change, not into d, but into/. This 
is called the han-mgon] or "half-muddling." Thus, to 
take somewhat high-flown instances, 

* Sir Ernest Satow suggests that this word kzuan, though fitted by 
Japanese ingenuity with a suitable Chinese ideograph (131), may, after 
all, be nothing but the English word " can " itself, whose meaning it 
serves to convey. 

THE NI60RL 9$ 

From jun, "to accord," and fW, *'wind," we have 

jum-pu, " a fair wind." 
From /en, ** heaven," and hen, "change," we have 

/em-jpen, * ' a sign in the heavens. " 

/V, B, 'I he monosyllables y«» 2jAfu are scarcely ever used alone in 
Japanese in the senses here given. For the change of « to w vajun and 
ien^ see ^ 32. 

\ 30. In some words of native origin, the Tokyo people, led 
by the same love of reduplication which makes them say 
minna for mina, "all;" iokkuri for iokuri, '* a bottle," etc. 
(see \ 25), turn the letter h, which could not well be 
doubled, into what commends itself to them as the nearest 
approach to hh, viz. pp ; thus : 
yappariy ioxyahariy "also." 
yoppado, ,, yohodo, "a lot," "very." 

N, B. Perhaps it might be more correct to view this phenomenon 
as a relic of the old pronunciation of h as /. Conf. ^ 28, top of p. 21, 
small type in middle of column. 

^31. The law regulating the use of the nigori'\% by no means 
an absolute one, euphony and sometimes the varying 
caprice of individuals deciding in each case whether the 
change shall or shall not be made. Thus c?, "great," and 
saka, '*a hill," compounded to form the name of a large 
town in Central Japan, may be pronounced either Ozaka 
or Osaka (never Osdrkur, as Englishmen are apt to say). 
F and h, however, always change either into box into/, 
if the first member of the compound ends in a nasal 
consonant. Thus it would be inadmissable to S2>.yjum-/u 

It is considered harsh to have many mgoritdi letters in 
one word. For instance, as kaze, "wind," already has 
the nigori'ed letter s, it will, when combined with kami, 


''above," make kaza-kami, '* windward," not kaza-gamt] 
which would sound awkward and thick. Observe, too, 
that no nigor^ed letter is ever doubled. 

T[ 32. As shown by the examples of jum-pU and /era-pen, n 
changes to m before a labial. To give another instance : 
^UeTH'mon-gaku" ** astrology," *' astronomy ;" from ietiy 
** heaven;" moUj *' markings 6^/- letters" (not used alone); 
and gakUf "science." — N or m is sometimes inserted 
corruptly by careless speakers, as shamheri for shaheri, 
* ' chattering; " yon-jil for yoju (better shi-jii), ' ' forty. " They 
make up for this by dropping n where it should be retained, 
saying, for instance, daiko instead o( daikon, '' a radish." 

T[ 33. Less important than the ntgori affecting initial con- 
sonants, is a change which affects the [final vowels in 
certain native Japanese words of one syllable and two 
syllables. In this class of words, e final often changes 
to a, when the word is used as the first member oi a 
compound,* thus : 

From toe, ''wind," and kami, "above," we have 
kazsi'kamt) ' ' windward. " 

From sake, "rice-beer," and ^^, "a house," we have 
saksi-ya, * ' a grog-shop. " 

From /e, "the hand," and moisu, to hold," we have 
idiPiotsUf "to keep." 

From ue, "top," and the indefinite form of kiru, "to 
put on," " to wear," we have «ze;a-^/i]" an over-coat." 

* Strictly speaking, it is a which is weakened into e, a study of the 
older language showing that the formsMn^rt^are almost certainly the 
original ones. We state the rule as in the text simply for the sake of 
practical convenience. 


As an irregular member of the same class may be 
mentioned shir a for shiro, the stem of the adjective shiroi^ 
** while," in such compounds as 
shir^L'giku, "a white chrysanthemurft " (Aj^«='' chry- 
shirBrga, "white hair." (^7^: here stands for ke^ "hair." 
The language offers no otiier instance of so anoma- 
lous a change.) 

■[[ 34. All the Japanese consonants do not admit of being 
sounded before all the five Japanese vowels. F only 
occurs before the vowel «, the oilier four vowels taking h 
instead. ^S" is replaced by sh, and z hyj\ before the vowel t\ 
T is replaced b> ch, a^id d by j\ before the vowel i; i 
is replaced by /•>, and d by z, before the vowel u, W 
occurs only before the vowel a ; y only before the vowels 
a, 0, and u. The sole exceptions, according to the 
orthography adopted in this work, are those offered by 
the postpositions wo and>'^. Compare, however, f 14. 

JV. B. The phenomena mentioned in this paragraph seem to be of 
comparatively modem growth, though they can lie traced back 
some three centuries. 'I'he archaic form of the language probably 
possessed/ (or rather/), s, and /, but no d, A, j//,/, cA, is, or 2. 

To the practical student the peculiarity above noted is 
interesting only in so far as it affects the conjugation of 
verbs. He is therefore referred to Chapter VIII, ^ 235 
e/ seq. It may, however, be worth while to instance in 
passing the strange alterations introduced into borrowed 
European words by this inability of the Japanese to 
pronounce certain consonants before certain vowels, by 
their further inability to pronounce combinations of con- 
sonants or any final consonant except «, and by the 
absence from their langipage of some of the commonest 



European sounds, such as / and v. 
morphoses as the following : — 

Hence such meta- 

chifusu, from the Ger- 
man pronunciation of 
garasUf from ** glass." 
hoko, ,, *'fork." 
Tgirisu, ,, "English." 
kamey , , * ' come here. *' 

(Dogs of European race are so 
styled, because their masters constant- 
ly call out "come here !" to them.) 

karuy from ''collar." 

kasuieira, from "Caslilla." 

(Sponge-cake is so called, because 
introduced by the Spaniards.) 

koppu, from the Dutch kopy 
"a cup," but used to 
signify "a glass." 
rampUy from "lamp." 
ramune, , , * * lemonade. " 
shahon, "soap," from Spanish 

shaisu, from "shirt." 
wanishi, ,, "" 

There are also some quite anomalous cases, such as 
penki, from " paint," where we should naturally have expected 

N, B. Two or three of the above examples may serve incidentally 
to show the lingering trace of early intercourse with the Dutch and 
Spaniards. At the present day, English is drawn on far more extensively 
than all other foreign tongues together, 

^ 35. Finally certain contractions are brought about by 
euphony and the desire for speedy elocution. Such are 
ip-pun for tchi fun, "one minute ;" yV^-sJ, for ju sd, 
"ten vessels." For these the student is referred to the 
Chapter on Numerals, ^ 153, as it is in the case of the 
numerals that these contractions most frequently occur, 
and that it is most necessary to commit them to memory. 


The Noun. 


^36. The noun is indeclinable, distinctions of number and 
gender being left to be gathered from the context, and 
case relations being, as in English, indicated by separate 
words, which are, however, "postpositions," not preposi- 
tions. Thus 

Uma ni noru 
lit, horse in ride 

may mean, according to circumstances, to ride on one 
horse or on several horses, on one mare or on several 

Htlo ga kimashiia 

lit. person {nominative particle) has-come 

may mean either that one person has come, or that 
several people have come. Similarly the word yama 
may designate one mountain or many mountains, it 
being properly rather a kind of collective noun, like the 
German "das Gebirg." 

^ ^j. In the extremely rare cases in which it is absolutely 
indispensable to mention the sex of an animal, this can 
be done by the use of the prefixes 0, "male," and me, 
** female," the resulting compound being sometimes 
slightly modified by euphony. Thus : 

uskt, '*any bovine animal." 

O'ush) **a bull," '«an ox." 

vie-ushiy ' * a cow. " 

uma, *• any equine animal." 






''a mare." 


*'abird," **afowl." 




''a hen.'' 

The words oloko, **man," and osuy "male;" onfia, 
"woman," and mesu; "female," subserve the same pur- 
pose, thus : 

ko, " a child ; " otoko no ko, " a boy : " onna no ko, "a girl." 

man 's child 

inUy * ' any canine animal ;" 

Such a phrase as 

osu .1) tnu, 
\ tnu no osu, 
I mesu no tnu, 

tnu no mesu, 

woman 's ehUd 

"a dog;" 
"a bitch." 

Osu desu ka, mesu desu kaP \ "Is it a male or a 

Male is ? female is ? \ female ? " 

may mean "Is it a horse or a mare?" " Is it a gander 
or a goose?" "Is it a he or a she-ass.?" etc., etc., ac- 
cording to circumstances. The words osu and mesu are 
never applied to human beings, whereas the words oioko 
and onna are applied indifferently to human beings and 
to other living creatures. 

^ 38. In a very few cases, chiefly the names of the degrees 
of relationship, the sexes are distinguished by the use of 
different words, thus : 

chichi, "father;" 
oioiisan, "papa;" 
ojiisan, " g ran d papa, ' ' 
" an old gentleman ;" 
oji, * * uncle ; " 

haha, * ' mother. " 
okkasan, "mamma." 
obasan, * * gran d m am m a, " 

"an old lady." 
aba, * ' aunt. " 


aniy ''elder brother;" aney " elder sister. " 
oioiOy ** younger brother ; " imoio, ** younger sister." 

^ 39. What we call the singular number is occasionally 
indicated by the use of the word hiioisu or tchi^ *'one," 
thus : 

hako htiolsUf '* one box." 

ichi-nen, "one year." 

•[[ 40. The idea of plurality, universality, or variety is oc- 
casionally indicated by doubling the word, thus : 

ho-boy "everywhere;" from ho, "aside." 
iro-irOy "all sorts;' from irOy ** a sort" (properly 
"a colour"). 

kuni'guniy "various countries;" Uoxakuniy "a country." 
iokorO'dokorOy "many places," "here and there;" 
ixoxcitokorOy "a place." 

As exemplified in these words, the second member of 
such compounds almost always takes the nigoriy when it 
begins with a consonant capable of so doing. 

•[[41. Another method of expressing plurality is by agglu- 
tinating certain particles, viz. gaiuy tachiy shu (often pro- 
nounced shi)y domOy and ra, to the end of the word, thus : 
okusama-gaiay "ladies;" from okusama, "a lady," 

"my lady." 
shikwati'tachiy "officials;" ,, shikwatiy "an official." 
onna-shuy "women;" ,, onnUy "a woman." 

onna'domoy "women;" ,, onnUy "a woman." 
kuruma-ya'-ray "jinrikTsha-men; " from ^' kuruma-^yay 

' ' a jinrikTsha-man. " 
The order in which the foregoing particles and examples 
are given is that of a gradually decreasing politeness. 
There is, indeed, no great difference between ^a/oj and 


iachi, but both are certainly more polite than the three 
that follow them. Onna-shu may be used in speaking of 
the female attendants of another ; onna-domo is better in 
speaking of the female attendants in one's own house- 
hold. The suffix ra is decidedly familiar. 

•[[42. Numerous as are the above particles, the idea of 
plurality is not always very clearly expressed even by 
their help. Thus, whereas ko may mean "children" as 
well as "child," the ostensibly plural form ko-dotno may 
mean "child" as well as "children." In this particular 
instance, but scarcely in any others, we may, in order to 
get an undoubted plural, superadd one suffix to another, 
and say ko-domo-ra or kodomo-shu, "children." 

T[ 43- ^® ^^y ^^^^ (chiefly in vocables borrowed from the 
Chinese) prefix certain words in order to obtain a sort 
of plural ; thus : 

ban-koktd, "all countries," "international;" from ban, 

" ten thousand," and koku, "a country." 
shO'kun, "gentlemen;" from sho, "all," and kun, 

"prince," "Mr." 
su-netiy "many years;" from su, "number," and nen, 

"a year." 
N.B, None of the Chinese words here given — ban, koku, sho, 
etc., — can be used alone, but occur only in compounds. Observe the 
shortening of sU to su, — not obligatory, but usual. 

^ 44. But though the ways of indicating sex and number are 
thus various, it cannot be sufficiently borne in mind that 
they are all more or less exceptional, and are scarcely found 
except in a limited number of cases which usage has 
sanctioned. Distinctions of sex and even of number are 
not dwelt on at every moment by the Japanese, as they are 
by the European, mind. 



^ 45. Compound nouns are very numerous, and can be 
formed at will. They generally consist either of two nouns, 
or of a noun preceded or followed by the stem of an 
adjective (conf. ^ 183), or by the ''indefinite form" (see 
Tf 221 and ^[ 241) of a verb. As the indefinite forms of 
verbs are themselves constantly used as nouns, two such 
forms may combine to constitute a compound noun. The 
following are specimens of the various sorts of compound 
nouns : — 

/uro'ba^ '*a bath-room," {xoxa furo, "a bath," and 3^? 

(used only in composition), "a place." 
ie-hukuro, " gloves ; " from te, " the hand," and /ukuro, 

tetsudd'basha, "a street-car;" from ietsudd, "a railway," 

2jid basha, ** a carriage." 

kuro-megane, ** black goggles;" from kuroi, "black,** 
and megane, ''spectacles." {Megane is itself a 
compound of/w^, " eye," and kanCy "metal.") 

id'tnegane, **a telescope;" from iot, "far," and megane ^ 

me-kura, "a blind person," lit. "eye-dark;" from 
mey " the eye," and kurai^ "dark." 

kaimono, "a purchase," "shopping;" from kauy "to 

buy," and mono, "a thing." 
kake-mono, " a hanging scroll," irom kakeru, "to hang" 

(trans.), and mono, "a thing." 
yake-do, "a burn ; " from yakeru, " to burn " (intrans.), 

and to (for iokoro), "a place." 
ki-chigai, "a lunatic;" from hi, "spirit," and chigau, 

« ' to differ, " "to be wrong," 


mono-oki, "an out-house;" from mono, **a thing/' and 
oku, "to put." 

ie-nugui, "a towel;" from ie, "the hand," ^r\d nuguu, 
"to wipe." 

haki-damey "a dust heap;" from haku, "to sweep," 
and tameru, "to collect together" (trans.). 

hiki-dashi, "a drawer;" from hxkuy "to pull," and dasu, 
"to take out." 

make-oshmt, "unwillingness to acknowledge oneself 
beaten " (e. g. the fox in the fable, who said that 
"the grapes were sour"); from makeru, "to be 
defeated," and oSi^?*w«, "to regret." 

N. B. Observe the tendency of the second member of the com- 
j)ound to take the nigori (Conf. IT 28). 

\ 46. The forms indicating gender and some of those in- 
dicating number are really compounds, as may be seen by 
reference to ^ 37 and ^ 43. So are the augmentatives 
formed by prefixing b^ the root of bkii^ *'big," and the 
diminutives formed by prefixing ko, "child" (very rarely 
0, "small"), thus: 

haka, * * a fool ; " o-baka, * ' a great fool." 

ishij "a stone;" ko-ishiy "a pebble." 

nezumtj ' ' a rat ; " o-nezumi, * ' a large rat ; " 

ko-nezumi, "a small rat," "a mouse." 

N, B. The names of the young of animals are formed by means 
of ko, either by prefixing it as a particle, or^by using it as a separate 
word, thus : 

inu no kOy or ko-inUy ] ^^ „ 

///. dog 'H child, child-dog f ^ P^PP^' 
mukade no ko, I .. . i« j »» 


Usage evinces certain preferences in this matter. Thus, though 
inu no ko and ko-inu are indifferently employed to signify " puppy," 
one cannot call the young of the centipede ko-mukade. It is obligatory 
to say mukade no ko. 

^ 47. In all the examples of compounds hitherto quoted, one 
of the two members is subordinated to the other. Sometimes, 
however, the two members of the compound are co- 
ordinated, thus : 

tsuki-hij *• months (and) days." 

so'tnoku, ''herbs (and) trees." (This is a Chinese com- 
pound, the component parts of which are not used 

But though they are closely joined in pronunciation, 
there would be no harm in considering these as separate 
words, and in so writing them, especially if they are 
native Japanese terms, thus : 

ani oiotOy "elder brother (and) younger brother," i.e., 

ane imdio, "elder sister (and) younger sister," i.e., 

umi hawa, "(the) sea (and the) rivers." 

i^ki hi hoshi, ''(the) moon, sun, (and) stars." 

Co-ordinated compounds are sometimes obtained by 
abbreviation, after the manner of the following : 

Ei'Beij " England and America," from Ei-koku, 
" England," and Bei-koku, " America," by dropping 
the second half of each. 

sak'kon, "yesterday and to-day," from saku-jUsu, 

"yesterday," and kon-nichi, "to-day." 
This occurs only in words taken from the Chinese 
language, which esteems nothing so much as brevity. 


N. B, Tne order of such compounds cannot be reversed. Bei-Ei or 
kon-saku would not be understood. 

\ 48. Such co-ordination sometimes assumes a peculiar 
form, which has been aptly named **the synthesis of 
contradictories," because from two terms of opposite 
signification there results a third abstract term giving the 
mean of the two, thus : 

en-kin, "far-near," i.e., *' distance/' 

kan-dan, *' cold-heat," i.e., " temperature." 

nan-nyOf * ' man- woman, " i.e.," sex. " 

sei-sui, "prosperity-decline," i.e., "the ups and downs," 
"the fortunes,'* of a family, kingdom, &c. 

The above are Chinese vocables. As pure Japanese examples, 
though not nouns, we may take 

aru-nashi, "is-isn't," i.e., "(the question of) the ex- 
istence of a thing." 

yoshi-ashi, "good-bad," i.e., "degree of excellence," 

The use of these convenient expressions, which is bor- 
rowed from Chinese grammar, is chiefly confined to per- 
sons of education. 

^[ 49. The student should note the difference in construction 
between genuine native compounds and those derived 
from the Chinese, when one member of the compound is 
a verb governing the other. In genuine Japanese com- 
pounds the verb comes last, as in English, thus : 

hara-kirij lit. "belly-cutting," the old form of legalised 

kami-hasami, "hair-cutting." {hasamu='' to cut with 
scissors," whereas h'ru is "to cut" in general.) 


In Chinese compounds, on the contrary, the verb comes 
first. Take, for instance, the elegant Chinese synonyms 
for hara-hiri and kami-hasami, which are preferred by 
cultured speakers, viz. 

sep'puku, from setsu, "to cut," and /uku, "belly." 
zani'paisu, t/ zan, "to cut," „ haisUy "hair." 

-A'". B, Hyphens need not be used so fredy as we, for etymological 
purposes, have here done. A hyphen is, however, indispensable be- 
tween the two members of such compounds as gen-atty " the draft of a 
document/* where a final n is followed by an initial vowel. (Conf. ^ 23, 
p. 16, under the heading of iV.) 

Quite a number of compounds are hybrid, that is, partly 
native, partly Chinese, ?iS omoie-mon, "a front gate; Nihon- 
bashi, "Japan bridge" (the name -of a bridge in T6ky5), 
where mon and Nihon are Chinese, the other half of each 


^ 50. The student interested in etymology will gradually 
discover that almost all long Japanese words and many 
short ones are really compounds, though their composite 
origin has often been forgotten even by the Japanese 
themselves. Thus michi, "a road," is from mi^ an honorific 
prefix, and chi, the original word for *'road." Mikado, 
*' the Imperial Court," hence "the Emperor," is from the 
same mi, and kado, "a gate" (compare the "Sublime 
Porte" of Turkey).* Kagami, "a mirror," is from kage, 

• Sir Ernest Satow prefers to derive mikado from the archaic mika, 
" great," and io {ftigoH^od to do), ** place." 


** shadow," "reflection," and mt'ru, "to see."* Place- 
names are almost always compounds which can be easily 
resolved into their constituent elements, as Toko-hamay 
"cross strand;" E-do (Yedo), "inlet door;" Ara-kawa, 
"rough river;" O-shima, "big island; Fuji-san, "Fuji 
mountain," "Fusiyama" (the etymology of Fuji\% obscure, 
but probably the name is of Aino origin) ; 3fiya}-no^'Shiia,^ 
"below* of* Shinto-shrine^," .i.e. "bSneath the shrine;" 
E^-nd^'Shima^j "island" of* inlel^" Similarly in the case 
of surnames, most of which are of geographical origin, being 
borrowed from the names of the localities where the persons 
who first assumed them resided, thus Ko-bayasht, "small 
forest;" r-no^-ue\ "above" oP (the) welU; Ta}'naka\ 
" among* (the) rice-fields^ ;" Yama-da, " mountain rice-field," 
etc. Men's personal names, answering to our Christian 
names, are also nearly always compounds. Unfortunately 
few of these personal names can be translated, founded, as 
they are, on allusions to texts in the Chinese Classics, to 
feudal functions now obsolete, to cyclical signs, and to 
other recondite matters. Such names as Ta-ro, "big male," 

* In previous editions the word yane^ " roof," was cited in this context 
as having been derived iromya, the original word for ** house " (which 
we also find in yashtkiy " a mansion ;" kutstt-ya^ " a shoemaker's .shop," 
etc.), and mune, " the breast," hence " the ridge of a roof." This 
etymology, borrowed from the Japanese grammarians, seems disproved 
by the form of the parallel term in Luchuan,— _y« nu wty which corres- 
ponds, letter for letter, to Japanese /« no ue, lit. ** top of house," whence 
we may sxx^^ose yane to have resulted by contraction. This instance 
may serve to show how uncertain is the basis on which Japanese 
derivations often rest, in the absence of a tribe of related tongues to serve 
as a sufficiently broad standard of comparison. Native philologists of 
the old school — even such great men as Motoori and Hirata— too often 
permitted themselves to be guided by their " inner consciousness " 
alone, like our own Western philologists of former centuries. 


i.e., " eldest son ; " yi-ro, "second (lit. next) son ; " Saburo 
(for San-ro), "third son," etc., are sufficiently clear. 

-A^. B, For women's personal names, see T 418. 

All Chinese words of more than one character are com- 
pounds, e.g. Chowan, "a tea-cup," from cka, "tea," and 
2van, "a bowl;" sendo, "a boatman," — properly "the 
master of a junk," — from sen, *'junk," "vessel," and /o 
(nigort'Qd to dd), "head," "chief;" Tokyo from /J, 
"east," and kyo, "capital city," etc., etc. 
Tf 51. As shown in the foregoing examples of mic/ii, "road," 
and Mikado, ** Emperor," honorific prefixes sometimes 
enter into the actual formation of words. Generally, 
however, they are felt to be distinct entities, and are 
therefore written separately, as 

cha, lit. * * honourable tea, " i.e. , * ' tea. " 

go moiiomo, lit. "augustly right," i.e., *'you are 

quite right" 
mi ashi, lit. ** honourable august feet," i.e., 
"your feet." 
For more detailed information concerning the honorifics, 
which form so important and all-pervading an element of 
Japanese speech, see Chapter XI. 


Tf 52. Abstract nouns, expressing degree as well as quality, 
are often derived from adjective stems by agglutinating 
the syllable sa, thus : 

aisusa, "heat," "the 
degree of heat" 

omoshirosa, " fun," 

"interest," "the 
degree of fun." 

samusa, " cold," " the 
degree of cold." 

shirosa, " whiteness, " the 
degree of whiteness. " 


A tinge or souppn of a quality, hence sometimes the 
actual quality itself, and even the object possessing the 
quality, may be denoted by the termination mi agglutinat- 
ed to an adjective stem, thus : 

akaviij " a tinge of red. " 

omoshiromiy "(a certain amount of) fun." 

shiromty "a tinge of white," "the white of an t^g" 

Amami ga usu\ 

Sweetness {nam.) tMn\ « i^ Jsn't quite Sweet enough. " 
gozatmasu, i 

is. ^ 

^53. These nouns in sa and mi must be distinguished from 

the periphrasis formed by means of an adjective or verb 

and the word koio, "(an abstract) thing," "a fact," '*an 

act," "a state," as 

aisui koto^ " heat," " the fact of being hot. " 

kiianai koio^ "dirtiness," "the fact that something is 

shiroi koio^ ''whiteness," "the fact that something is 

machigaiia koto, ("a mistake," "the fact that some 
lit, mistook Uiing ( One has made a mistake." 

shimpo sum koto, f " progress " (the noun) ; also " to 

///. progress makes thing \ progress " (the verb). 

on wo shiranai koto, \ u ingratitude " 

/it. Mildness {accus, particle) ignores thing j ° 

In speaking of the blade of a fine sword, one might say : 
Sono kissaki no surudoi koto^ 

Its point 's sliarp state, 

sono yaki no urttwashii koto, 

its annealing's heaiutiful state, 

hito-me mite mo sugu samusa 

one-eye seeing even, at-once cdldness 

WO ohoeru kurai da. 
{accus,) feel amount is. 

" So sharp is its point, 
so fine its edge, that 
''the merest glance at it 
gives you a shiver. " 


These periphrases in hoio are often used exclamatorily, 
thus : 

Aisui koto ! " Oh I how hot it is 1 " 
Kiisai koio ! " Oh ! what a horrid smell ! " 

^54. Parallel to the abstract nouns in koio, are concrete 
nouns in mono. While koto denotes '* a thing of the mind," 
'*a fact," "an act," mono almost always denotes a tangible, 
material thing or person, thus ; 

deki-mono, I * * a bad place, " * ' an abscess. " 

ht. ewning'out thing ) 

kusat mono, * ' a smelly thing. " 
shiroimono, *'a white thing." 
shdjiki-monOf * * an honest fellow." 

This distinction between ko/o, "an abstract thing," and 
mono, *' 2L material thing," must be clearly kept in mind, 
if the student w^ould avoid constant misapprehension. 
Thus onaj't mono means *'the same thing," "the identi- 
cal article," whereas onaji koio means "the same sort of 
thing," — the quality, pattern, etc., being the same, but the 
actual article a different one. For mono wo at the end of a 
sentence, see \ 287. 

Mono no, or io wa iu mono no, has a very curious use, 
whose origin is unknown, but which may most easily be 
parsed by assuming no to stand for nagara, "while," 
"whereas :" — 

Rikuisu de zva ko iu mond 
Theory by indeed, thus say thing 
no, jissai wa yohodo 

whereas, practice as-for, very 
diffietat {is). 

"That is all very fine 
in theory, but it is mighty 
hard in practice. *' 


Baka da to wa iu mono\ 
Fool is that indeed say thing 

no, sukoshi no yd ?ii 

while, little 'a business in 

wa ma ni aimasH, 

indeed, space to conforms. 

" Fool as he is, he is 
capable of making him- 
self useful in minor 
matters. " 

^55. The names of shops are denoted by the termination 
ya, ''house," as : 

hon-ya, ** a book-store ;*' ixora hon, ''a book." 
niku-ya, ''a butcher's shop;" from niku, "flesh." 
pan-ya, *' a bakery," from pan, "bread." 

Kame-ya, lit. "tortoise house" (or, as we might say, 
"At the Sign of the Tortoise"), the name of a grocery in 
Tokyo well-known to foreign residents. 

Owing to the general Japanese habit of naming persons 
after places, such words as the above come to denote, not 
only the "book-store," the "butcher's shop," and the 
"bakery," but by extension the "bookseller," the "but- 
cher," and the "baker" themselves. Sometimes indeed 
the person only, and not the place, is thus designated, 

kuruma-ya, " a jinrikTsha-man " 
shimhun-ya, * ' a newspaper man. " 

^ 56. Names of trees and plants often terminate in ki, 
** tree," or in its nigorVtdi form gi, thus : 

hagi, "the lespedeza." 
mug t, ' * wheat, * ' bar- 

sugi, "the crypto- 
meria. *' 

Names of rivers end in kawa (generally nigorVt^ to 
gawa\ "river;" names of stretches of sea in nada\ those 

susuki) "the eulalia" (a 
kind of tall grass). 

isuhakif "the camellia- 

yanagi, ' ' the willow- 



of islands in shi7na (often nigorVtdi to jima) ; those of 
mountains in yama or san (zan), thus : 

to several islands off 
the Japanese coast. 

Okawa, lit. ** Great River." 

Sumida-gawa, '*the River 

Bungo-naday the stretch of 
sea near the province of 
Bungo, separating the 
islands of I^yushu and 

Kojima, lit. "Small Is- 
land," a name common 

Ogasawara-jima, "the 
Bon in Islands ; " named 
after their discoverer, 

Asama-yamaj " Mount 
Asama. " 

Bandai'San, ' ' Mount 


^57. The nouns aida, "interval;" hazuy " necessity;" 
ioki, "time; and iokoro, "place," often assume gram- 
matical functions perplexing to the beginner. Aida 
comes to correspond to our conjunction " while," hazu to 
our verbs "ought" or "should," ioki to our conjunction 
"when," thus : 



sum aida. 

do interval. 

Mo kuru hazu da. 
Already comes necessity is. 

j "While we were do- 
I ing so." 

j "He ought to be here 
I by this time. " 

"If anything of that 
kind had happened, I 
should have heard of it. 

Areha^ jiki ni kikti\ 

Jf-there-were, itnmediately hear 

hazu da ga, — mada so iu 

neces&ity is although, stiU such 

koto WO kikimasen, 
fad {accus.) (7)hearnot, 

N. B. Observe the suppressed negative which hazu almost always 
implies. Observe, too, that hazu is often strengthened by a preceding 
beki, "should," "ought," thus: Areba^ jiki ni kiku-beki hazu da ga^ 
etc. (Conf. \ 178 and \ 192.) 


Nochi ni, yd no nai toki, \ « i ^\\\ tell you about 
^/*ertc;«,&ii«,-,»e«*'5i«-naf«me,rit later, when I am at 
hanashimasho, C leisure " 

Toki 7ii 2iX. the beginning of a sentence is a sort of expletive 
corresponding more or less to our "by the way." 

^ 58. More difficult than any of the above are the uses of 
iokorOy which, from the original concrete sense of *' place/' 
has come to be used in various abstract meanings. 
Sometimes, like koiOj it assumes the signification of "a 
thing of the mind," "a matter," '* a subject," '*a quality," 
as in the following example : 

Kyukin no tokoro wa^ isuki ni 

Wage 's nicttter as-for, month in, 

jil-en tsukawashimasho. 

\ "Coming now to 
the matter of wages, 
I may say that I will 
give you ten dollars 
a month." 

A good instance of tokoro^ as equivalent to our suffix 

" ness" used to form abstract substantives, occurs 

at the end of ^ 280. 

In the middle of a sentence, iokoro, especially when 
followed by ye, is apt to assume the force of some such 
conjunction as *' while," "whereupon," "when," "just 
as," thus : 

Chodo deru iokoro ye, kyaku>^ .^ ^^3^^^ ^^^^ ^ 

UMao^aui ^J^^, arrest f ^ j ^^^ ^^ ^^^ K^^ 
%tom.) appeared. )ofgOmgOUt. 

Tokoro ga implies opposition, thus : 

Ima-jihun irasshita iokoro ga, » « Even if you do go 
Now'timedeigned-to'oo even-if, I now, you are not likely 
rusu desho. ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^t 1^^^^^." 

hovimirally dbsenit u*Ul-prob€U>fj/-be. ' 

T0KORO. 43 

Similarly at the beginning of a sentence, tokoro de means 
** thereupon" or "and so/' while tokoro ga means "never- 
theless," "still," "all the same," sometimes "it occurs to me 
that." Another grammatical use of tokoro is that in which 
it corresponds to some extent to the relative pronouns of 
European languages, as explained in \ 86. 

Tokoro is often, in familiar talk, nigori'tdi to dokoro, 
and then expresses an almost scornfully strong degree of 
affirmation. For instance, a male visitor hazards the 
remark that his hostess's baby is old enough to creep 
along the floor. The fond mother, indignant at having- 
her offspring's powers rated so low, retorts : 

Hau dokoro ja nai\ yoku\ "It is no case of 

Greep jiiace isn't; toeU f Creeping, I can assure 

arukimasu, C you. Why 1 he walks 

{he) walks. ) beautifully. " 

Similarly : 

Fbmeru dokoro ka ? kbshaku \ c c w^\q ^q read in- 

AM^^o-read place ? ^^rel^^^ ^, , j^ '^ 

modehmasu. livers lectures." 

even forthccmes, ) 

^ S9- ^Isiriy nouns are simply the indefinite forms of verbs 
used substantively, somewhat like our English nouns in 

** ing," such as "the beginning," which is properly a 

part of the verb "to begin." Here are a few examples ; 

akinaij ** trade;" from aktnau, "to trade." 

^ort, ' ' a canal ; " , , ^oru, * ' to excavate. " 

tatann, "a mat;" ,, tatamu, "topileup." 

tsurCj "companions;" ,, tsureru^ "to take with one." 

warai, * ' laughter ; " , , warau^ * * to laugh. " 

yorokohiy " joy ; " , , yorokohu, ' * ta rejoice. " 



^ 60. The Japanese parts of speech do not exactly coincide 
with ours (see ^ 9), and nouns are much more extensively 
used in this language than in English. We shall see in 
the next chapter that the so-called pronouns are really 
nouns. True adjectives also are scarce, and are frequent- 
ly replaced by nouns, just as in English we say "a gold 
chain," *'a sw^ar-plum," "the Paris fashions/' "a thing 
of beauty" The chief ways in which a noun may do 
duty for an adjective are : 

^61. I. As first member of a compound, thus : 

Amerika-jin, lit. "America person," i.e., "an American." 
doro-ashty „" mud feet," „ "muddy feet" 

Nihon-gOy „ "Japan words," „ "the Japanese lan- 

T[ 62. II. Followed by the postposition no, "of," — the order 
of the words, it should be noted, being the reverse of that 
followed in English, thus : 

alari^ no^ keishoku^ lit. "scenery* of neighbourhood^ i.e., 
"the surrounding scenery." 

kinjo no iohuisu-ya, lit, "Chinese-thing-shop of vicinity," 
i. e,, " a neighbouring general shop. " 

mukashi no htto, lit. ''people of antiquity," i.e., "the 
T[ 63. III. Followed by the word na (see \ 197), thus : 
hakd}- na* yatsu^^ " a foolish^ (being*) fellow". " 
choho na kikai, "a convenient machine." 
heta na e-kaki^ "an unskilful painter." 
jozu na e-kakiy ** a skilful painter." 
kirei na musume, "a pretty girl." 
odayaka na nami^ ''a calm sea" (lit. "calm waves"). 


Some of these words — kirei^ for instance, — are so con- 
stantly used as adjectives, that their proper sense as nouns 
tends to pass out of remembrance. In the cases where it 
is preserved, the word takes no after it when it is used as 
a noun, and na when it is used as an adjective, thus : 

heia> no^ naga^-dangi^, " the long" speech* of an 
unskilful^ (speaker)," a proverb signifying that bad 
speakers are apt to say more than the occasion requires. 

heia} na^ isha* sama^, lit, "unskilful* being' physician 
Mr*," i.e. "an unskilful doctor." {ydzu ±^ corresponds 
almost literally to the English **a good hand at," and heia 
T?" to " a bad hand at.") 

iV. B. Conf. also IT 197. 


^ 64. When followed by the postposition ni, **in," or de, 
'*by," nouns such as those above instanced often cor- 
respond to European adverbs, thus : 

baka nif "foolishly." 

gwaikoku ni or de^ ** abroad." {gwaikoku^^^^ oyi\.^i 
countries," i.e., "foreign countries.") 

jozu ni, ' ' skilfully. " 

Sometimes they are taken adverbially, even though no 
postposition be suffixed, thus : 

konnichty "this day," or "to-day." 

mukashiy "antiquity," ,, "anciently," "formerly." 

For nouns used as postpositions, see \ 141 et seq. 


The Pronoun. 


^65. The Japanese words corresponding to the personal 
pronouns of European languages are simply nouns whose 
original significations are quite clear, and which are in- 
deed still often used with those significations. Except 
for the sake of convenience to foreign students, it would 
not be necessary to discuss them apart from nouns in 
general. They belong to the category of such descriptive 
expressions as *'your humble servant," **your ladyship," 
*'His Majesty." Self-depreciatory terms are naturally 
preferred in speaking of oneself (ist. person), and compli- 
mentary terms in speaking to other people (2nd. person), 
also sometimes in speaking 9/" other people (3rd. person). 

^ (i(i. The most usual equivalent for "1" is waiakushi, lit. 
** selfishness." The vulgar often contract it to waiashi 
and washi. Other nouns now current in the same sense 
are boku, ** servant," which is much affected by young 
men in familiarly addressing each other; sesska, *'the 
awkward person;" shdsei, "junior." Ore is a very vulgar 
corruption of ware^ which is the commonest word for 
"I" in the Written Language. Ora^ which may often 
be heard from the mouths of coolies, stands for ore wa. 

\ 6^. The following equivalents for "you" are all in com- 
mon use : — anata, a contraction of ano kata, ** that side," 
"beyond" (which meaning is still retained in poetry, as 


kumo no anaia, "beyond the clouds"). Anata is a polite 
expression; with the addition of sama, ''Mr./' "Mrs.," 
"Miss," "Lord," " Lady," it is supremely polite. Omae, 
lit. "honourably in front," was formerly polite, but is now 
only used in addressing inferiors, such as coolies, one's own 
servants, one's own children, etc. Omae san (san is short 
for sama) stands half-way between anaia and omae in polite- 
ness. It is much used by women. Sensei, " senior," is 
used chiefly in addressing men or women of learning. 
Danna san, "Mr. Master," is used by a servant in 
addressing his master, and by inferiors generally. Kimiy 
" prince," is chiefly used by young men in addressing each 
other familiarly. Besides the above may be mentioned 
Heika, lit. " beneath the steps of the throne," 

N, B. Reverence naturally restrains loyal [subjects from addressing 
the throne itself : — they raise their eyes no higher than the ground below 
the steps leading up to it. 

i.e. " Your Majesty ;" Kakka " beneath the council-cham- 
ber," i.e. "Your Excellency;" sono ho, "that side," the 
equivalent for "you" employed in the law-courts by legal 
officers ; Insama, an insulting term used in addressing an 
inferior with whom one is angry. 

N. B, Etymologically Jn-sama means " exalted Sir ;" but, like many 
other words, it has fallen from its former high estate. 

The word temae, lit. " before the hand," is remarkable ; for 
it may be used either as a very humble and therefore polite 
equivalent for "I," or as an insulting equivalent for "you," 
In the sense of "you," it formerly had the honorific o 
prefixed. The rude use of it came in through the dropping 
of the honorific. 

\ 68. Senseiy Danna san, Heika, and Kakka are as appropriate 
for the third person ("he" or "she"), when speaking 



politely, as for the second. Anaia may also occasionally be 
heard in that sense. Much in use also for *'he" and 
'' she " are ano hiio, " that person," more politely ano o kaia, 
lit. ''that honourable side;" ano otoko, **that man;" ano 
onna, '' that woman ;" ano ojiisan, ''that old gentleman ;" 
ano obasan, "that old lady;" etc. Muko, lit. "the opposite 
side," i.e., the other party," not infrequently represents 
" he, " " she, "or " they. " Are, " that, " is also sometimes 
used for " he " or " she," but it is not at all polite, and more 
often refers to things, i.e., it means "it." The vague 
English "you" or "one," which corresponds to French 
" on " and German "man," has no equivalent in Japanese. 
Thus, " to clap one's hands" is simply ie wo iaiaku, lit. 
" hands (accus.) clap." " You can't tell " (meaning " one 
has no means of knowing ") is simply shiremaseny which 
might equally well stand for "I can't tell." 

N, B. The word Kito has been adduced by some as an equivalent of 
the French impersonal " on." But it is not really so, as it always retains 
its proper sense of " person," " people," especially " other people." 

^69. Like other nouns — indeed more frequently than other 
nouns — the so-called personal pronouns may take the plural 
suffixes mentioned on page 29. The following forms are 
sanctioned by usage : 





oira (for ore-ra, very 


ano MtO'iachi 

ano kata-gata 

are-ra (rude) 

K we. 



omae- [san-']gata 

oniae- [5^«-] iachi 









, h '' the parent of that child," 


N.B. Observe, however, that wataM^hi-domo is often used for 
the singular, it being slightly humbler than watakuski, Oira, too, may 
be heard in the singular, the line between singular and plural, as already 
noticed in ^ 44, being less sharply drawn in Japanese than in European 
languages. Note, moreover, that the Japanese never use their words for 
" we," as we sometimes do ours, to signify ** you and I." They only 
use them to signify " other people and I," or rather '* I and my fellows." 
" We," in the sense of " you and I," may be expressed by such a phrase 
as anata to zvatakushi to ; but more often the meaning is approximately 
rendered in some other idiomatic way by employing an honorific. See, 
for instance, ^[ 445, No. 115, and ^ 449, No. 16. 

^ 70. Like other nouns, the so-called personal pronouns may 
be followed by postpositions. Thus, jnst as we say 

imo ko no oya, 
that child of pureiil, 

so also do we say 

watakushi no oya, | *' the parent of me," 
X of parent, ) ie., ^' my parent. " 

omae no oya, '*the parent of you," i.e., '^your parent" 
(in addressing an inferior) ; ano hito no oya, *' the parent of 
that person," i.e. ''his {or her) parent ;" etc. 

Just as we say 

Sono ko wo hidoi me ni \ 

jvuMt child (accus.) haivh etfes to ( I.e., ''He treated that 
awasQma§hiia, i child very badly, " 

CaitS€€l-tO-ni€€t, ^ 

so also may we say 

Waiak^ishi wo hidoi me ni 

There is. therefore, no such thing as a declension of pro- 
nouns or any special set of possessive pronouns. 

^71. The chief thing to remember in connection/with the 
Japanese nouns answering to our personal pronouns is .the 

^l "He treated me very badly." 


extremely rare use that is made of them. Except in cases 
of special emphasis or antithesis, the information concerning 
persons which is in European languages conveyed by means 
of pronouns, is left to be gathered from the context. Thus 
the single word kaerimashUa will mean *' I have comeback/' 
or ''he, she or they have come back," according to the 
previous drift' of the conversation. 

Korekara/uro uuo isukaiTnashoA i.e., *'Will now 

TMa firwn, haO^ (accus,) ufOl^use, ) take a bath." 

naturally means " J will now take my bath ;" for it is almost 
a matter of course that, in such personal things, each 
individual can speak only for himself. I can only eat my 
own dinner, probably love only my own country, and work 
only to support my own wife and children. To be, there- 
fore, forever reiterating and harping on the words '*!," 
"me," ''my," "you," "he," etc., seems to Japanese ears 
absurd and tedious tautology. A Japanese will often dis- 
course for half-an-hour without using a single personal 
pronoun. The perpetual recurrence o^ waiak&shi tnd. anaia 
is one of the surest signs of a clumsy foreign speaker, who 
translates his own idiom into Japanese, instead of thinking 
impersonally as the Japanese do. These remarks will lead 
the intelligent student to observe that most of the examples 
scattered throughout the present work are susceptible of 
being variously rendered. Where, for instance, we have 
put "I," it would often be equally correct to insert " he," 
"she," or " they," in its stead. The use of " you," that is 
of the second person, in English generally necessitates some 
change in the Japanese phrase, especially if an equal or 
superior be addressed. This point will be elucidated in the 
Chapter on Honorifics, \ 393 et seq.y a chapter which 
the student would do well to read through in connection 


with what has here been said on the subject of persona 


Tf 72. The word "self" may be expressed by jibun (less often 
hyjishin), commonly followed by the postposition de, thus : 
waiamsht Jibun, \ ^ ^ ^ ^^^^^ „ 

waidkushijishin, ) ^ 

o»/a^y^« (not honorific), ) .. g^j^„ 
gojtbun (honorific), J ^ 

N, B. The above occur only when the idea of " self" has to be 
emphasised. (Conf. ^71, also If 324.) 

Another word for *'self" is onore, which is also used 
as an insulting equivalent for * ' you. " 

Wagtty a Classical form whose proper meaning is *'my," 
may still sometimes be heard in the sense of "my own," 
" our own," ** one's own," thus : 

waga kunty "my country," "one's country," "/a 
pairte" But its use is chiefly confined to set speeches 
and lectures. So is that of the phrase waga haiy "we," 
more lit. "my fellows." 


^ 73. The demonstrative, interrogative, and indefinite pro- 
nouns, being marked by certain correspondences of sound 
and formation, may be best studied by means of the table 
which we give on the next page. The adverbs derived from 
the same roots are also given there, so that the learner 
may embrace all the kindred forms in one glance. He 
should note that Japanese, like Latin, distinguishes a 
nearer "that" {sore, Latin "iste")from a further " that " 












t— I 


«•• « '^^ 0. >^ 5 « 

•§ ^ ^ •§ ^ •§•§•§ I 

"— "-^ o 2 

-5 "S ^ -^ OT 

2 :,-4-r|^' 

' S rt c w 

•S-S^-S S •£ ^ 

^ I .^" I .^ t 1 t I 

r I .^ 1 1 1 I 

» .^ me ►Jj .(^ ►cii 4e 

:^ r^ r^ 

^ > 

•5 f 


« So 

!^ i 

:? ^ 

P — 



W) .S 

>! a 

55 6 o 

^5 ^1 

4 i -8 

^- s 


s •« 


<u «u 


■1 ^ 

6 "rt 0) ' 

QJ c 5 

B o >^ >^ < 


S c 

R ^ 
3 S 

I I 

o .J i 

E 2 

^ §. 

>.{^ i4^ >,{^ 


(are, Latin *'ille"), the former being used of things not very 
distant and of things connected with the person spoken 
to, while the latter is applied to things which are distant 
or have relation to the person spoken g/". He must note 
furthermore that Japanese, like French, distinguishes 
substantive forms of these pronouns from adjective forms, 
e.g. ^ore, ''celui-ci," but ^(?«(?, '*ce." 

^ 75. Here are a few examples of the use of the substantive 

Page 52, second line top right-hand column.— 

For dfrmo f read dono f », " 

wuiro uju, nan aesu r j *' vvnat is that (which you have in 
That as'fw, what i^if)? \ your hand, etc.) ?" 

Are wa, dare no uchi desu P ( "Whose is that house 

Tfuit as-for, wlw of Iiouae U{it)? | (over there) ?" 

Dore ni shimashb ? K. which shall I take ?" 

WlhUHk to sluM-do? ) 

Nani wo sum ? J '* What are you doing .?" 

TXrikft* Ini-rut ^ rfn ^ I {^^\^ to an inforior. The polite equivalent 

muU {accus.) ao. { y,ou\rl he Nam nasaru n 

Dare ga Hmashiia ?\'' ^^ho has come ?" 

WIio i3^om.) tuui-c^nie? I would be mori polite.) 

^ j6. Here are some examples of the adjective forms konoy 
'* this ;" sono, '' that " (near) ; ano, *' that" (far) ; dono ? 
'* which ?" and of the forms in na and iu : — 

Kono nedan, 
Konna nedan. 
Sono mama. 
Sonna koto. 
So iu koto. 
Ano takaiyama. 


"This price." 
"This sort of price." 
" That way ;" " as it is." 

"That sort of thing." 

("That high mountain 
I (over there)." 



i ^ ^ ^ ^ -^ -§ •§ *§ 

606 So >. g ft 


(are, Latin ''ille"), the former being used of things not very 
distant and of things connected with the person spoken 
to, while the latter is applied to things which are distant 
or have relation to the person spoken of. He must note 
furthermore that Japanese, like French, distinguishes 
substantive forms of these pronouns from adjective forms, 
e.g. hre, " cclm-ci," but kono, ** ce." 

^ 75. Here are a few examples of the use of the substantive 
forms ^ore, "this;" sore, **that" (near); are, *'that" 
(far) ; dore ? " wliich ?'' dare P or more politely donata ? 
*'\s\\or\nani? *'what?"— 

Kore wa omoshirou (i.e., "As for this, it is amusing," 
This as'fw, amusinff. \ or more briefly, '* This is fun." 

Sore wa, nan desu ? V' What is that (which you have in 
That as'fw, what u{i()? \ your hand, etc. ) ?" 

Are wa, dare no uchi desu P ( ''Whose is that house 
T/uu aa-for, wiw of house is{it\? | (over there) ?" 

Dore ni shimashb ? I w which shall I take ?" ^^ - - - 

Wliich to sluiia-do? J -- " " 

Nam wo sum P y What are you doing ?" 

Wlt^t* {neru^\ t1n'> I (Said to an inferior. The polile equivalent 

9VJUU {(iccus.) ao. { woul^ he Nam nasarun 

Dare ga HmasHiia P\'' ^^ho has come ?" 

•wm (f,ntt,\ » ^ o J {Donata ga mairarentashita .' 

H7*o {nom.) 1utS'C4>nie? I would be more polite.) 

^ 76. Here are some examples of the adjective forms kono, 
''ihx^fsono, ''that" (near); ano, "that" (far); dono P 
" which ?" and of the forms in na. and in : — 

Kono nedan. 
Konna nedan. 
Sono mama. 
Sonfia koio. 
So in koio. 
Ano takaiyama. 


" This price." 
"This sort of price." 
"That way;" "as it is." 

"That sort of thing." 

("That high mountain 
I (over there)." 


Anna iohbmonai kake-ne, j " Such an extravagant price 
That-Wee auirageaua avercharge, | as that. " 

(Said in speaking to a third party. In addressing the shopkeeper who was 
guilty of the overcharge, one would say sonna, not amut, because sonna corres- 
ponds to the second person, anna to the third.) 

Bono tsumori </«/= I "With what intention?" 

What inletUton hyf I 

Do iu tsumori deP\,. ^ith what kind of intention ?" 

Haw 9ay inienUan by ? j 

^ 77. What we have here, for convenience' sake, termed 
adjective forms, are not adjectives properly so called. Kono 
was originally two words, viz. kOy * ' this " (substantive), and 
«o, ** of," so that kono meant ^'of this." Similarly in the 
case ofsono, ano, and dono P, which meant respectively " of 
that" (nearer) or ''of him," '' of that" (further) or ''of 
him," and "of which?" They still preserve this their 
ancient sense in certain contexts, as : 

, , , , sono fame, " (for the) sake of that. " 

• • *• • soHo oya, ' ' his (or her) parent." 

•• • 

Siim\2iY]y, kono nedan, translated above by "this price," 
may also mean on an occasion "the price of this." 

KonnUy "such," is a contraction oi kono yd na, lit. " this 
manner being," i.e., "being in this way," "being thus." 
Similarly sonna is from sonoyo na^ anna from anoyb na, and 
donna ? ^om dono yb na ? Kb iu^ "such," means literally 
" thus (they) say," i.e. "people call it thus." So tu, a iu^ 
and do iu ? have a similar etymology. 

^78. Before words of Chinese origin, the adjective* pronouns 
"this "and "that" are often expressed by the syllable to 
(S), a Chinese vocable properly signifying "the one in 
question," " the actual one," as : 

ib-nin, " the person in question," " this {or that) person." 


to-geisu no *««,[<. the end of the month." 

tfUs-monih of end, ) 

Some of the adverbs given in the paradigm on page 52 
will be found exemplified in Chapter X, ^ 368. 

^ 79. The indefinite pronouns are formed from the inter- 
rogative pronouns by the addition of the interrogative 
particle ka, of the postpositions mo and de mo, *'even," 
and of the emphatic particle zo. Thus dare^ d^ mo*, ** any 
body," "every body," is literally "even* by* whom?*" 
Here are a few examples of the use of the indefinite 
pronouns : 

Omochaya nani ka, *■ ' Toys or something. " 

(The words natU ka here have the same vague 
meaningless application that "or something'* 
often has in Colloquial English.) 

Mata donaia ka miemashtia. (Polite.) ) ' ' Somebody else 

, . . ^ ... f has come, or 

.'\ 1^", _^^^""*'^->('' Other guests have 

Again aomdbody Iws-appeared. , J arrivpH 

Nan de mo yoroshti kara, V' Anything will do. Just 

Antffhinff {is)good because, jgii^e us something or Other 

nam ka te-garui mono wo (which it will take no trouble 

aofmefMng-w-igkhier easy tMmg {accus.)C^Q „q^ ready." 

dashite kudasai. \ ,S;dd, for instance, by a hungry 

putUmg-finlli condeteend. J traveller arriving late at a hotel.) 

„ ^. .... .- , ("Which (of the 

Dochtra ga yoroshxu. gozatmasho P ) . ^ ^ j^j , 

m^ (,u,n,.) ^ood «i«^».*«*^f i will be bit ?" 

Sore wa, dochtra de mo yoroshii, ( '* Oh ! {sore zva) either 

Huxi aa-far, either {ts)good. [will do quite well" 

Donaia ka ide ni 


naile orimasu ka 

Itaving-hecome is ^ 

Smn^body-or-iriiiei^honmitabieZexu toftt jj^s some One arrived ?" 
naf/e orimasu ka ? \ 


/(?, donaia mo o ide ni naUe\ '*No, no one has 
onmasen, j arrived." 

(More lit. " Everybody has un- 
arrived ".-^Cotii. IT 4334 

Nafi^ 710^ sewd^ de* mo^ sKile^] .^ „ .,, i , 
kuremasu\ Id. Gives' doing' y *^® ^^'^^\, "^^P yo" in 

Mp^ of* evcnjthin,,^^' ) ^^'^0' way. 

Dare^ vio^ sc^ mnasu*. ' ' Everybody^'* says* so'." 


•|f 80. The Japanese language has neither relalive pronouns 
nor relative words of any sort. Their absence is generally 
made good by the use of a construction in which the verb 
is prefixed to the noun attributively, just as an adjective 
might be. Thus the Japanese not only say ''a good 
man," ''a bad man," etc. ; but they say ''a comes man," 

, "a goes man," ''the went man," instead of '' a man who 
comes," ''a man who goes," "the man who went." This 
is illustrated in the following examples : — 

on. J 

Kuru hito. 
Cofties person 

Kiia Into. \ 
Came ^tersoii. ' 

''The person who comes." 

{Or " The people who come. ') 

^ The person who came." 

(Or "The people who came.") 

Kmo kUa Hito. J ' ' The person {or persons) who came 

YvsteriUiij cmne person. [ yesterday. " 
Ano yama no zdchb \ 

mat mou,Uuin's summuLrj.^^ j pine-tree which 

>grows on the top of that mountain 

on, groivma is hwf/e i° .. „ ^ 

viaisu. Y^^ ^^^^^' 

pifie. ) 

Shinakucha naran ) ^^t is a thing which it won't do 

As-for-^n^ing, is-n^ f ^Ot to do, ie., " It is a thiuff 

koo desu, (Conf. T348.). which must be done." ^ 

thing {ityis. ) 


^ 8i. As shown in the foregoing examples, the English 
relative and verb are represented in Japanese by a verb 
alone which is used participially, or, as it is more usual to 
say in Japanese grammar, atlribulively, prefixed to the noun. 
In English this construction is allowable only in the case 
of participles, as "the shipwrecked sailors," ** the shrieking 
women and children." In Japanese it is the actual tense- 
forms of the verb that are thus employed. Properly 
speaking, all the tenses of the indicative mood are capable 
of being thus used attributively in relative constructions. 
In the Book Language they are all constantly so used. 
But the Colloquial exhibits a strong tendency to limit this 
way of speaking to the "certain past" and the "certain 
present or future," the merely " probable" tenses (e.g. koyo, 
kitaro) being rarely if ever now heard in such contexts, save 
in a few special idioms, such as : 

w„i)^i , ^^^^ «?,^^- i" If possible." (Conf. t348.) 

Wm-prdbably-be fact i/{-tt)'ia. ) ^ . ^ WO'*'/ 

Arb hazu wa nai, j " There ought 

^«*. I not t 

{There-ywiU-probaHi/'Oe necessity aa-for, is-^Mi, | not tO be." 

Observe that as the Japanese language, generally speaking, 
abhors the use of the passive, the verbs employed in relative 
sentences are almost always neuter or active ones, thus : 

Nansen ni aimashiia sui/u-ra, \ "The shipwrecked 

Shipwreck to, met saUcrs. (sailors. " 

Haruha oki ni mieru /une. j * ' The vessel that is to 
Afar, offtna *», appears vessel. \ be seen far away at sea. " 

Hepburn sensei no koshiraeta ( "The dictionary which 
Hej^burn senior '» (Ae)prejpared \ was written by Dr. 
J^en, 1 Hepburn, " i. e., " Dr. 

dictionary. \ Hepburn's dictionary." 


OtoMchito tu annaino mono, \ "The guide called Oto- 

Ut, "the guide {annai no mono, i.e. > kichi," or *' CHokichi the 
person of guidance), of whom people V „,,: j-, " 
say (m) that (io) he is Otokichi." ) gUlOe. 

Arashi io iu mono. 

Lit, "the thing {mono)o{ 
people say (m) that {to) ' 
typhoon (arashi.)'* 

r ,...(. What IS called a lyphoon, 

F which >- . • ^7 tc ^ \^ tf 

it is a I t-e. Simply, "a typhoon. 

Mierika to iu kuni. \ . " J^« *=°""'^y ,?««?'« call Ame- 
(rica, I.e. simply, "America. 

JV. B. This impersonal but active construction with /o iu and other 
synonymous verbs, corresponding to the English passive, must be 
thoroughly mastered, as it is constantly in the mouths of the people. 
It is often used for making general assertions, such as 

" Dogs are faithful creatures," or I /nu to iu mono wa, clwgi no am 
*' The dog is a faithful creature." | mono dtsu. 

Lit As-for {wa) the thing {mono) of which people say {iu) that {to) it 
is a dog {inu\ it is {desu) a thing {mono) which is {aru) of {fto) faithful- 
ness {cfuigi). Here our single word " dog " or " dogs " is rendered by 
the five words inu io iu mono wa, 

^ 82. This use of the active where a European would expect 
the passive sometimes causes an appearance of ambiguity. 
Thws shiranai hiio vci2i.y signify either **a person who does 
not know " or '' a person who is not known (to me)," i.e. 
'*a person whom I do not know." But as a rule the 
context sufficiently indicates which way the phrase should 
be taken. For instance, yond^ shimaiic^ hotf cannot 
possibly mean *'the book which has finished reading," as 
such a collocation of words would have no sense. It can 
only mean "the book' which (I, they, etc.) have finished* 
reading^." Sumau^ iochi^ cannot mean *' the locality* which 
resides^" It must mean *'* the locality* in which (so-and-so) 
resides^" The following are similar instances : 



Tbchaku sKUa ioku 

ArHwA did Ume, 

C "The time when (I, they, 
I etc. ) arrived. " 

Wakaranai koto, ( "Something which I don't 
VwdersUMfhdrwft thing. \ understand. '' 

Te ni motteru mono. ( "That which he is holding 


Sandinis-holding thing, (in his hand. 

^ 83. The example just given ofsumau toM, signifying "the 
locality m which so and so resides," exemplifies a remarkable 
Japanese idiom according to which the preposition that 
frequently accompanies an English relative pronoun is 
always omitted, thus : 

Toji no furuku naiia hon. 
"Binding of ctd haa-ffeeome book. 

" A book 0/ which the 
binding has become 

Sor^ wa* anata^ ga* saku-net^ 0* 
iomari'^ nasita^ yadoya* desYi^^ hd}^ ? 

' "Is" that* the hotel* 
in which you* staid'*'*' 
(lit honourably o, deign- 
ed nastta, to stay iomari) 
Jast year* ?" 

le ; watalmshi wa iomarimasen 

No; me as- for stay-not 

ga — , saku-nen iomodachi ga 

whereas— lastryear friend {tuftn.) 

iomarimashite, iaisb ni hi ni 

having-staid, greatly spirit to 

irimasKUa yadoya desu. 
entered hotel is. 

Bono yama kara kono\ 
WhMi momOain flrom>, this 

hen no meilmisu 

neighbourhood *s famous-production 

no suisho wa demasu ka ? 
's crystals as-for, issue ? 

" No, / did not stay 
there ; but {ga) it is the 
.hotel in which a friend 
of mine staid last year, 
and with which he was 
much pleased." 

" From which of 
these mountains come 
the crystals, /or which 
this locality is noted ?" 

whom I got by applying 
to the Grand Hotel at 
-Yokohama, and for 
whose good behaviour 
the hotel-keeper is 
guarantee. " 


Watakushi ga Yokohama no\ "He is a servant 
r inom:) Yokohama 'a 

ni-jU ban ye ianomimashttara, 
twenty nuniber to when'had-a^iplied, 

achira kara uke-aiie 

Uwre from fftiaranteeing 

yokoshimasKita hoy desu, 

sent boy is. 

A\ B. The English word " boy " has been largely adopted by the 
Europeanised Japanese in the sense of " servant." We have even heard 
omta fio boy ( !) used to signify a " maid-servant." 

Closely similar are such cases as warui rikutsuy signifying 
not ''a bad reason," but ''the reason why (so-and-so) is 

\ 84. The terseness of the Japanese expression as compared 
with ours should not occasion any insuperable difficulty to 
the careful student. After all, we use a somewhat similar 
idiom in English when we speak of **a shaving-brush," 
meaning * ' a brush with which a man helps himself to shave ;" 
of "a smoking-room," meaning ''a room in which people 
smoke ;" of '* a stepping-stone," meaning '* a stone on which 
one may step, " &c. , &c. 

^85. Several ** who's" or ''which's" are often attached in 
English to the same noun. In such cases the Japanese 
language uses the gerund (in set speeches the indefinite 
form) for the verbs of every clause, excepting that im- 
mediately preceding the noun qualified (see ^278^/5^^. 
and \ 422 et seq.). An instance of this construction is 
given in the example on the foregoing page, where tomari- 
mashtie is a gerund and irimashiia a past tense, both 
qualifying the word yadoya. But this idiom — the referring 
of several relative clauses to a single noun — is not a favourite 
one in Colloquial Japanese. The example at the top of this 
page shows, in the case of the word ianomimashilara, the 


avoidance of such a construction. Indeed a great number 
of relative phrases — even single phrases — are turned in some 
other way. For instance : 

Mune^ no^ waruM nam* hanashi^, *'A story which it 
makes one feel sick to listen to;" lit. '*chest^ V bad* 
becoming* story ^" 

Musume^ ga* htiorP aiie*, Haru^ to^ moshimasiiy ''He 
has one daughter whose name is O Haru," lit. " Daughter' 
one-person'' being/ (people) say' thai* (she is) O Haru*." 

Kesd} nd^ yosu^ de* wa^^ furt^ ka^ to^ omoitara*, sukkari^'^ 
haremashiia^^y i.e. ''The weather, which looked like rain 
this morning, has cleared up beautifully ;" more lit. "By* 
appearance' of* lhis-morning\ when- (I) had-thoughl* that® 
" Will-(il) rain ?•>'," quite''^ (it) has-cleared"." 

^ 86. The words iokoro no, lit. *'of place," are sometimes 
used by the educated classes in relative phrases as a sort of 
substitute for the relative pronouns " who," " which," and 
" that." But these words really add nothing to the sense, 
and only encumber the construction. They owe their origin 
to the slavish imitation of a Chinese idiom. Thus : 

Kuru iokoro no htlo, for Kuru htio, 

Kim kiia iokoro no hUo, ,, Kino kUa hiio. 

Shinakucha naran iokoro ,, ShinilmchanaranK^^ 
no koio desuy koio desu, i a 

N, B, The student is recommended to compare the Japanese and 
English texts of any of the longer pieces given in Tart II of this work. 
Such comparison, carefully carried out, will teach him better than 
anything else the manner in which Japanese thought moves under 
circumstances which, in our European idiom, demand the employment 
of relative pronouns or other relative words. The subject is important 
enough to reward any amount of trouble taken on its behalf. 



The Postposition. 


Tf 87. Japanese postpositions correspond for the most part to 
English prepositions, serving like them to indicate those 
relations of words which Latin, German, and other Aryan 
languages of the older type denote by the use of case- 

There are two kinds of postpositions, viz. postpositions 
proper and quasi-postpositions (T[ 141 ei seq,\ 

The postpositions proper, with their most usual significa- 
tions, are as follows : 


^ 88. De has two widely different uses. One is to render the 
sense of "by," whence also "with," "by means of," less 
often "in." This its first acceptation offers no difiiculty. 
In its second acceptation, de seems at first sight to mean 
nothing at all, and thus puzzles the foreign student who is 
desirous of accounting for its presence in the sentence. 
De is here etymologically a corruption of nite, itself the 
gerund of an obsolete substantive verb. Its proper sense 
is therefore "being." But in most contexts this de has 
sunk so completely to the level of a mere grammatical 
particle as not to need translating into English. It is a moot 
point whether what was originally one word has branched 
out into these two significations, or whether two words 

originally distinct have coalesced into a single particle. 
Here are a few examples of de meaning "by," "with," 

Nawc^ d^ shtbart^, " To lie' by means of * a rope*." 

Hasami^ d^ kirt^, * ' To cut* with* scissors*." 

Inu wo kusari de\ 

ihfff {accus,\ t^uHn 6y,f. " Chain up the dog I" 
isunaide oke ! f {Said to a cooHe,) 

fastening put! ^ 

Kore de gaman nasai! { "Please be contented with 

TMs wtih, patiewfe deign I |this." 

Kono kawa de, at ga \ 

TMs river €n, #roiii(nom). f " Are there any trout to be 
isuremasu ka P t caught in this stream ?" 

are-eatehdble ? ^ 

Kono mono wa, \ ,,„,, . ,,. 1, , . 

TMs tMng «-/orJ " What IS this Called m 

Nihon-go de nan /(, Japanese ? , , ^. ,. . 
T«*w.^j«^l.-«^^ ju. 1.^ *i.«*r {More ht, "As for this thiog, in 

say ? ) 

It will be gathered from these examples that de has its 
first signification ("by," "with," "in") chiefly when 
construed with transitive verbs. 

De has its second signification, i.e., it properly means 
" being," in such cases as the following : — 

Ima no kuruma-ya wa, \ "My present jinriklsha- 

ifow '» Jinriktaha-man cr«-/oi*J man is no gOOd, — he is SO 

dajaku de yaku wl indolent." 

i'nd4a4na being, ttsef^Omesa to f {More Ht, " The present jin- 

taianai, Irikksha-man, being inaolent, is of 

atrntds-not. j no use.*') 

Voppodo beppin de 

fery extra-quaUty being 

aru, (Said , e.g., of a singin g-girl . ) 

"She is an uncommonly 
.pretty girl." 

{More Ht, "She is being a 
very extra quality.") 


San-ji han de gozaimasu. j '*It is (being) half- 

Three-lumra half heing is, | past three. " 

The first of these phrases illustrates a construction with 
what are called '* quasi-adjectives/' which will be touched 
on again in ^f 200, and exemplified in Tf 201 (examples 9 
and 10). The second and third phrases are much more 
important, showing, as they do, the most usual manner of 
expressing our verb **tobe," viz, by means o^ de aru^ de 
arimasuj de gozaimasu (see also T[ 341 ei seq.), De am is 
commonly contracted to da^ de gozaimasYi lo desu, less often 
and somewhat vulgarly to de gozansu, de gesu, or de 
gasu ; similarly in the other lenses, for instance da//a for 
de aita, deshiia for de gozamashtia, and so on (see also 
HT 233, 270, 343, and 344). The foregoing examples 
would therefore generally become Yoppodo heppin da, San-ji 
han desu. The following is a very common phrase illustrat- 
ing this idiom : 

Sayo de gozaimasii. (Polite.) ) „ ^hat is so." i.e. . " Yes." 
So desu. (Familiar.) ) ' * 

^ 89. It happens not infrequently that de, in both its accep- 
tations, is strengthened by means of the postposition zva, 
especially in phrases expressing interrogation, negation, or 
something disagreeable. De wa, in familiar talk, is apt to 
be contracted inio ja. Tims : 

Yoppodo heppin de 

Ver^f eQeffa-qiuiUty being 

wa nai ka ? 

Kore de wa, bki ni 

Tills by indeed g^^eatlif 



' ' Isn't she very pretty ?" 
(Or, Yoppodo heppin ja nai 
ka P) 

* ' I am greatly bothered by 
this." (Of, Kore ja oki ni 
komarimasii. ) 

DE AND GA. 65 

^ 90. When the substantive verb has a qualifying word or 
phrase along with it after de^ the noun followed by de often 
corresponds to an English nominative, — not that de has 
any nominative force properly so called, but because the 
word which we treat as a nominative is conceived of by the 
Japanese as the means whereby, or the place in which, the 
action or state denoted by the verb occurs, for instance, 

I*' Cold water will do perfectly 
well." {i,e,, **You need not 
trouble to bring hot water as 

N, B. The Japanese sentence should, properly speaking, have destit 
** it is," stuck on to the end of it ; but, as will be further illustrated 
in \ 429, the final verb is often omitted when no ambiguity is likely 
to ensue. 

Hitotsu de yoroshiu \ ««One will be 

One by U-ffood. ("enOUffh." 

(More politely, Hitotsu de yoroshiu gomimasu^ ) ° 

Seifu de / ** The Government has 

Government hy, h&nmnHMe\ bowghX it," Or "It has 

kai-age ni narimasKita, \ been purchased by the 

pitrcJMse to hna-becotne. ^ Government. " 


^91. The original sense of ^a is ''of," now only preserved 
in certain names of places and in a few locutions, such as 
Hoshi'ga-oka, '* The Mound of the Stars " (the name of a part 

of Kamakura) ; ga suki, *' fond of," " liking ;" 

ga kirat) *' not fond of," *' disliking ;" ga hoshii, 

*' desirous of." 

WcUakushi wa, iabako ga \ 

Me aa-for, tobiuico of J " I am very fond of 
dai'Suki {desu). (smoking." 

Qreai'fond {amh ^ 


Sake ga kirai desii. \ '*I am not fund of 

Sake of fintitiff am. \ sake" 

Mizu ga hoshitt gozaimasu. \ „ i ^^^^^ gome water." 

Water of, deairmta mn, f 

^92. Ga is used as a sign of the nominative case, as : 

Kane ga nai. \ " There is no money ;" 

Miniey{nom.)4sH*t. \ hence "I have no money/' 

Ame ga /uiie kimashtia, \ .. j^ ^as come on to rain." 

Rain (ftom.) fkMitig has-conie. ) 

Kono kuruma ga, furukuie\ 
TUvU ,iinra^Mm {nam.) being-old ( ** This jinrlklsha won't 

tkemasen. i do ; it is too old." 

is-no-ifo, ' 

Tsha ni mite niorau ga \ *' You had better con- 

Phyaieian by, seehiff to-i*eeeive {nom,) ( s\l\t the doctor about it." 

yokaro. ( ^^^^ ^^^ « j^ ^y ^^ ^^u ^^ 

tviU'ptHiib€My-b€'ffOOd. ^ get (it) seen by the doctor.") 

o . -2.-7 i "The teacher has an- 

Senset ga mtemashta. \ ^^^^„ .^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

Observe that the nominative use has developed out of 
the genitive. For instance, the etymological signification 
of Kane ga nai is " The not-being of money ;" that of Sensei 
ga miemashiia is * ' The having-appeared of the teacher." 
Originally none of these sentences with ga were predicative. 
Modern usage alone has made them so, just as — to borrow 
an apt illustration from Mr. Aston — the incomplete sentences 
of an English telegram or advertisement convey a predicative 
sense to the mind of the reader. Observe too, from the 
example Isha ni mite morau ga yokaro, that postpositions 
may be suffixed to verbs as readily as to substantives, and 
that verbs, and indeed whole phrases, may form (he subject 
ox object of other v^rb^ 

GA. 67 

^ 93. When found at the end of a clause, ga has an adver- 
sative force, of which "whereas" is the most literal 
English equivalent, but which is generally best rendered 
in practice by prefixing *'yet" or '*but" to the following 
clause. Sometimes the adversative force is softened down 
to a mere intimalion of discontinuity between two successive 
states or actions, and then ga must be translated by ''and 
so" or "and." 

N, B, The final u of masii revives pretty distinctly before ga, for 
which reason we write masu in all such examples. 

Shina wa yoroshiu gozatmasu 

Article as'ftyt'f good ia 

ga, — nedan ga osoroshii iakb 

whereas, price {nom.) friglUfid high 



"The article is a 
good one, hut the 
price is frightfully 

N, B. For such expressions as osoroshii takai, see the second N. q 
to I 181. 

Yama-michi de hi wa \ ^- •,,,., 

MamUaif^.road in, HU^ os-farA " It gOt dark while 

kuremashiia ga,--- tsure ga ^e were on the 

dnrketied whereas, companions (nom,)[xr^OUni^m side; dui, 
dzei datia kara, ki-jbhu as we were several 

crowd %cere becmtse, spirit-stitrdyXof US together, we 

deshiia, I fell no alarm. " 


Waiakushi wa kon-do de, Fuji \ *' This is the third 

Me as-for, this time hthFusiyama jj^^^g j jj^^.^ ^^j^ 

ye iO'San wa san-do-me desu ga— ^j^^ ^^^^^ ^f p^gj. 

to asce^ as^for, third-time is tr/i^r«a*A ^^ j ^^^^ 

shi-awase to Usu mo ienki-isugo ^^^^ ^.^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

UwhUy always tvettttier'eirctimstances 1 ^ i_ n 

- . w enoufirh to have tine 

ga yo gozatmasu, /weather" 

{nom.) good are. ' weainer. 

\ 94. Sometimes ga with adversative force is repeated in two 
consecutive clauses, after the manner of " either or :" 


BankokU'kohd ga arb \ 

TfUeriMaioniiAAaw (ijom.) may-exist 

gUy nani ga aro 

either, something {fiom.) may-exiat 
ga, — mada mada dori hakari 
or, sHU stUl right only 

de wa kaisu koio ga 

6y, eonqiier txcHon (nom.) 

dekimasen, . 


,, , . [ ''Whether I go, 

^^'' ^^' ^'^^^^^^ . or whether I don't 

PerhapS'I-shaU-go eitlier, perJuips-I-slum't-go 

ga, waialmshi no kaite da. 

or I of convenience ia. 

* ' We may have inter- 
national law, and we may 
have all sorts of fine 
.things ; but we are still 
very far from having 
arrived at a social state 
in which right always 


go, is no ones 
business but my 
own. " 

Sometimes ga occurs elliptically at the end of an un- 
finished sentence. See, for examples, those given about the 
middle of ^ 287. 


^95. Ka serves to ask a question, as : 

Arimasu. '* There is." 

Arimasu ka ? *' Is there }" 

(''The bath is ready." 
Furo^ wa^ dekimashtta^ . j (^More lit. " As-for2 the bath,i it-has- 
^ forthcome.*") 

Furo wa dekimashiia ka ? ^'\& the bath ready ?" 
If the sentence already contains some other interrogative 
word — an interrogative pronoun or adverb, — ka is often 
omitted, and it is generally best to omit it, thus : 

^n^doki ni mairimash-o /^^ /^ | - At what o'clock shall 

Whal-hmir at f^vM-come ? fir a ?" 

or Nan-doki ni niairimashb ? ) 

lisu shtnimashtta {ka) P I ,. ^^^^^ ^j^ j^^ ^j^p» 

When died ? ) 

KA. 69 

Doiu wake de konna^ " Why do you do such 
WT«rt-«»<-o/ m»o» IV, ««* Uilly things as this?" (S-a/i/ 
oaka na koto wo sum r ( < • ^ ■ \ 

fooUsh aunt,, (accus.) Oo 9 V" «« '»/'"<»'■ ) 

^ 96. Sometimes ka expresses a merely rhetorical or ironical 
question, sometimes nothing beyond a mere shade of doubt. 
In the latter case it corresponds to such English words as 
'* may," '' might," " perhaps :" 

Aru mono ka P \ *'Who in his senses would ever 
Exists thing '^ ) believe that such a thing exists ?" 

3fa/a yiiki ga furimashb \ 

Again snmo {nom.) ivlU-prdbaM/y-faU t *' I think it will 

lo omoimasu. v snow again. " 

th4a thhik. ^ 

Maia yuki ga furimashb \ ^< I ^xxi inclined io 

Again snow ijiom.) tviU-^irdbaMj/'faU f ^jjj,^j^ ^^^^ jj ^^^y 

ka to omowaremasu. snow again." 

Suzuki to iu hito. I « A man called Suzuki." 

SuzuM that {they) caU person. ' 

Suzuki to ka iu hilo, ( ''A man called, if I 


Swniki that ? {they) c<rf« pcr»ow. | mistake not, Suzuki." 

^ 97. Ka ka means *' or," ''either or," 

*' whether or :" 

// ka warui ka, shirimasen. ( *' I can't tell whether 

Wc. I it is I 

Good ^ had ?, is-^inknaueablc. | it is gOod Or bad." 

( '* Is it all gold or only 
Afuku desuka^ mekki desu ka? Igiit?" (Or, '* Is it all 

Unamnied U ? plated is ? "j gji^^^. ^^ ^^j^ ^j^^^^ p") 

Jko ka, do shiyo ka to \ 

*'sh4di-go ? how sJuOi-do?" t/iati ** I am considering 
omo/ie imasu. i whether to go or not" 

iidhking An^, 



T[ 98. Ka helps to form certain indefinite pronouns and ad- 
verbs, such as *' somebody," " something," '* somewhere". 
See the paradigm on page 52. 


Tf 99. Kara means **from," ''since," ''because,' 

' after 

Koko kara tbge made wa, \ ^^ How far may it be 
!£«* /rofu, m^ to i'^A{^om here lo the top of 
arimashoP the pass ?" 

mo dono kurai 

still ivhat amount 

Ni'San-nen-zen kara hiio 

Ttvo-tin^ee-^eoT-hefore since, people 

ga fu'keiki da to iimasu 

{ftom.) tmprosinn'Uy is that say 

ga, — honio desu ka P 

wliereas,—true is ? 

Kuiahiremashiia kara, choito 

Uave-ffot-tlred because, a-little 



" For the last two or 
three years people have 
•been saying that the times 
are bad. Is this really 
the case ?" 

" I am tired ; (so) let 
us rest a minute." 

N, B. Some speakers say kara shite {shite is the gerund of sttru, 
" to do ") for kara ; others say kara ni. The phrase mono desu kara or 
mon' desu kara^ lit. " l)ecause (it) is thing," is another favourite circum- 
locution having the meaning of" because." Tlie noMTiyue, lit. " cause," 
or y tie ni, almost lit, " because," is also in use, though perhaps sounding 
just a trifle old-fashioned and stiff. 

^ 100. A'ara has the sense of "after" only when suffixed to 
the gerund in ie, and in a few special locutions, as : 

ilte kara, " after going," " after having gone." 

viimasHiie kara, " after seeing," " after having seen." 

kore kara, " after this," "henceforward." 

sore kara, ' * after that, " ' ' and then, " ' ' next " 


M B, The past itla kara means ** because he has gone ;" mimasHUa 
kara means ** because I have seen." Be very careful not to confuse 
these two locutions, which differ only by the use of the gerund in e 
when "after" is meant, and of the past tense in rt when ** because '* 
is meant. 

N. B. The Japanese often use ** from " {kara^ sometimes yori\ 
when " at " would come more naturally to English h*ps, as : 

Mydnichi no emetsu wa, nan-ji \ 
To-^nnorraw 's lectttre aa-fin', tvJutt-Jiour 
kara kajimarimasu ? — Gogo ni-ji 

from begins? JS'ooti'after ttvO'IuHira 

kara desti. 
from {it) is. 

The idea is that the lecture, Ijeginnin^ as it does at two o'clock, will 
last from two to some other hour not named. — Observe how the 
Japanese idiom retains the verb " it is " {desTt) at the end of the 
sentence, while English dispenses with it A similar instance of this 
occurs in the second example given just below under made, 


\ loi. Made means ''till," ''as far as," *' down to," "to:" 
Kore made. '* Thus far," *' hitherto,'' *' till now/' 

" At what o*clock 
does the lecture begin 
to-morrOw ? — At two 
o'clock in the afternoon.'* 

*' How far is the 
railway finished ? — 
As far as Mitajiri." 

Teisudo wa^ doho made dekUe^ 

Itail^vaif/ as-for, tvhere to done 

orimasu P — Mitajiri made desu. 

is? Mitajiri (tS'far-as is? 

Watakushi no kurti viade^ malie \ ** Please wait till 

Me of come till, waiHitg[.\ QOVCit,** 

He kudasai. J {More lit. "till my 

iteinu roHilescend. coming.") 

y , , , - a ( ** Ever so long," ** forever." 

J/su^ made mo^. \ ^. . ..„. I .v 

( {Lit. even« till* when.i) 

■n 1, X 1% z ( **Ever so far," "for any dis- 

( tance. (^Ltt. even^ till* where.' ) 

N, B, For mad€ ni in the sense *«'by," see ^r, B. at end of f 136. 


f I02. Mo means ''even," "also/' '*and," ''too/* When 
repeated, mo mo means ** both and :" — 

,, J { lit. "Even till when,"/. e., 

Itsumademo. {"forever/' 

WataMishimo mairimasu. " I will go too/' 

Kore mo wasurecha ^ a ^^d you mustn't forget 
tM» taso, *«r-/«-/orflretti»iisr, (. this either;" or "Nor must 
iJiemasen. V you forget this." 


Ka mo nomi mo \ '* It is a place where there 

Mo^^iaUocH taso, fletis atso, { ^re plenty both of mosquitoes 
oi tokoro desu. j and of fleas." 

,, . , , ( " It cannot be said that 

N.u Mo mo gozatniasen. ) ij,erc are none," or simply 
Noi-bcin„ fa^ «!«, u-uoi. | „ t,,^^^ ^^.^ certainly some. " 
(This is a very common idiom.) 

Construed with a negative verb, mo 7710 means 

" neither nor/* thus : 

Yoku mo waruku mo nai. j " It is neither good nor 

Good dUo, bad also ia-not. | bad. " 

Afo is sometimes placed after ka, when the latter means 
"perhaps" (see ^ 96). It retains in Japanese something 
of its proper force of " even/' but can hardly be represented 
in the English translation, thus : 

Afa/a rai-nen kuru ka\ 

Again cominff-year come ? (, ' ' Perhaps I may COme 

7710 shiremasen, t again next year/' 

even cannot'Tenow, 

N» B, For mo serving to form expressions analogous to the con- 
cessive mood, see \ 289. 

* ^ot tp be confounded with ihe adverb mS^ for wliich see \ 373. 

MOTTE. 73 


\ 103. MoiiCy properly the gerund of the verb molsuy **to 
hold," is in Written Japanese the usual word for *'by," 
"thereby." In the Colloquial it survives only as a sort 
of emphatic particle, which is moreover little used except 
by old-fashioned speakers. Thus hanahada motte is the 
same as hanahada ^ ** very," but emphasised ; ima moiie may 
be rendered by *' even now," or by the help of some such 
word as ** very," thus : 

*' It is a shop which has 
carried on a good trade 
from old times down to 
this very day." 

Miikashi kara ima inotiey^ 

Ancient-Hme from, now indeed, 

ai'kawarazu yokti 

HI nliMtUff-cJMnffinff-not tvtU 

urerti raise desu, 
sells {inlrans.) shop is. , 

N. B, At, the equivalent of our word •* mutually," is often thus 
prefixed to verbs by pedantic spealcers. It is a relic of the Book 
Language, and has little or no meaning now. This sentence is a good 
example of the apparent ambiguity of relative constractions in Japanese, 
which was pointed out in ^ 82. The speaker of course means to say 
that the things in the shop sell %vell ; but he seems to say that it is the 
shop itself which sells well. 

When de is used in the sense of " by " or '* with," motle 
is often suffixed to it by all classes of speakers, thus : 

Hocho de {moiie) kiru. \ <. ^o cut with a knife." 

JKnife by to-cut, ) 

Nawa de (moiie) shibaru. \ .. y^ tj^ ^.^j^^ a rope." 
JSope by to-Ue. i 

Kaze de {motte) to ga \ « The door keeps slam- 
mnd b„, *w(w«.)Uing on account of the 

aotte masu. Uind." 

OamnUna is, ^ 

For NA and NAN, see ^ 197. 



T[ 104. The original sense of w' is '* in," ** into," " to " : 

Kono hen ni kiji j « ^re there no 

This fwigMHn»r1wod in, phetuatUa f pheasants in this 

zva imasen ka ? i neighbourhood ?" 

as'for, are-not ? 

N, B, Compare this example with the fifth on p. 63, and note that 
de serves to indicate the place where something is done, tii the place 
where something merely is. 

Kono kamo wo rybri-nin \ tt pig^se hand this 

mis ,^m-d.u^U Utccus.\ coolcerff^^son , ^il^-duck tO the 

;// waiashtie kudasat. i cook " 

to, ftandlrtff condescend. ^ 

"This is the first time I 
have had the honour to meet 

Hajimele me 

Having-befftin, ttJonokitttMe ei/es 

ni kakarimashiia. 

in (/) luxve-lvung. 


(A phrase which it is considered 
polite to use when introduced to a 
new acquaintance.) 

^105. Ni has many other idiomatic uses, of which the 
following are the chief, viz. 

With a passive verb, ni corresponds to " by," thus : 

Osoroshtku dbmo ka \ a Qh ! I have been 

FrigfUAdly reaUy, niosquUoea (. frightfully Stung by the 


ni sasaremashUa, i 

hy havc'been'Shtnff. 

Ame ni /uri'komeraremashila. j " We were kept in by 

litUn bjf were-kept-dn. [the rain." 

A kindred idiom is found in the ni corresponding to 
our " by "or *' with," in such phrases as : 

Me ni miru mono, mimi\ .« what one sees with 
F^ifeshy, see tiiuigsf ectr* f ^^e's eycs, and hears with 
;// M«. mono. ^ ^^^s ears." 

bf/, Iiear things. 

m. 75 

^ io6. With a causative verb, ni denotes the person who is 

caused to perform the action, thus : 

rt r- f " 1 will make the boy look 

Boy ni sagasasemasho. -j r . .» ^ 

^ 107. Suffixed to the indefinite form of a verb, ni means 
*' (in order) to," thus : 

Ueno no sakura wo \ .« i ^vant to go to see 

. ^^^ . '* . <^'««^i^-««««""' («^«'^) - the cherry-blossoms at 
mi m ikiiai, Ueno." 

ftee to tvttni-to-ffo. 

N. B, It is only with the indefinite form of the verb that ni has this 
meaning. When, as often happens, it follows the present tense used as 
an infinitive, it preserves its original force, thus : 

Michi ga warume, aruku m\ .. .^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ 

Roads {nam.) hei^ia-had, fvtOk in, ( bad^ j^ jg fearfully hard 

kone ga oremasu. \ walking." 

hones {nom.) break {tntrans). ) 

Mada neru ni wa hayai, \ " It is still too early to 

SiUl to-tieep to as-for {it is) early, \ go to bed." 

^ 108. Ni suffixed to nouns serves to form expressions 
corresponding to European adverbs, as : 

daiji^ * * importance," * * care ;" datji ni, ' * carefully. " 
hela, '* a bad hand (at) ;" heta ni, " unskilfully." 
ima, ** the present moment," ima ni, ''presently." 
jozu, " a good hand (at) ;" jozu ni, " skilfully." 
rippa, "splendour;" rippani, "splendidly." 

(See also \ 64. ) 

\ 109. When several things are enumerated, ni often means 
" besides the foregoing," " and :" 

'' Lit, Besides* beer*, be- 

Biirt^ ni'*, hudo-sht^ ni\ 
teppO'Viizt^ WO* motie^ iki-, 

sides* wine*, we-will-go' 
carrying"' gun-water**, /'. e. 
" We will take beer, claret, 
^and soda-water." 


Tj \ t t » u ( " The cherry is the king of 
Hana^ wa^ sakura^ «/ J flowers, and the warrior the 
hUo' im' bushi\ (A proverb.) (^j^^ ^^ ^^„ „ 

Lii. As-for* flowers*, (the best is) the cherry-blossom* ; 
and-to-the-foregoing-it-may-be-added-that*, as-foi* human- 
beings*, (the best are) warriors'. 


^ no. No means ** of," or denotes the possessive case : 

Neko^ no^ isutne^. ** A cat'V claw^*." 

the indefinite form of the f . ^f: '^a3f of being, 
verb«r«. '<tobe.") Y'- "J««'^^'''«- 


y, „ , , . ,. ( ** Something I have only just 

Kalla hakan no shim, J bought." {Morelil. -An article 

Ba^^JU a»ay 's orHde, ^ ^^ ^^j^^ ^^^^^^ buying.") 

We have aheady noticed, when treating of the post- 
position gay the genitive origin of many apparently nomi- 
native expressions in Japanese. The same tendency is 
exemplified by no, though less frequently in the Colloquial 
than in the Written Language, thus : 

,/ '*Itis dangerous to 
cross the line when 
the train is passing." 
{More lii. ' * at the time 
of the passing of the 


^ III. -A^ is used in attributive phrases either in lieu of, or 
suffixed to, the other postpostions, it being a rule that none 
of the postpositions excepting 710 can connect two nouns in 
such phrases. An example or two will make this clearer : 

Kisha no isUko sum ioki^ senro 

Train 's pcisaage does time, line 

WO yokogUcha abunat. , 

(accus.) aa-for'Cro8sing, {is) dangerous, 
(It woald be more polite to say abuno 

NO. 77 

(i) Kono ura nt ike ga gozaimasu. { ** There is a pond 

TMa bach in, pond {nom.) is. | at the back of this." 

(2) Kono ura no ike wa^ aso i ** The pond at the back 
gozaimasu, \ of this is shallow. " 

i. * * I have re~ 
^^^f*"!! ^i'"'^ .^^t*^"- -^ceived a telegram 

€awit»*y from, t^egram {rtom.) has-eome, 1 - , ,p 

(4) Kuni kara no dempo. " A telegram from home." 

In the above predicative phrases (the first and the third), 
each English preposition is rendered by the Japanese post- 
position properly corresponding to it. But turn the phrase 
attributively (the second and fourth), and no either supplants, 
or is suffixed to, that postposition {no for ni in the second, 
kara no for kara in the fourth). 

In this manner no, ** of," comes to express almost every 
idea of relation ; or rather all the various ideas of relation 
come to be summed up by the Japanese mind under the 
one idea of '* of;" thus : 

A/ami no onsen. *' The hot springs a/ Atami. " 

Fujinoyukt, " The snow on Fuji." 

'^ Nichi'Nichi" no (''A leading article in the 

shaseisu, \ ** Daily News.'" 

Oya no mo. , ** The mourning/(?r a parent." 

Waboku no dampan. *' Deliberations about peace." 

Korera-byb noyobd, ' ' Precautions against cholera. " 

Even the idea of apposition finds its place under this 
heading, for instance : 
Keraino TosMe. ** His retainer Tosuke." 

Indeed apposition is often expressed in English itself by 
a similar idiom with *' of," as when we say 
. " The province of Yamato." Famato no kuni. 


^112. No is used substantively with the meaning of the 
English vvoid ** one '* or ** ones " (see also ^ 137), thus : 

Warui no. * ' A bad one. " 

ydbu na no, ** A solid one." 
N. B. For the tm oijobti na^ see \ 197. 
Kore wa ii no da, \ ** This is a good 

Tliis nn-fw, ffood one ia. j One. " 

., .. .^ » V ( "It is a thing I have 

Jku tahi mo mita no desu. Lee„ any number of 

JSow-nMtny thnes even, aatv one is. I fUjxf^o ** 

Under this heading, note the following specimens of a 
curious idiom : 

hishi^ no^/urui^ no^y as lit. as possible, **old^ ones* of* 
stampsV' i.e. ** stamps that are old," hence **some old 
stamps. " 

Kwashi^ no' shinki^ ni^yaiia^ no*, as lit. as possible, *Mn* 
newness* have-burnt'^ one* of* cake^ i.e., *'a cake that .has 
been freshly baked," or more simply, "a freshly baked 
cake. " 

There is just the shadow of a shade of difference in 
intention between these circumlocutions and the simpler 

Furuiinshi. ** Old stamps." 

Shinki niyaita kwashi. "A freshly baked cake." 
The circumlocutory form with the two no*s seems to 
contain a tacit reference to stamps that are noi old and cakes 
that are «<?/ freshly baked, — a sort of emphatic dwelling on 
the ideas of oldness and of freshness respectively. 

^113. No often serves to form expressions corresponding 
to English adjeclives, as Nikon no, "of Japan," i.e., 
"Japanese" (see \ 62, and ^197 et seq,). Sometimes, in 

NO. 79 

quite familiar talk, it occurs as a final particle with a certain 
emphatic force, corresponding to that of the Colloquial 
English phrase "and so there!" or **and what do you 
think of thatr A good example of this occurs towards 
the end of this Handbook, in Chap. II of the ** Boian-ddro," 
in the conversation between O Yone and Shijo, where 
attention is drawn to it in a foot-note. 

\ 114. At other times, — and this is a very favourite idiom, — 
no is employed as a kind of equivalent for the word koto 
meaning **act," *'fact." This construction is specially apt 
to occur in conjunction with the substantive verb da or desu, 
and is generally best rendered in English by the phrase 
'* it is that," or ** is it that ?" For instance, a man has made 
an appointment, but a note comes from him about the time 
he is expected to arrive. One of the bystanders, observing 
this, says : 

Konai no darb, j ** I suppose it is that he 

Wm-fwt-emne fact ipt^ibably-is. \ isn't COming." 

N. B, Though the sense is properly that of koto, raay not no, after 
all, be here derived from the word mono by apocope of the first syllable? 
For notwithstanding what has been said in f 54 concerning the 
distinction to be drawn between koio and tJiono, a certain amount of 
confusion in the use of the two words can scarcely be denied ; and as a 
matter of fact, one not infrequently hears such expressions as konai 
monlp] daro. 

In such contexts, the word no may be, and in familiar 
conversation generally is, clipped of its vowel, so that it 
sinks into the single letter n. Ttuis the above example 
might equally well be Konai n' daro, or more politely Konai 
«' desho (conf. ^ 343-5)- 

Nani wo sum nl desu ?\ *' What is it that you are 
wim{accti5,) do fact is 9 j doing ?" 


- . . ., ^ ( '* Am I to go straight 

Massugu m tku n desu ^« /^ J on ?" more lit. -Is it that 

-4r« «o /^ j ** Is there?" **Do you mean to say 

Ja fact? I that there is ?" 

iV. B. As shown is this last example, no cannot lie dipped of its 
vowel when standing at the very end of a sentence. 

The exact force of no preceding the verb da or desic may 
be practically exemplified by comparing, say, Nani wo 
shtmasu P **\Vhat are you doing ?'* with Nani wo sum fi 
desYi ? *' What is it that you are doing?" 

^115. The verb i/d, **is," and the postposition «(? combine 
to form the word danOy which serves for purposes of enu- 
meration. Dano must, like the Latin que, be repealed after 
each of the items enumerated, thus : 

Shishi danOy iora dano, w\ *' Lions, tigers, elephants, 
dano^ rakuda da7io. ] and camels." 

There is a difference between dano and «/(see^ 109) 
used enumeratively. Ni is simply copulative, dano conveys 
the idea of a multiplicity of objects. Thus, when a Japanese 
says sake dano^ sakana dano, kwashi dano, he means 
to convey to his hearers the idea of a variously assorted 
feast, including possibly other good things besides the 
liquor, fish, and cakes enumerated. But when he says 
sake ni, sakana ni, kwashi, he speaks of just those three 
and no more. Observe, moreover, that the word dano 
is somewhat vulgar. The polite equivalent is de gazaimasu 
no, but this is less often used. No sometimes serves 
as an enumerative after other than the substantive verbs. 



Kimi ga warukatia no, 

Mental-feelinos {ftom). were-^md and, 
na7i no to, osoroshii me nt 

what and tfiat, femfkd eyes to 

aiie kiia, 

having-met (/) Juxve-eon^. (Famfl.) ^ 

* ' Talk of feeling 
frightened and so forth, 
•I have had a rough 
time of it, I can tell 

M B, No^ in its proper sense of " of," is sometimes replaced in the 
higher style by the Chinese word teki^ 65- Sometimes the two are used 
together, as seiji-teki kakumei^ or seiji-teki no kakumei, lit. " a revolu- 
tion of politics," i.e., " a political revolution." 


^ ii6. Shi, a postposition which is not capable of translation 
into English, has a sort of enumerative force, and serves as 
a kind of pause, thus : 

Kono nikai wa, Fuji mo 

This second-storey as-fot; Fujiyama also 

mieru shi, umi mo mieru shi ; makoio 

is-visiJMe, sea also is-visibte; truth 

ni a kesfnki desu, 

in, good view is. 

'* From the second 
storey here you can 
see Fujiyama and 
you can see the sea, 
— truly a beautiful 
/ view. " 

Shi is frequently appended to the verbal form in mai (the 
''improbable present or future"). Thus, when bandying 
words with a jinrikisha-man who should attempt to make 
an overcharge, one might say : 

Hajimeie kuruma wo ^ 

For-the-flrst-time vehicle (accus.) 

ianomi ya shimai shi, 

ask its-for, (^/) pt*oibabiy-do-notf 

taigai soba 

foT'the-niost-part marleet-piHce 

mo shiiie iru wa! 

also knowing atn {etnph,^ 

Occasian ally s^i seems to terminate a sentence; but this 
is only because the speaker, after finishing the first clause. 

'*You don't imagine, do 
you ? that this is the first time 
I have hired a jinrikisha, and 
that I don't know the proper 
fare !" 


finds himself at a loss concerning the second, and so 
perforce leaves the sentence unfinished. 

N, B. Do not confound the postposition shi with shi the " inde- 
finite form " of the verb jw«, " to do," which appears in such idioms as 
mi mo shi, kiki mo suru, " one both sees it and hears it." 


T[ 117. To originally had the sense of our demonstrative 
pronoun "that," but it now has the sense of our conjunction 

Uso da to iimasiu I - He says that it is a lie." 

Z,ie i» that aaya. ) 

Honto da to omoimasu. \ .* j ihink that it is true." 

TnaU is tJuU think. I 

N. B» Originally therefore the sense was : " It is a lie. He says 
that." " It is truth. I think that." The conversion of the demon- 
strative pronoun into the conjunction came about gradually in the case 
of to, as in the case of its English equivalent " that." 

In the above, and in most similar phrases, English idiom 
generally prefers to omit the word ** that;" but to cannot so 
be omitted in Japanese. The following are instances of to 
meaning literally *' that," but not lending itself to expression 
in idiomatic English : 

Omae san no na wa, ( *' ^J^^,! ,^% ^T ''^"'' C 

Tbu Mr. 's name as-for, \ f^''' ^'^' ^sjor the name of 

nan to w JtaP {Said u acorn- j Mr. you, what [do people] 
tvJiat tfmt say ? mon person.) V say that it is .?" - 

' A vessel called the * Tokyo 
Maru,'" more lit. "A vessel [of 

''Tokyo Mar u' to 
• Tokyo Maru " Hmt 

say vessel. 

mosu/une, j which people] say that it is the 

* T6ky5 Maru. 

(Conf. p. 58 for this important idiom.) 

Similarly in the case of such onomatopoetic adverbs as 
haiiOy kitto, pataito, etc., where the to (strengthened into //r;) 
is, properly speaking, a separate word, thus : 

TO. 83 

Tjxut • i-/ 8 ( "I Started," more liL *'I 

TiT LL J 1 L-jf 2 • • -8 ( * ' I will certainly' come" 
Nocnihodo^ ktilcr mainmasir. < later-on^ " 

Paid>iiG' ochiTnasKUa^, ' ' It fell' flop*. " 

Under this heading, too, comes the idiomatic use of to at 
the end of a sentence ; for some verb must always be 
mentally supplied after it. Take, for instance, the common 
colloquial phrase Nan to P ** What did you {or he) say ?" 
standing for Nan to osshaita ? (polite), or Nan to itia ? 

^118. To ate, ** saying that;'' to omotte, ''thinking that;" 
to kiite, ''asking (lit. hearing) whether," and similar 
gerundial phrases, are often contracted to tote (vulgarly tte) : 

O yu ni iku \ 

SoiwuraMe hot-water to, (/) go f " He went out saying that 
tote, de?nasKita. C he was going to the bath." 

{saying) that, tcent-out. / 

Tote frequently has a sort of oppositive force, as in the 
following examples, where it may be best parsed as standing 
{ox to itte mo, "even saying that," i.e., "even supposing 
that." (Conf. also T[ 289.) 

Ikura gakumon shtta \ 
Hoiv-mttch sttidy have-done I ** However much a man 
tote, okonat ga may study {more lit., saying 

evensayif^-timt, cot^uet .(«<^^^)Uhat a man may study how 

warukereda, nanni mo ^^^y^. nothing will come of 

if-U-had, anything -- ^' - . © . 



it if he is badly behaved." 

Zbhei-kyoku zva, muyami ni 

Mint as-for, reeklestXy 

itta kara tote, 

fct'tit becattse even-sayiitg-tJiat, 

haiken zva dekimasen. 

<tdnvin*j-looli as-for, fortheomcs-not. 

* ' You can not get 
shown over the Mint 
"simply by going there and 
asking to see it." 


N, B. Women and the lower classes often end a sentence by tU^ 
when they should say to iiniasu or to iimashtta. 

^119. To sometimes means '* and." When it has this sense^ 
it is, like the Latin que, generally repeated after each noun. 
Even when not so repeated, it always belongs to the word 
immediately preceding it, not to the word following it. 
Europeans often make the mistake of commencing a clause 
with to, in imitation of the European idiom which introduces 
clauses by the conjunction *'and." But this sounds 
ludicrous in Japanese : 

Anaia io^ waiakushi io. * * You and I. " 

Furansu io, Doiisu io. ' ' France and Germany. " 

Certain idiomatic uses of io may best be classed under 
this head, thus : 

3fusuko to futari. ) ,, rr. ,. >» 

, f 5 Two countmc: my son. 

Sim ^ aiul tivo-peraoHS. ) o j 

Ano htio io ikimashiia. 

Tlu,tpers<»i .nul (/) ^veni. ) " ^ ^^^^^ with him." 

Oktru io sugu ni. \ ,, . ^ . »» 

m^ arul iJ^u^iately,] " As SOOn aS I gOt Up. 

This and .^-/or, {ii)differ8. \ ^^ '^ diflferenl from this. 

Observe also such adverbial phrases as shi-mvase to, 

T 120. 7b sometimes comes to mean "if" or "when." It 
has this sense only after the present tense of verbs and 
adjectives, thus : 
So sum io, shtkararefnasti,) "You will get scolded if. 

80 do if, get-scolded, ) yOU do that." 
Sugu ikanai io, ' 

Immedlmclff go-not if, 



You will be too late if you 
don't go at once. " 

WA. 85 

So moshiniasu io, sugu 7%i 

80 9aid witen, itmnedUOel'y 

shikar areffiashtta, 


"^121. Observe the use of /o in such phrases as the following, 
where it is not susceptible of any English rendering : 

'* When I said so, he 
immediately gave me a 

Cht'n isumolie, yama to 

Ihtst aceumtiUtHnff, inmintain 



*'Dust accumulating be- 
.comes a mountain." 

(A proverb used to inculcate the 
importance of little things.) 

Mtzu ga dete, mwa \ *« The garden has become 

w<u^{tiom:) usui^m, garden]^ perfect sea through the 

ga umi io mite f^^'^^^^^«-f overflowing" (of the neigh- 

(nom,) sea Ima-become. I, . 4° ^ * \ 

^^Y/a ^ bourmg stream, etc. ). 

Observe the strong affirmative force of /o (generally 
followed by mo) at the end of an assertion, thus : 

!"Are there any? — Of 
course there are 1" or, "I 
should just think there 
were 1" 

To wa or tote sometimes replaces to mo in such strongly 
afiirmative phrases. — For to mo and to wa iedomo in con- 
cessive phrases, see Tf 288 and ^ 289. 


"^122. FTfl was originally a noun signifying ** thing," hence 
" that which/' *' he, she, or they who "; but it is now used 
as a separative or isolating particle, corresponding in some 
measure to the French quant ^, or, when repeated anti- 
thetically, to the Greek piiy and SL Perhaps the most 
perfect idea of the character of a Japanese word or phrase 
isolated by means of z«;a is given by such French construc- 
tions as '* Lui, qu'est ce qu'il en dit ?" *' Ces gens qui 
viennent d'arriver, personne n'en sait rien, " — where the 


words " lui " and *' ces gens qui viennent d'arriver " are, as 
it were, lifted out of the regular current of the sentence and 
set in a place apart. ** As for," ** with regard to," '* so far 

as is concerned," are the most explicit English 

equivalents of ztw, which has accordingly been rendered by 
"as for" in most of the literal translations of the examples 
scattered throughout the present work. But in practice its 
force is generally sufficiently indicated in an English 
translation by an emphasis on the equivalent of the word to 
which wa is suffixed, or by placing that word at the 
beginning of the sentence or clause. A slight pause, which 
may sometimes be indicated by a comma, is usually made 
after wa : 

Budb-shu wo sukoshi aiaiamete, 

Wine {a cats.) a-lUtle tvamiing, 

hiiru wa sono mama de 

heev a8"fm*f that condition in 


"Warm the claret 
a little; but so far 
-as the beer is con- 
cerned, that will do 
as it is." 

Konnichi wa, yoi\ "To-day it is fine weather." 

To-day as-fin^, goodUi.e.y "Whatever it may have 

/enh' de gozamasti. fbeen other days, to-day at least 

tveather {if} is, j jt Jg fine. ") 

" Out at sea the waves 
seem pretty rough ; so 
'probably the vessel will 
not sail. " 

Oki wa, yohodo nami ga " 

Offing as-for, plentifkOly tvave8{nom,) 

arai yd desu Jtara, fune 

rough appearance is hecaitse, vessel 

wa demasumai. 

as-fot*, probably -tvon't-go'Oitt. 

Ima wa ie-suki de gozaimasu. j ' ' Now I am at 

Koiv as-for, hand'Cinptg am. 1 leisure." 

Koko no ido wa, \ *' The water in this well comes 

:Biere 's tvcii as-for, ^^0^1 the aqueduct" 

suido desu. [ (^f ^ !* "^^ ^^^^ ^^f^ " ^» aqueduct " (!) 

as the beginner might suppose, if he mis- 

tvater-^'oad i5. ) ^^^ ^^ g,^ ^ ^^^ g^ ^j^^ no^Siitive case.) 

WA. 87 

!*' This being so, I am in a 
quandary." (The de wa may 
be contracted into ja ; see 

^ , , ( '' I don't smoke." (Afore UL 

Tabako wa nomimasen. ).< ^^ ^^^ tobacco, I don't 

Tobacco as-M, drinh-not. ( smoke it.") 

Foku wa zonjimasen, \ <* I don't know ze;^//. " 

ITcM its- for, {I)hnmv-not. S 

Kore wa wasei, are \ 

This as-fw, jrapan-nxahei tiwt \ * * This (is) of native make, 
wa hakurai {de gozaimasu), C that is an imported article." 
as-foTt import€tHon (is). ' 

Ntsh' wa Fuji, kiia \ '^ To the west stands 

^^^.?*f^', ^"^y^T"^ ^ "*^«^y Fujiyama, to the north 
wa Tsukuba de gozamasu, V Mount Tsiikuba." 

aa-fm; Tsiiktiba {tt) is, f 

^ 123. In an interrogative sentence, wa would sometimes 
seem to be the means of asking a question ; but an ellipsis 
must always be supplied. For instance, Inu wa ? pro- 
nounced in an interrogative tone of voice, practically 
signifies '* Where is the dog ?" But literally it is, *' As for 
the dog, (where is he .^)" 

Wa also sometimes occurs at the end of a sentence with 
a certain interjectional, exclamatory, or emphatic force. 
This idiom is heard only in quite familiar talk, and 
especially from the lips of women ; thus : 

Waiashi wa, kono ho ga ii wa I \ '* I like this 

Me as'for, this side {n0m.){is)good indeed! ) onQj /do." 

•[[124. The peculiar power of wa to separate or limit ideas is 
well-shown in some of the negative phrases given in the 
Chapter on Syntax, ^ 433, and also in such favourite verbal 
idioms as the following : 


Aru ni iva arimasu ga, sukum 

Is in cwfor, is whereas, scarce 

gozaimasu, (or Aru koto wa, etc. ) 


' ' There are some, 
it is true, but they 
are scarce." 

A me wa, futte imasXt ka P — Furu ni 

Bain as- for, faUing is 9 FaUs in 

wa futie imasu ga, htdoi koto 

aS'fov, faXUng is tvhereas,] intense fcbct 

wa gozaimasen. 

as-for, is-ma. 

* ' Is it raining ? 
— Yes, it is ratn^ 
tngy but it is not 
raining hard." 

Kotowatte oktmashtla, ) *' I refused." 

Befitsinff {I) put. J 

Koiowalie ma oki- ( "I re/used, but. . . ." (the sentence 
mashtta ga. , . , \ remaining unfinished.) 

The former of these two phrases states the fact of the 
refusal, and nothing more. The latter emphasises it ; but 
the emphasis is the emphasis of hesitation, as if one should 
say, **I did indeed refuse, but my refusal was tempered by 
politeness," or ** I left myself a loophole for taking back the 
refusal," etc., etc. 

Tsukai wa Mia ga, tbnin / "Oh 1 yes ; a 

Messenger as-far, came althmiffh, person-] messenger came, 

wa ki wa shinau ] but the man him- 

in-gttestion as-for, conUng as-for, does-not. \seU didn't" 

Very often we hear M wa shinai (and similar constructions 
with other verbs), where simple konai, etc., would seem 
sufficiently clear according to European ideas. But the 
Japanese prefer the more emphatic form with itw, whenever 
any mental reservation or allusion implies the existence 
somewhere or other of contradiction or opposition to the 
idea which is actually expressed, as illustrated in the two 
foregoing examples. 

N. B, When thus suffixed to the indefinite form of a verb {ki is the 
indefinite form of the irregular verb kuru, " to come *'), wa is often 
pronounced ^rt / thus kiya shinai for ki wa shinai. 

WA. 89 

^125. A consideration of the foregoing examples, and 
indeed of those which any page of Japanese affords, will 
convince the student that wa is not, as some European 
writers have erroneously imagined, a sign of the nominative 
case. The following example, which is the lasf we shall 
quote, illustrates this fact almost to the point of absurdity. 
It is race-day, let us suppose. You meet a friend walking 
in the direction of the race-course, and you say to hiio : 
Anaia zva, keiba desu ka P 

Tou as'for, iMrse-race is ? 

i.e., if interpreted on the hypothesis of wa being a sign of 
the nominative case, "Are you a horse-race ?"( I ) The 
proper meaning of course is "As for you, is it the races 
(that you are going to) ?" or more simply " Off to the 
races, eh ?" The utmost that can be said with regard to the 
so-called nominative force of wa is that the word followed 
by wa must, in not a few instances, be rendered by a 
nominative in English, though it is never properly a 
nominative in the Japanese construction. The nearest 
approach made by the Colloquial Japanese Language to the 
possession of a nominative particle is in the particle ga (see 
p. 66). But even this, as has been there explained, 
originally meant ** of," that is to say, was a sign of the 
genitive, not of the nominative. 
^ 126. Europeans often find it hard to decide whether to 
say wa or ga ; and it is true that two Japanese phrases, 
one with wa, the other with ga^ must often be rendered 
by the same English words. There is, however, a slight 
difference of intention. When (if we may so phrase it) a 
speaker has in his mind a predicate and gives it a subject, 
he uses ga ; when the subject is uppermost in his mind and 
he gives it a predicate, he uses wa. As a general empirical 


rule, seemingly but not really contradicting the above 
enunciation of principle, the use of ^a necessitates ennphasis 
on the subject in the English translation^ whereas the use of zva 
necessitates emphasis on the predicate. The Japanese them- 
selves, ^s stated in ^ 27, are not much given to the use of such 
vocal emphasis. They prefer a change in the actual words. 

To take an example : — if you are expecting your Japanese 
teacher, the servant will probably inform you of his arrival 
by saying Sensei wa miemashitay * ' The teacher has come " 
{lit, appeared). The etymological sense is, "As for the 
teacher, he has come. " That is to say, the teacher (subject) 
was in the servant's thoughts as a daily visitant, and now 
here he is. But should the same personage arrive in the 
middle of the night or at some other unusual hour, the 
servant will say Sensei ga miemashtta ] i.e., '*T\it teacher 
has come," — more properly and etymologically, "The 
coming of the teacher. " In the servant's mind his coming 
at such an hour (predicate) is the curious and important 
thing. So too of an unexpected death one would say, for 
instance, Hayashi san ga shinimashita, " Mr. Hayashi is 
dead." But if he had long been known to be past recovery, 
the phrase would be Hayashi san wa shinimashtta, ** Mr. 
Hayashi is dead.'* Similarly Kore ga ii means " This is 
good ;" whereas Kore wa ii means " This is ^0^^. " The 
distinction flows naturally from the original force of the two 
particles, Kore ga ii being properly "the goodness of 
this," while Kore wa ii is properly " as for this, it is good." 

In comparative sentences the rule is quite simple. The 
subject takes gay while the word denoting the thing with 
which the subject is compared is generally separated off by 
means of wa : thus : Kore yori wa, are ga ii^ " That is 
better than this,'' 

wo. 91 

^127. The student who has followed this explanation with 
due regard to the original genitive force o^ga, will perceive 
that there is nothing specially emphatic about ga in the 
Japanese idiom, riiough an emphasis on the word preceding 
it is its nearest equivalent in English. On the other hand, 
zva is emphatic and separative in Japanese, though there 
will generally be no emphasis on the corresponding portion 
of the phrase in English, when the English noun is a 
nominative.- Wa, however, corresponds to an emphasised 
word in English whenever that word is not a nominative, as 
shown by several of the examples given above. 

^ 128, It may be asked : what is the rule in the case of two 
nominatives in antithetical clauses? The answer is that 
either ga may be used in both, or else wa may be used in 
both. Thus the fourth example on p. 87, UTore wa wasez] 
are wa hakuraiy "■ This is of native make, that is an imported 
article," might be altered to Kore ga wasei, are ga hakurai. 
The effect would be to throw the emphasis more strongly 
on the two subjects than on the two predicates. 

N. B, Sometimes iva^ occurring after an adjective in ku^ must be 
rendered by " if," thus : 

Yoroshtku 7i>a, de-kakemashd. f " If you are all right, let us 
Is-good if, tciU-go-auf. (start/' 

Elegant speakers sometimes prefer to S3y yoroshtkubay which is the 
form employed in the Book Language. 


T[ 129. Wo \^ the nearest Japanese equivalent to a sign of the 
accusative case, thus : 

Tamago wo uderu, \ .. To boil eggs. " 



Yome wo 

Bride (accus,) 

"To receive a bride," t..e, to marry." 
(Of course said only of the man. A girl's 

marrying is generally csMed yome ni iku, lit. " to go 

as a bride.") 

Sonna kake-ne wo 

StteJi excesHvcpriee {acctds.) 
itcha^ komarmasu. 

as'for^aaying, {I)atn-'Jmiwpered. 











*' I don't know what to do 
if you ask such an exorbitant 
price," or more simply, *' You 
should not ask such an ex- 
^orbitant price. " 

"To await the coming of 
some one." 

^ 130. Originally wo was nothing more than an interjection 
serving, as it were, to interrupt the sentence and draw 
attention to the word to which it was suffixed. We must 
therefore not be surprised at its absence in many cases 
where European languages could not dispense with the 
accusative case. It is not that the wo has been dropped 
in such contexts, but that it never was there, thus : 

Baka iu-na ! (very rude). I m D^n't talk nonsense." 

FdUy aaynot, f 

Mesht kuu ioki, (famil.) f '* When eating rice," 
Bice eat time. \ i.e., *' When dining." 

Before the verb sum, '* to do," wo is mostly absent, as : 

rr y f " To make a translation," 

Hon^yaku suru. {- To translate. " 

Saisoku sum. *' To do urgency," i.e., " to urge on." 

^131. The student will sometimes meet with, and probably 
be puzzled by, sentences like the following : 

Daijin-gaia wo kajime. 

Ministers {accus.) beg inninff{( rafts.), 
sho-kzvan-in ffiade soroimashtia. 

aU-officials till tcerc-cmujiiete. 

*' All the officials were 
there, from the ministers 
of state downwards." 

YA AND YE. 93 

Here the first clause literally means " placing the 
ministers of state at the beginning." It is therefore not 
unnatural that the word daijin-gata^ being what we should 
term an accusative, should take wo, 

^ 132. In the Written Language, wo is often used adversa- 
tively at the end of a clause. But this is rare in the 
Colloquial, which prefers to use ga for that purpose, as 
already explained in ^ 93, p. (i^. 


IF ^ZZ' ^^ ^s ^^ interrogative and exclamatory particle of 
constant occurrence in the Written Language. In the 
Colloquial it is less used, excepting in such contexts as 
Haruya! " I say, Haru !" said when calling a person by 
name. It also occurs corruptly for wa after the indefinite 
forms of verbs, as explained in the N. B. on p. 88. 
Sometimes it has the sense of *' and "or ** or," thus : 

Tonari no uchi de, inu ya^^ ^'They would seem to 

Jffext-door '3 house at, ^ 

neko ga suki io 

sext-dAior'a house at, doflr and U,e very foud of dogs and 
to mieie, U^^g j^ ^^ house next 

iakusan ni katie onmasu, * - - •'- .r ^ 

awttitUy in t^eitrhhff we. 

]a number of them." 

or something or 

,,,,yananika, \^^^^;;. 

\ 134. F<? means ''to," *' towards," hence sometimes ''at:" 
Gakko ye ide desu ka P { "Do you go 

School to, honounOple exU is ? | tO SChool .'*" 

* Some good authorities prefer the orthography £, In Classical 
Japanese the word is spelt r<. {Ae), We follow Hepburn's and 
Brinkley's dictionaries, as usnal. 


Suiensho ye iki-gake ni,\ 

SuaU>n tmvards ffolna-tchUe, *. j ^yjn -^^^ j^^j^ j^ ^^ 

denshin^kyoku ye chotioX^^^^ telegraph office on my 

wUl'Stop. ) 

Koko ye oiie oUe kudasai. j '' Please put it 

I down 

Mere to ptttting jnOHng con€lescend. 1 down here." 

iV. B, The second oii^ is the same verb as tlie fiist, but has only 
the force of an auxiliary (see ^ 298). 

^ 135. Fori rnQBLUS ''from/' "since," *' than :" 

j^ • f • ( * * From Kyoto " (or its 

^ ^ S^ ^ y ' i neighbourhood). 

T 1. "t ( "Since the day before 

Issakujttsuyon. {yesterday." 

Nani yori kekko tia ( *' Thanks for your splen- 

ulnything tJmn, splendid IionoiutOde] did present." {Jlfore lit, 

shina wo, arigaib gozamasti, j for your more-splendid- 
weicTe {accus^i tiMrikftd am. Ithan-anything present.) 


^ 136, Postpositions may be combined in Japanese, much 
as in English we say "in at," "in by, "away from," etc. 
Some instances have already occurred in the preceding 
portions of this chapter. Here are a few more : — 

Go shimpai ni iva 

Atiffiist anxiety to 


reacJies-not . 

"It is not worth your troubling 
about. ' (A^i wa is more emphatic than ni 
alone would be. For a still more emphatic 
I construction with ni iva^ sec •[ 124.) 

Oshii koto ni 7m.... \ « It is a pity that. . . 

JiegrcUxdde fac t as Indeed ) 

N. B. Phrases of this kind are idiomatic and in constant use. 



Jit-ni-ji yori mo 

Twelve-'Jimirs than even, 

naicha ikemasen, 

as-fovheconiing, is-no-'jo. 

Ano hiio io wi, 

Tfiut person tvUh as-^for. 

koti'i de gozaimasu, 

ittthnate is. 

Alio hen mo^ 

Tluif uciffhbourJiood tdso. 

osoku\ icjt ^Qn't do to 
late kg ]^^Qj. ^han twelve 

) o'clock." 



** He is very intimate 
with that man." 

mo/o { '* That neighbourhood 
oriflrinj also is much improved 
io wa yohodo ^j>'^^^/;/^Si^?'/<z.j compared with what it 

'iviiU <%fi-foi'i very much Jias'op€iied-out.\\isQd tO be." 

Isogazu io mo yoroshii, (Familiar.) f '* You needn't 

Iltirrying-not. even, (is) good. 

Kuril to ka iimashiia. 
Comes that ? said. 


J *' If I mistake not, he said 
( he would come. " 

Kao de mo o arai nasaru ka ? i "Will you wash 

FoAie even, honourably to-wasJi deign ? | your face, Sir ?" 

AC B, De mo is often thus used in a manner not needing transla- 
tion into English, though retaining the force of " even " in Japanese. 



kanjo ivo 
accounts {accus.) 

Sore fnade 

TJiut till 



Kore made 
Tills tm 

ga nakalla. 

{fiof/t.) tvas-not. 

N. B. Made m often corresponds to our word " by " in such 
phrases as mydnicJii made w/, " by to-morrow ;" hachi-ji made ni, " by 
(i.e. not later than) eight oclock." The Japanese mind does not clearly 
apprehend the shade of difference which, with us, separates " by" from 
"till" in idioms of this class. Compare the N. B. to ^ loo for a case 
of a somewhat similar character. 




's 1 



no koto 


's thing 



ni mita koio\ 

in, saw 


I will do the accounts 
.down to to-day." {more lit. 
the till-to-day's accounts.) 

'*I will let it alone," or 
*' Don't let us think about it 
any more." 

''I had never seen it till 
.now." {Made ni is stronger 
than made alone would be.) 


^ 137. No followed by other postpositions generally has the 
substantive force of the English word "one" or "ones," 
already exemplified on p. 78, thus ; 

Motlo it no wa arimasen ka ? \ " Haven't you any 

Jtfore good ones aa-fm; aretwf f J^ better OUeS ?" 

Mo chitio a no wo ' 
More a-lUtle good oties parens.) 

misete kudasai, 

slwwing condeacemf. 

' ' Please show me some 
rather better ones." 

OJn no ga hoshti. \ <. I ^ant a big one." 

Big one of {am) deairoua. ) ° 

Kd ill no mo hayanmasu \ «c Tj^jg j^jn^ ^^^ jg 
-Sue/* m^s also m-e^fasiiio.uMe [fashionable. So please look 
kara, goran nasau at them." 

hecmtse, augtist-glancv condescend. 

Motto yasui no ni shiyn. { "Ilhinkl will take 

More cheap one to iHfl'2)rolHdffffdo. | a cheaper OnC." 

^ 138. Though the no of no ni may, as in the last example, 
be used in the sense of " oiie " or "ones," it more fre- 
quently signifies "whereas," "while," "when." It may 
be known to have this acceptation by observing that a verb 
(or an adjective equivalent to a verb) precedes it, as in the 
following sentence : 

Moto no mama de yokatta 

<h*lgin 's niannei' by, was^good 

no niy naze Jun wo 

tvJiei*eas, tehi/ vrder (a ecus.) 

naosKita ? 
have-amended ? } 

As here exemjjlified, no ni occurs chiefly in phrases 
expressive of censure or regret. Conf. T[ 287 for further 
details concerning this important idiom. 

T[ 139. Observe that no and wa^ wjjjien combined, change by 
euphony into ivobj^ which is used to denote a specially 

' ' Why have you changed 
their order, when it did quite 
well as it was ?" 

{Said^ e^.f to a servant.) 


emphatic accusative; also that de wa is often contracted 
intoyiz, as has already been incidentally mentioned in \ 89. 
Ja, owing perhaps to its being a modern corruption, sounds 
somewhat more familiar than de wa, but the two are always 
interchangeable : — 

Kimono ni abura woba kakemashita, J '*I have stained 
CMhes on, oil {accus.) have-placed, | my clothes with Otl, " 

( So de zm nai, \ \ 

^ /^ . ^ h That is not so ;" "no." 

f^. \ de wa gozainiasen, 

^\ ja ,, (polite)) 

Shubiki'gzvai ^ ^^^' ^ /eppd wo u/su ) ** You mayn't 

jRed-Une-beyond in, f/un {accus.) «#rilP6fShoot OUtside 

koto ga dekimasen. \ treaty limits. " 

ad {nom,) cannot-do, * 

^ 140. Occasionally an ellipsis must be supplied. Thus iowa 
is sometimes equivalent to lo iu mono wa, as in the following 
sentence : 

Go^'jo' /o^ wa* I ''As-for* (the-thing-of- which people 
nani^ wo^ .«';/« J s^) that' (it is) ^^V^^, what» H' k ^^u^ 
, w. , ,n -. Italk' of? i.e., "What is meant by the 

Uerm go-jo r (See Vocabulary.) 


^ 141. What may be termed quasi-postpositions are really 
nouns preceded by the postposition tio, "of," and used 
in a sense less concrete than that originally belonging to 
them. Such are, for instance : 

no hoka, ' ' exterior of," i.e. , " besides " (melaph. ). 

no kage, "shade of," ^, "behind." 

no kawari, " change of," ,, " instead of." 

no mukb, * ' opposite of, " , , " opposite, * * beyond. " 



no ftjka, 
no skt/a, 
no soiOf 

no iame, 

no uchi, 
no uCt 
no ushtrOf 
no wM, 

" interior of," i.e. ** inside, in." 

* ' lower part of," „ ' * below." 

„ ''outside," "beyond." 

j ** because of," 
" I *'in order to." 
„ ''inside, ":in." 
,, "on, " upon." 
,, "behind." 
,, " beiide " (by the side). 

"exterior of," 

"sake of," 

"interior of," 
"top of," 
"back of," 
"side of," 

We thus get such phrases as 

le no tichi, 
Hei no soio^ 
JCura no naka^ 
Omoi no hoka, 

Hanashi no isiiide, 

Alio yama no kage, 

" In(side) the house." 

" Beyond the fence." 

" In(side) the godown." 

" Outside of thought," z>., " unex- 
pectedly. " 

" Occasion of talking," />., " in the 
course of conversalion. " 

" Behind those mountains." 

^142. When followed by a verb, the quasi-postpositions 
take /// after them, except in the case of the substantive 
verb "to be," which requires de^ unless when signifying 
^^ there is," etc. (De aru is generally contracted ij da\ 
de gozaimasu to desu^ and so on ; see p. 64). Thus: 

To'dana no naka nv 

€ii(pbom*d '3 

haitie imasu, 

-entering is. 

inside in, 

" It is in the cupboard." (One 
.might equally well say Todana no 
naka desu,) 

Tsukue 710 tie ni notie iniasen\ 

Table 's toj} on, riding isn't 

ka ? — Tsukue no ue desu, 

? TaMfi 'a top {it)ia. 

"Isn*t it on the table? 
—Yes, it is." 


Kono hoka ni, ?naia 

Nd8-of besides, ngain 

iro-iro gozaimasu. 

variaus'kinds are. 

" There are various kinds besides 
this one." 

(For ^ono:=*' of this," see p. 54 ; simi- 
larly for sono immediatdy below.) 

Kazexi no muko de gozatmasu, j *' It is on the other 
River *a opposite {it) is. \ side of the river. " 

Note also the idiom sono kawarini, liL " change of that," 
used in the sense of " on the other hand. " 

'T 143. When prefixed attributively to a noun, this class of 
words changes the ni into mo, in accordance with the rule 
explained in ^ in, thus : 

Tansu no fiaka no kimono, ( ** The clothes in the 
4Jlie8t'Of'dratvera 's interior 's clothes, | chest of drawers. " 

ICono hoka no shina-mono, j *'The other things 

TMa-of exterior 's articiss, ( besides these." 

Mon no waki no viomiji wa, i *'The leaves of the 

Gale 's side 's tmtpic as-far, J ma pie- tree by the gate 

rippa ni koyo shimashiia. j have become beautifully 

splendidly red-leaf has-done. I red." 

•^ 144. When a member of this class of words follows a verb, 
its force changes slightly, so as to correspond to that of an 
English adverb or conjunction, thus : 

UTare kore suru uchi ni. 

That this do while, 

hi ga kuremashila. 

* ' While we were doing all 
this, night came on." 

(Note the idiom kare kore^ " that 

day {nom.) darJc^ned. ^uV^S X^' as we should say, " this, 

^ ^ Vthat, and the other.") 

So suru hoka, shikaia 

So do except, toay -of -doing 

ga nau 
^{nom.) isn't. 

** There is nothing else to 
be done." 



Kinb furimashUa kawari 

Testerdity rained thange 

ni, hyb wa ii o 

in, to-day as»for, good JwnounMe 

ienki {de gozaimasu). 



"Whereas it rained yester- 
day {i.e., after yesterday's rain), 
it is beautiful weather to-day." 

^ 145. There are also quasi-postpositions formed by «/and 
the gerunds of verbs, as ni ataite, "just at," from ataru^ " to 
%\x\k.Q '" ni shiiagaliey "according to/' from shiiagau, '*lo 
conform ;" ni yoite, " owing to," from yoru, " to rely ;" 
thus : 

Kyaku ni (aishiie, shiisurei desu. 

Guest to co9ifrontinff, rudeness is. 

" It is rude to say 
(or do) that to a 

Anaia ni iaishtte, mbshi-wake ga \ 

Ymu to eonfremthm excuse (ttom,) 



" I know not how 
to excuse myself to 

Amari nyuhi wo kake-sugimashiie, 
Toc»much expense (accus,) Jtavinypta^exceeded, 

ima ni itaiie kbkwai shite imasu, 

nmv to reachinff, repentance doing am. 

" I am sorry 
•now for my 

Shinnen ga kimasu 
Netcyear (from.) conies 


hMWunMe decorations 


if'^t'C'don't'-m tike, 






" As the New Year is 
approaching, we must 
decorate (the gate)." 


The Numeral. 


^ 146. In European grammars the numerals are generally 
disposed of in a few lines, as forming a mere subdivision of 
the adjective. In Japanese the numeral is rather a species 
of noun, and a species of noun with marked peculiarities 
of its own, necessitating its treatment as a separate part of 

^ 147. There are two sets of numerals, one of native and the 
other of Chinese origin. The native set is now obsolete 
except for the first ten numbers, which are as follows : — 




I hitoisu 

htto{-tsuki) ( I 




/uta{^ ,. ) ( 2 


1 /H 

3 miisu 

^i{' „ ) ( 3 

) mt 

4 yotsu 

yo^" „ ) ( 4 

) yo 

5 itsut^u 

^(su{- „ ) ( 5 

1 I'/SU 

6 muisu 

OT«(. ,, ) ( 6 

) mil 

7 nanatsu 

fiana{' ,, ) ( 7 

1 nam 

8 yatsu 

ya{' „ ) ( 8 

) ya 

9 hokonotsu 

kokono{' ,, ) ( 9 

) ko{ko)no 

10 id 

H- ,> )(io 

) to 


N. B, It will assist the memory to notice that the even numbers 
are formed from the odds of which they are the doubles by a process 
of vowel-strengthening, the consonants being originally the same, 
though slightly disfigured in modern pronunciation, thus : 

I h\to (anciently probably /i/o,) 2 /u/a (anciently probably /u/a). 
3 wi, * 6 wu. 

5 i/ju (anciently i/u), 10 /o. 

^ 148. The substantive forms of the numerals may either be 
used quite alone, or they may follow the noun, or lastly they 
may take the postposition nOy '* of," and precede the noun. 
They very rarely precede a noun without the intervention 
ofm>. Thus: — 

Ikuisu gozaiviasu ka ? — Hiioisu, j ** How many are 
Howmawy are 9 — One, | there ? — One. " 

Tsuisumi hiioisu, or ) ,, ^^^ , „ 

Hiioisu no isuisumt, ) ^ 

Milsu de iakusan (de gozaimashd). f " Three will na 

Three hy, ffreat-detd tvUl-pmbuMy-be. | doubt be plenty. " 

Yatsu de larimas^ ka ? 1 .. will eight be enough ?" 

Eight by, tvai-mffiee ? ) ° ° 

T5 hakari kudasai. ) ., pj^^gg j^,g ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^,r 

Ten about cmidescend. ) 

Iki mo kaeri fnOy\ 

Going also, reUnminff also, 

fiiiotsii michi, 

one road. 

"Taking the same road 
there and back again." 

^ I49» The form used in compounds always precedes the 
noun to which it refers, as hiio-isuki, ''one month;" 
fiiia^hako^ ''two boxfuls ;" mi-hany " three nights." 

\ 150. The enumerative form is used in counting over 
things, e.f. a bundle of paper money, linen to be sent to- 
the wash, etc. 


^151. Though the native Japanese numerals above "ten" 
are now obsolete for ordinary purposes, note that halachi^ 
the old native word for " twenty," is still used in the sense 
of ** twenty years of age," and that chi^ *' a thousand," and 
yorozu, ** a myriad," or ** ten thousand," are still retained 
in proper names and in a few idioms, e.g. Chi-shima, *'the 
Thousand Isles," i.e., " the Ku rile Islands ;" J(?ro2«^tf, a 
favourite shop-name, probably originating in the fact of 
many sorts of articles being exposed for sale. 

^152. The set of numerals borrowed from the Chinese is : 

1 ichi, rarely tisu 6 roku, rarely rtku 

2 niy rarely yV 7 shichi 

3 sail 8 hachi 

4 shi 9 /f«, rarely kyu 

5 SO \oju 

100 hyaku i,oco sen 10,000 man ox ban 

A'. B. Jchi also means "whole," **all," as ichi-nichi^^ o\\^ tlay,** 
but also **all day long." The native Japanese numeral hito^ "one," 
has come \o have the same secondary sense in ccitain case*?, as Kito-batty 
" one night " or " all night." — The word r/J, proi>erly " both," is often 
substituted for ni. 

All the others are formed by combining these, thus : 

11 ju-khi 20 ni-ju 29 ni-ju'-ku 

1 2 ju-ni 2 1 ni-jU'ichi 30 san-ju 

1 3 jU'San 2 2 ni-ju-ni 40 shi-Jii 

14 ju-shi 23 ni-JU'San 50 go-jil 

^ 5 fi'io 24 ni-ju 'Shi 60 rolu-ju 

16 Ju-roku 25 ni-JU'go 70 shichi-ju 

If j'U'Shichi 26 ni-ju-rohi 80 hachi jil 

i^ ju'hachi 27 ni-ju^shichi 90 Xw-y/^ 

19 //7-^/ 28 ni-jii'hachi lOO ip-pyaku (for 

lie/// hyaku) 



2CX) ni'hyaku 300 sam-hyaku (for san hyaku) 

400 shi'hyaku 500 go-hyaku 

600 rop'pyaku (for r(?^« hyaku) yod shichi-hyaku 
800 hap-pyakui^ox hachi hyalu) ^00 ku-hyaku 
1,000 tS'Sen {ioT tchi sen) 10,000 ichi-man 

100,000 ju-nian 1,000,000 hyaku-man 

108 ^cz^w ^ac>i/ 365 sam-hyaku roku-ju'go 

1 897 is-5^» hap-pyaku ku-ju shichi 
43,000,000 shi'Sen sam-hyaku-man 
There is a term (?^tt meaning 100, coo, and a term c^^ 
meaning 1,000,000; but they are scarcely ever used, being 
almost always replaced by multiples of man, as in the 
examples just given. 

^ 153. The Chinese numerals are not often used indepen- 
dently. It is customary to make them precede a noun, 
with which they form of sort of compound, as icht-nen, 
** one year ;" ts-sun (for ichi sun), *' one inch." 

In forming such combinations, note the category of 
letter-changes of which the following are examples : 
ch ii'Chd for ichi chb * * one chb^ " 

hat'Chb ,, hachi chb " eight c^o" 
jit- chb ,, ju chb " ten chb" 

y and htp'pun ,, ichi fun ** one minute *' 

ip-pen , , ichi hen ' * once " 

sani'pun^ ,, san fun '* three minutes" 

sani'hen ,, san hen *' thrice" 

r op-pun ,, rokufun *' six minutes " 
rop'pen ,, roku hen ** six times" 

* A measure of distance equivalent to about 120 yards English, 
f Some words change /, not into /, but into b ; thus sam-^tuku, 
three scrolls,'* from san Biid/uku. 





**ten minutes" 



*Men limes" 


,, hyaku/un 

'* a hundred minutes") 


„ hyaku hen 

''a hundred times" 


,, sen/un 

*' a thousand minutes") 


,, sen-hen 

'*a thousand limes" 



,, ichikin 

"one pound" 


,, san kin 

*' three pounds" 


,, roku kin 

"six pounds" 


,, jUkin 

" ten pounds" 


, , hyakii kin 

"a hundred pounds" 


,, sen kin 

" a thousand pounds " 



J , san mai 

"three (flat things)" 


,, sen mai 

"a thousand ,, 



,, ichi so 

" one (vessel)" 


,, san so 

" three (vessels)'* 


, , hachi so 

"eight vessels" 



" ten vessels" 


,, sen-so 

" a thousand vessels" 



, , ichi shaku 

"one foot" 


,, hachi shaku 

"eight feet" 


,, jU shaku 

"ten feet") 



, , ichi teki 

"one drop" 


, , hachi teki 

" eight drops" 


„ juteki 

"ten drops" 

N, B, Though the difficulty of making these letter-changes correctly 

will strike the beginner chiefly in the case 

: of numeral combinations, the 

same euphonic rules apply to all other Chinese compounds, thus : 

ket-chakuy from ketsu chaku, " decision," ** final resolve." 

ient-po, „ ten ho, (See Vocabulary.) 

* Not in use. 

t Some words in 5 do not change the s into a;, thus san-satsu, " three 
volumes," not san-zatsu. 


Nip-pon^ from nitsn hou^ "Japan." 

ak-kd^ „ aku kd^ " bad language." 

am-ma, „ an may ** a shampooer." 

mes-so, „ fjiefsu so, " extravagant.'* 
zas-sHy ,, ^rt/j// shi, 

bet -i Of „ <5r/j// /J, " a groom." 

(Tn practice the hyphen is generally omitted in such words.) 

^ 154. The Japanese numerals, as far as they go, are mostly 
employed wiili Japanese nouns, and ihe Chinese numerals 
with Chinese nouns, But there are numerous exceptions to- 
this rule, for instance : 

il'ioki (but also hito ioki), ' * one hour. " 

/uta'/u/u, ''two married couples." 

mt'ban, " three nights." 

yo-neitf * * four years. " 

After *'ten," beyond which the Japanese numerals no 
longer run, the Chinese numerals are perforce employed* 
with Japanese as well as with Chinese words, thus : 

jfi-ni hako, '* twelve boxfuls." 
hyaku kumi, a hundred sets. 

^ 155. Usage plays various freaks with the numerals. 'J'hus- 
the Chinese numeral shiy "four," which is considered" 
unlucky because homonymous with shi, "death," is in 
many contexts replaced by the equivalent Japanese numeral 
yo, for instance : 

yo-nifiy ** four persons." {shi-nm means " a corpse.")- 

ni-jil-yO'han, "No. 24." 

N. B. Colloquialism sometimes gees a s'op further, corrupting the 
yo into^'^w. Thus people may S2iy yon-ju^ instead of ski-ju, " forty." 

Chinese sJiichi, " seven," is sometimes replaced by Japanese 
nana. Tliis is done for clearness* sake, as shtchi is easil3r 


confounded with shi, '*four." Thus tradesmen will often 
say nana-jiS'Sen, instead oi shichi-jis-sen^ '* seventy cents." 
But this is never either necessary or elegant. 

^ 156. Usnge likewise establishes a shade of difference in the 

sense of certain expressions which would at first sight appear 

to be synonymous, thus : 

htto-hakOy ** one boxful ;" hako KiioisUy ** one box." 
hiiO'isuki, *'one month ;" /b^/'-^f/sw, '* the first month," 

i e., "January ;" ikka-geisu, '* one month." (For ka see \ 

159, middle of p. 109.) 
hiio-han, ** one night;" ichi-ban^ "number one." 
/ula'batiy " two nights ;" niban^ " number two." 

N, B, Both these baii*s are of Chinese origin ; but they are different 
words written with difflTci.t characters. 


^ 157. In English we do not say "one bread," "two beers,"^ 
but "one /c^ of bread," " two glasses of beer," Similarly 
we say " ten s^ee/s of paper," " a hundred head o{ cattle," 
"so many rubbers of whist." Compare also the Pidjin- 
English " piccey," in such expressions as "one piecey 
man," " two piecey house," etc. Words of this kind are, 
in Japanese grammar, termed "auxiliary numerals." 
"Auxiliaries to the numerals" would be more strictly 
correct. The term "classifier" has also been proposed;, 
but " auxiliary numeral " is that which has obtained the 
widest currency. The auxiliary numerals constitute a highly 
important class of woids. For whereas in English such 
expressions as those just mentioned are somewhat ex- 
ceptional, they are the rule in Japanese. 

If 158. In some cases, indeed, the numeral is prefixed directly 
to the noun, e.g., ichi-nichi, "one day;" ichi-ninj "one 


person;" ichuri^ "one league." But usage ordinarily 
demands the insertion of an auxiliary numeral, as : 
iera ik-ken, "temple one eaves," i.e., "one Buddhist 

/uion sam-mai, "quilt three flat-things," i.e., "three- 
onna roku-nin, ** woman six person," i.e., " six women." 
JV, B. One may also say ik-ken no tera^ savt-mai nofuton^ etc. 

\ 159. The choice of the auxiliary numeral appropriate to 
each class of words is fixed by custom, a mistake in this 
matter producing the same absurd effect as does a wrong 
gender in French or German. The Japanese auxiliary 
numerals are, however, easier to remember than the French 
and German genders, since they are generally more or less 
founded on reason, as will be seen by the following list of 
those most in use. As the auxiliary numerals are always 
employed, not independently, but in combination with the 
numerals proper, we give them here preceded in each case 
by ichi^ " one," and «/, " two." The student should care- 
fully notice the phonetic changes caused in many instances 
by the presence of ichi, and should refer to the table of 
changes on pp. 104 — 105. The presence of «/ causes no 
such changes. An auxiliary numeral may therefore always 
be seen in its original shape when following that word. 
The chief auxiliary numerals are : 

{tchi'buy ni, etc.-) bu, *' 2l class ;" for copies of a book. 

{ii'Ckd, ni')chd, " a handle ;" for things with handles, such 
as muskets, jinrikTshas, and many kinds of tools. 

(ichi'daiy ni-^dai, " a stand ;" for carriages and jinrikTshas. 

(ip-puku, ni-^fuku, (various meanings ;) for scrolls, sips of 
tea, whifFs of tobacco, and doses of medicine. 


{ippai, ni')hai, ** a wine-cup ;" for cupfuls and glassfals 
of any liquid ; also for loaded junks or steamers. 

N. B. Ip'pai also means " full." 

{ip-pikt ni')hiki, '*2i fellow;" for most living creatures, 
excepting human beings and birds ; also for certain quan- 
tities of cloth and sums of money. 

(ip-pon, ni')hon, " a stem ;" for cylindrical things, such as 
slicks, trees, fans, pens, bottles, newspapers rolled up to be 
posted, etc. 

{ichi'joy ni')jd, " a mat ;" for mats. 

{ik-ka, ni')ka, sometimes itt?, *' the culm of the bamboo;" 
for a few things that have no other auxiliary numeral 
appropriated lo them, more, however, in the bookish style 
than in genuine Colloquial. 

{ik-ken, ni-)ken, "eaves;" for buildings generally. 

{ichi-mai, m-)mai, ''a shrub;" for flat things, such as 
sheets of paper, coins, plates, coats, shirts, rugs, etc. 

{ickumei m'')mei, "a name;" for human beings. This 
word met is somewhat bookish ; m'n is more genuinely 

{ichi-niny ni')mn, *'• a person ;" for human beings. 

(is-safsu, ni')safsu, *'a volume ;" for volumes of a book. 
Do not confound sa/su wiih 5u, which latter refers to 
complete copies of a work, irrespective of the number of 
volumes contained in it. 

{isshUj m)shu, a head ;" for poems. 

(iS'So, ni')sd, ** a boat ;" for v:ssels of every description. 

{iS'Soku, ni')soku, **afoot;" for pairs of socks, clogs, 
boots, etc. 

{it-id f m-yo, "a head ; for horses and cattle ; but ^iJ^i may 
also be used. 




(ichiwa^ m')wa, * • a feather ;" for birds. This word 
suffers irregular phonetic changes, thus : 

3 sani'ba, 4 shi-wa 5 go-wa 6 rop-pa 

7 shlchi'Zva, 8 hachi-wa 9 ku-wj 10 jip-pa 


Hanshtichi.mai. \ " 0"« sheet of (a certain 

( common kmd of) paper. 

Vta is'shu, ** One (Japanese) poem.*' 

Ko'gatana ni-cho. ** Two pen -knives." 

Fude sam-bon. ' * Three pens. '* 

Waraji is-soku. ' * One pair of straw sandals." 

Tj y ( ** Five volumes." (Hon=:. 

Hongosaisu. } - book.") 

I *^ Six places." 
Gunkan jiS'So. **Ten war-vessels." 

Ushihyap-piku ( ,. ^ hundred head of cattle." 

Ushi hyaku'io, \ 

o , ( ** A thousand sparrows " (ill 

Suzumesemha, {nature). 

Sem-ha suzume. \ /Z ^ ^^^"^^"^ ^P^^^^^^ " <^^ 

( art). 

Ichi-nim-hiki no kuruma, j '*A jinrikisha with one 

One-person-puU's veFUde. jman." 

iV. B, This ^z^/ (the uigort'ed form of ///^/, the " indefinite form " 
-of /tU'u, " to pull ") is of course quite a diflferent word from the auxiliary 
numeral /iUi in ip-piki^ sam-biki^ etc. 

Jchi-iiin-nori no kuriima. ( * * A jinrikisha capable of 

One-person-ride 's vehicle. | holding One persOn only." 

Ni-nin-nori no kuruma. j *'A jinrikisha capable of 

TivO'periion-rlde 'a vehicle. | holding tWO persons." 

Ni-iobiki no basha. j ** A carriage with two 

SFivo-head'ptiU 'a cari'Utffe. | hoises. " 



3fukd san-getij ryo-donari, 
OjiposUe three-eaves, both-next'door. 1 ^Kh'^^**^ '* 

r eiiher side. 

( **Tlie three houses 
-] opposite and the one on 

Kochira wa hachi-jo^ isugi no 

Mere as'for, elffht-mrU ; next of 

ma wa ju-fii-Jo, Sono 

^piiee aS'for, tioelve'nuU. That 

hoka, JU'jo ni, roku-jo ni, 

besides, ten'mat and, slx-nuU and, 

yO'Jo-han mo gozaimasu, 

Jbur-nuit'fuUf ttlso {J here) are. 

'^ This room has eight 
mats, tlie next twelve. 
Besides these, there is 
"one of ten mats, one o 
six, and one of four and 
I half." 

Go go no 

Noon-after of 

deru kara, 

jfo-out because. 

san-ji goro 

three-Jtour tUnnU 

sore made 

that tiU 




ninim-biki no jinriki ichi-dai 
tuHhpersou'p^dl of jlnrlklsha otie-stand 

shiiaku sasele oiie 

pt*€)paration cattslng-to-do placing 

^eowUBcend, ) 

*' I am going out at 
about three o'clock. So 
^please see that a jinriki- 
sha with two men is 
ready for me by then." 

Do guy a de bydbu is -so /o, 

TJtensU-lkOitse at, screen one-pair and, 

kakemono ni-/uku katie 

hanffinff-scroU two-border Juiving-bought 

oita kara, kozukai ivo tori 

placed because, coolie {acciis^ fetch 

ni yoHe kudasai, 

to sending condescend. ' 

*' Please send a coolie 
to fetch a pair of screens 
^and two kakemonos, 
which I have just 
purchased at the curio- 

■^ 1 6 1. It will be noticed that all the examples hitherto given 
- of auxiliary numerals are Chinese.* The auxiliary numerals 

of native Japanese origin are far less numerous. The only 

ones worth mentioning: here are : — 

• Wa (p. no) indeed is Japanese. But we have classed it under the 
Chinese auxiliary numerals, because it is always used in conjunction 
with the Chinese numerals ichi, «/, etc. 


{hUo") hashira, ** a post ;" for Shinto divinities. 
,, kabu, '* a stump ;" for shrubs. 
,, kumi, *' a company ;" for sets of things or persons, 
such as toys consisting of more than one part, tea-sets, nests 
of boxes that fit into each other, pairs of gloves, parties of 
tourists, etc. 

{hUo') ma, ' ' space ;" for rooms. 
,, mune, " the ridge of a roof ;" for houses and any 
groups of buildings included under one roof. 

(hiiO'^ soroe, '' a match ;" for sets of things of like nature, 
such as suits of clothes. 

{JtUo-^ suji, " a line ;" for towels and for rope-like things. 
,, iomai, " a hut thatched with matting f for godovvns. 

The native auxiliary numerals lake the Japanese numerals 
before them up to '* ten " inclusive, thus i/uia-kumiy mi-ma, 
mu'iomai After ''ten" they perforce take the Chinese 
numerals (conf. T[ 154), \h\xs \ ju-ni-kumi, ni-jU'?naf shi-ju' 
hachi-iomai. No euphonic changes take place. 

N, B, Things having no special auxiliary numeral appropriated to 
them are counted by means of the native Japanese numerals hitoisu, 
futaisu^ etc. ; thus tamago kUotsu^ " one egg;" momo to bakariy " about 
ten peaches." Even things provided with a special auxiliary numeral 
sometimes replace the latter by hiiotsu, fulatsuy etc., in slipshod talk. 
Purists, too, sometimes employ lxx>kish auxiliary numerals now scarody 
intelligible to the uneducated, as kagami ichi-men, " one mirror *' (lit 
mirror one surface)y isu ik-kyaku, "one chair" (lit. chair one leg), 
where ordinary speakers would simply say kagami ktiotsu, isu Mtotsu, 

\ 162. In Classical Japanese, human beings are counted by 
means of the native numerals, with the unexplained suflfix 
tari attached. Of these words the Colloquial language has 
retained only the following : 


KUori (for hito-iari), *' one person ;" 
fuiari {iox fuia-iari), ** two persons ;" 
yof/ari{fov yo-Zart), * ' four persons ;" 

which are used concurrently with, but oftener than, their 
Chinese synonyms ichi-nin^ ni-nin 2LndyO'mn,* 

^ 1 6$. Questions respecting number and quantity are asked 
by means of the word t^u, which is, however, not used 
alone, but always in combination, thus : 

tku-ra /^ how much ?, li/, " adoul how much?", ra being 
the particle of vagueness already mentioned on pp. 29 — 30 
as helping to form certain plurals ; 

iku'iahi ? " how often ?" 

iku'isu ? *' how many .?" 

iku-tari^ \ " " («»>d of people); 
iku-mai ? ,, ,, (said of flat things) ; 
iku-hon ? ,, ,, (said of cylindrical things) ; 

and so on with all the auxiliary numerals, no phonetic 
changes taking place in the latter. 

^164. Ihu may be replaced by nani, usually shortened to 
nan in such contexts. Nani^ though itself Japanese, is 
chiefly found before words of Chinese origin, thus : 
nan-ji ? ' ' what o'clock ?" 
nan-nen ? *' how many years ?" 
nan-nin P *' how many persons ?" 
nan-ri P ** how many leagues ?" 
Very often the word ^odo, *' about," is added, thus : 
naft-nen hodo P nan-ri hodo ? 

• See \ 155, p. 106, for the substitution, even before Chinese auxiliary 
numerals, of Japanese jo for Chinese shi, " four." 


'' How much ?" is often rendered by ika-hodo ? dore hodo P 
or dono kurai ? all really meaning '* about how much ?" 

^165. The following are examples of the use of the Japanese 
auxiliary numerals and of the interrogative numeral words : 
Sakazuki hito-kumi. * * One set of s^/^^-cups. " 
Yofuku htiO'Soroe, *' One suit of foreign clothes." 

Kamifuta-hashira, '' Two Shinto deities." 

O iku-iari de 

*'How many are there in 
your party ?" 

HonounMe how-inany-people 



YoUari desu, ' * There are four of us. ' 

Nan-jidesii ? '' What o'clock is it ?" 

IkU'isu gozaimasu P 
Jku'hon „ 

Iku-mai {Qic) ,, 

* * How many are there ?" 
(The choice of one or other of these 
'Japanese equivalents depends on the nature 
of the object referred to; see f 159.) 

Kono iansu wa^ ikura \ 
TMs cabinet as-fw, hmo-mwuA '^How mUCh is this 

desu P I cabinet ?" 

Kesa ake-gata nd\ 

This-fnoming dawn 'a 

kwaji de, naga-ya ga 
eonfiaffroHon by, lang'Jumse (ftom,) 

fuia-mune yakeie, dozo 

two roof-ridgea having-^irnt, godown 

ga KUo-tomai ochiia so 
(nom,) one-h%U fell appearance 


is, J 

N, B. As the auxiliary numeral, so also does the Japanese equivalent 
of our viTord "pair " vary with the object to which it is applied. Tkus 

people say 

iyddu is-sdy ** a pair of screens." 

hanatate it-tsui, " „ „ „ flower-vases." 

kashiicki'Zeftf " „ „ „ chopsticks." 

tori htto-tsugaif " „ „ „ fowls," etc. 

'*They say that two 
naga-ya were burnt down 
and one godown ruined 
by the fire at dawn this 




^ 1 66. What we term ordinal numbers are sometimes marked 
by suffixing the word me ("eye") to the Japanese, or 
hamme {ban=^*' number") to the Chinese cardinal numbers ; 
or else the word dai ('* order ") may be prefixed and nothing 
added, or dat may be prefixed and damme added, to the 
Chinese cardinal numbers. All such forms take the post- 
position no, "of," when preceding a noun, thus ; 

' futsuka-me, '* the se- 
cond day." 

ni-do-me, " the se- 

cond time." 

nan-chb-me ? ' ' what 
ward (of a street) ?" 

ni'Chb-me^ * * the se- 
\cond ward." 

Dai ni-baUy or simply ni-ban alsp dat ni-gb — constantly 
means *' number two;" — similarly in the case of the 
other numbers. 


dat ni-ban, 
dai ni'bamme, 

''the second." 



deion-tihhe f 





'What is the number of 
your room (or cabin) ?" 





{"I am in number 

.") ) of 

lida street" 

Order threetiumber in 

ni'jU'banchi, {chi:= * ' earth. ") \ 

Kado kara san-gen-me. \ "The third housQ from 

Cornier from, third'house, j the COmer." 

JV, B, Gen is the ttigori^td form of J^en, the aaxiliary numeral for 
houses (see p. 109). 

^ 167. Notwithstanding the existence of such forms as the 
above, the Japanese mind has not, properly speaking, a very 


clear idea of the distinction between cardinal numbers and 
ordinal numbers, for which reason the cardinals are ofteu 
used in an ordinal sense, thus : 

Meiji san-juHchi-nm (lit. '* Meiji 31 year"), '* the thirty- 
first year of (the chronological period termed) Meiji," i.e., 
'*A.D. 1898," according to the European reckoning. 
Similarly ni-gwaisu or ni-geisu (lit. ''two month"), i.e., 
''February ;"yi^-2i:^i-«/(;^/ (lit. "eleven day"), i.e., "the 
eleventh day of the month." 

N, B, The context generally shows whether the number should be 

' taken as a cardinal or as an ordinal. Sometimes the cardinal numbers 

are distinguished by the insertion of an auxiliary numeral. Thus " two 

months " would be not ni^geisuy but ni-ka-getsu^ or, in native Japanese 

parlance and without any auxiliary numeral,/«/fl5-/j«^/. 

\ 168. Years are usually counted by what are termed 
"year-names" {j2Lp,.nengd)y i.e., periods of irregular length 
with names arbitrarily chosen. The present period " Meiji " 
began with the overthrow of the Shogunate and the restora- 
tion of the Mikado to absolute power in 1868. Occasionally 
of late, years have been counted from the fictitious era of 
the mythical Emperor Jimmu, who, according to the 
Japanese history books, was the first human monarch of 
this empire, and ascended the throne on the nth February, 
B. C. 660. 

^169. January is called sho-gwaisuy lit. " the chief month ;" 
sometimes also ichi-geisu^ lit. "one month." {Gwaisu is 
the Go-on, geisu the Kan-on pronunciation of the same 
Chinese character ^, " moon ;" see p. 7 for these technical 
terms.) The other months are formed by prefixing the 
Chinese numerals to the word gwaisu or geisu. Thus the 
months run as follows ; 



sko'gTJuaisu, ''January." shichi-gwatsu, *'July/' 

ni'gwaisu, ' * February. " hachUgwaisu^ * * August. " 

san-gimisuy ' ' March. " ku-gwatsu, ' ' September. " 

shi-gwaisu^ ''April." ju-gvoaisu^ "October." 

gO'gwaisu, "May." ju-ichUgwatsu^ "November." 

roku'gwaisu, "June," ju-ni-gwaisUy "December." 

^ 1 70. The counting of the days of the month is a medley of 
native Japanese and imported Chinese parlance. We give 
the former in ordinary Roman, the latter in italic type : 

tchi-nicht, \\\ 
tsuitachi, J m 

le 15/ of the 

; ju-roku-nichiy 

the 16/^ 



, 17/^ 


the 2nd 


, im 


„ $rd 


y l^ih 


„ ^ih 


y 20th 


„ S^h 


y 2\St 


„ 6/A 


, 22nd 


„ 7fh 


,, '2'Zrd 


„ 8//J 


, 2\ih 


M 9ih 


y 2Sih 


„ loih ^ 


y 26th 


„ lUh 


y 2^ih 


„ I2lh 

ni-ju hachi-nichiy 

y 2m 


„ 13^^ 


y 2^ih 


„ 14/^ 


y lOth 


„ islh 


,, Z^st 

misoka, " the last day of the month" 

(whether the 30/* or 315/). 

o-misoka, " the last day of the year." 

N. B. The word misoka is tending to pass out of educated 


f 171. The J 

ibove forms, 

which are really cardinal 

s, serve 

likewise for such expressions as " two days," " 




'* twenty days," etc. But /5«/'/acAj cannot be used in the 
sense of "one day," because it is derived ixoxxa isuki iachi, 
*'the moon rising," i.e., "the first day of the moon." 
*'One day" is therefore always ichi-nichi. Neither can 
misoka be used in the sense of " thirty days " or " thirty-one 
days," notwithstanding the fact that "thirty {tniso) days 
{ka) " is its etymological meaning in Archaic Japanese. 

^ 172. Hours are counted by prefixing the Chinese numerals 
to the Chinese word ji, " time," " hour," thus : 

ichi'ji^ ' ' one o'clock. " 

yo-jiju-gO'/wty "a quarter (/iV. fifteen minutes) 

past four." 

ju-tchi-jt haUy ' ' half-past eleven. " 

ju-^ichUji shi-ju'go-fun^ \ * ' eleven forty-five. " 

ju-ni-jiju-go-fun mae, J " a quarter to twelve. " 

han-ji-kan, ' ' half-an-hour. " {J^an = « intenral.") 

ichi'ji han kan, " an hour and a half." 

^ 173. "Half," as just instanced, is han, or, when used 
substantively, hambun QiX. "half part"). 

N, B, The word hanibttn is used idiomatically in such expressions 
as kazari hambun, "half (i.e. partly), as an ornament," — said, for 
instance, of the charm-bags worn by children ; omoshiro hambun, " half 
in fun," where the ordinary rules of Japanese construction would lead 
one to expect to see hambun placed first instead of second. In all such 
instances the stress lies on the word hambun. 

Other fractional and multiplicative numbers are expressed, 
as in the following examples, by means of the words bu^ 
" part" (a corruption of bun, " part"), and bat, " double :" 

sam-bu no ichi, " one-third." 

sam-bu no ni, " two-thirds." 

shi'bu no ichi, ' ' a quarter. " 



sAt'du no san, ' ' three-quarters. " 

j'u'du no san, '' three tenths." 

bat or ni-bai, "double," *' twice as much." 

sam-haiy '' treble," '* three times as much." 

N, B, Such expressions as ni-bu, lit. " two parts," may mean eitlier 
"two parts out of three" (i.e., "two thirds"), or "two tenths," or 
" two hundredths " (i.e., " two per cent "), etc. 

^ 174. Note also the following miscellaneous locutions : 




( "portions 
I for three.'* 


''thirty per 

' ' twice. " san-do, * ' thrice. " 

f the second ^^^ , _^ f '' the third 

I time." san-do-me, }^.^^„ 

j- portions ror^^^^.^. 

\ two. ' 

("twenty ?^r 

(cent. ' 

m-wari C - twenty-five ^^^.^^^^ .^ \ '' thirty-five 

£0'5u, \ per cent. " ^ ' ( per cent. 

/m^suor) i"twoat^frj^[ (''tl 

m-mat^eic.) ' (a time. ^^^ 'i ' (ati 

''in the third 

three at 

dat ni ni 

( "in the second ^ "in 1 

', ■< place," daisanniy ^ place, 

("secondly." ( "thin 

fuiaisu milsUj 
ju ni hak'ku, 

ten in, eight-nine, 

hitoisu okiy 
one omittiny, 

ichi-nichi oki, (famiL) | 

kakU'jtisUy (elegant.) J 

' ' two or three. " 
"four or five days." 
" fifteen or sixteen persons." 
\ " eight or nine out of ten," hence 


^almost always." 
" every other one, alternate." 

"every other day." 


The Adjective. 


^ 175. The salient points of the primary inflections of adjec- 
tives in the Tokyo Colloquial may be compendiously de- 
scribed as follows : — 

I. Adjectives have a form in i, which is both attributive 
and predicative, that is to say, which may be used either 
prefixed to a noun, or else at the end of a sentence with 
the English verb ''to be'' understood, thus: 

Takai yama, "A high Yama ga iakai, "The moun- 

mountain." tain is high." 

Samui kaze, "A cold Kaze ga samui, "The wind 

wind." is cold." 

N, B, Ga must not be mistaken for the equivalent of the English 
word "is." It is a postposition serving approximately to denote 
the nominative case. (See p. 66.) 

II. Adjectives have a form in o or «, which is used in- 
stead of the form in i when gozaimasu, the polite verb 
for "to be," is expressed. Thus : 

Yama ga iakb gozaimasti, "The mountain is high." 

Kaze ga samu gozaimashb. "The wind is probably 


III. Adjectives have a form in hu, which is used when 
a verb other than gozaimasu follows; and which often, 
though not always, corresponds to an English adverb in 
^My ;" thus : 


Fama ga iakaku miemasu. f " The mountain looks 

MownUidn {nom,) high looks. | hlgl). " 

HayaAu hie kudasai. \ - Please come quickly. " 

Quickly coming condescend, ) 

^ 176. But in order to attain to a full and satisfactory 
intelligence even of these Colloquial forms, it is necessary 
to dig deeper, and to see how matters stand in the Classical 
language, from which the Colloquial forms are still in the 
act of being evolved. Observe at the outset that the 
inflections of Japanese adjectives have no reference whatever 
to such European grammatical categories as number, 
gender, or the degrees of comparison. Their object is 
partly to distinguish the attributive from the predicative 
relation, partly to distinguish the end of a mere clause from 
the end of a complete sentence. 

^ 177. The Classical termination of adjectives when used 
attributively is ku Their termination when used predica- 
lively at the end of a sentence is shi. Hence this latter is 
technically called the ''conclusive form," thus : 



Takaki yama, 




Fama iakashi^ '* 
tain is high." 



Samuki kaz3, 




l^aze samushi^ ' 
is cold." 



\ 178. It is from these two Classical forms in ^/ and shi that 
the single Colloquial form in i has originated, by the drop- 
ping of the distinctive consonants k and sh. 

In set speeches and in the conversation of pedantic speak- 
ers, the '* attributive form " in hi may still not infrequently 
be heard. It is employed exclusively in the case of the 
words goioki, "like," ''similar," and beki, a sort of verbal 



adjective corresponding to our termination '* . . . .ble," or 
to our auxiliary verbs "ought" or "should," thus^ : 
shinzu-beki, "credible," "ought to be believed;" osoru- 
heki, "terrible." (Conf. ^f 192.) 

N, B, The corresponding conclasive form beshi is no longer em- 
ployed by educated speakers ; but the bei perpetually heard at the end 
of sentences from the h*ps of the lowest classes in Eastern and Northern 
Japan, and signifying "shall," "will," "must," is a corruption of it. 
For instance, So dam-bei^ " That is probably so," " No doubt you are 
right,*' represents an older So de arii-beshi, and is equivalent to the 
standard Colloquial So de gozainiashd. 

' 179. The "conclusive form" in ski is still used in the 
words nasAz, "non-existent," "is not," znd yosh', "good," 
concurrently with the commoner forms nat3.ndyoz] thus : 

NanP mo^ nashi!^ (elegant) 
Nanni mo nau (familiar) 


UKi samushi. 
as-for, {it is) cold. 

"Everything^'* (is) non- 
• existent^" i.e., "There is 
, nothing." 

Yoshi, yoshil "All right!' 

It is also still to be heard in such emphatic locutions as 

' "It^scold,"^/-, ''\iwas 
cold," or, '* It is cold with 
a vengeance." 
Kurasa wa kurashL ''It is dark," etc. 

^ 180. The third Classical termination of adjectives is ku. 
It corresponds to the indefinite form of verbs (conf. T[ 278 
and \ 425), and its original function is that of predicate 
at the end of every clause of a sentence excepting the last, 
which alone takes the conclasive termination shu Thus : 

^ '*The mountains (of a 

certain country) are high, 

Yama iakainit hiko samuha, J the climate is cold, and 

jinka sukunashi. the human dwellings there 

^ are fewi" 



This construction is now rarely heard except in set speech- 
es, genuine Colloquial usage preferring either to end each 
clause by the form in /' (sometimes followed by the exple- 
tive shi^ as in the last example but two on p. 127), or, 
oftener still, to turn the sentence some other way, thus : 

Taiyb wa bkii, 
Sun as- for, biff, 

iama de, sono 

baU being, Us 

yusei io 

pUmets that 

ga mawaite 
{nom^ eirciinff 

OM chiisai 

Big smaU 

Shina mo 
Article also 

nedan mo 

price aiso 

aisui, akarui 

hot, ligJa 

gururi ivo 

around {acais.) 

iu sekai 

{they) say irorlds 

'*The sun 
great, hot, 
ball, around 
circle other 
called planets/' 

IS a 


I "An argument about 
j the size (of a thing)." 

no arasot. 

's dispute. 

yoroshikerebaj \ 
wliereas-is-good,] "The article is 

yasuL [good and cheap one." 

{is) cheap. ) 

N. B. For the conditional (as yoroshikereba above) thus used, see ^f 
300. The following example shows it and the ku form in harness 
together : 

Chushaku mo itaherdba, 

Com/mentary also as-there-iS'^iot, 
jibiki mo nahUf kyoshi 

dictionary also not-beinff, teacher 
mo ftai to iu yd na 
also is-not that say manner being 
wake de, jitsu ni go-r 
reason by, tndy flve-miles 

muchu de arimashtta. 
fog-inside was. 

" Truly great ^ 
— i-...'x-^g^ being, 

were my 
perplexities, being, as I was, 
^without a commentary, with- 
out a dictionary, and without 
a teacher. 


•[[181. What the Colloquial has retained in full vigour is a 
secondary use of the form in ku, prefixed to verbs ; and it 
has become rather usual, having regard to this use alone, to 
call the form in question the '* adverbial form," because 
the European equivalents of Japanese adjectives in ku are 
often, though not invariably, adverbs, thus : 


Omoshirohu kikoemasu. "It sounds amusing. 

Osoku kaerimashtia, *' I came home late.*' 

Yoku dekiia, '* It is well done." 

Okiku narimashiia koto/ "How big he has become I " 

yV. B, For koto thas used, see top of p. 39. 

Naru-iake hayaku \ 

Aa....a» po8sme quickly, honourabUe I ' * Please COme as 

ide nasai. [quickly as possible." 

exU deign, ) 

JV, B. Just as vulgar speakers often omit the termination " ly " of 
English adverbs, so also, in familiar Japanese style, and not from the 
uneducated alone, do we hear such expressions as osoroskii wartd, 
" dreadful(ly) bad," where osoroshtku warui would better accord with 
the old traditions of the language. 

^ 182. The verb "io be" is no exception to the rule where- 
by all verbs must be preceded by the adverbial or indefinite 
form in ku. It is therefore correct to say, for instance : 
Ano yama ga takaku gozaimasu. "That mountain is high." 
Kaze ga samuku gozaimasho, * ' The wind will probably 

be cold." 
But Colloquial usage prefers to drop the k of the termi- 
nation in such contexts. Moreover, after the k has been 
dropped, a crasis of the remaining vowels of the termination 
ensues. By this series of changes, 
(Stems in a) takaku passes through lakau to iakd. 
( >» ft i) yoroshiku ,, ,, yoroshiu ,y yoroshiu, 
( ,, ,, (?) shiroku ,, ,, shirou ,, shinh 

( ,, y, u) samuku ,, ,, samuu ,, samu. 

N, B, The genuine modem Colloquial possesses no stems ending in 
e. In earlier times, however, and in the semi-Colloquial of certain 
books we find such series as 

shigeku, shigeu, shigyb, 

bekuj heu, hyb. 


Hence it is usual to say : 

Ano yama ga iakb gozatmasu ; 
Kaze ga samu gozaimasho ; etc. 

N, B, The Kyoto dialect goes a step further even than that of 
Tokyo, and prefers to make use of these abbreviated forms before all 
verbs whatsoever. The same usage is found in the more or less arti- 
ficial Colloquial aUuded to just above, as sometimes making its way 
into print. — Foreigners are apt to say Ano yama ga iakai de gozaimasu^ 
etc. The use of such expressions, though not absolutely forbidden, 
should be avoided. If addressing an inferior, say Ano yama ga iakai . 
If addressing an equal or superior, say Ano yania ga takd gozaimasu, 

^ 183. It will be noticed that all the inflections of adjectives 
are added to a stem which terminates in one of the vowels. 
This stem is occasionally employed as an independent 
word. Thus Aka, Kuro, Shiro, ''Brownie," ''Blackie," 
and *'Whitie," serve as names for dogs. The phrase 
naga no toshi isuki means "long months and years" (lit. 
"years and months"). But by far the commonest use of 
the stem is to form compound words, thus : 

aka-ganCj "copper;" from akai, "red," and kane, 

hoso-nagai, "slender;" from hosoi, "narrow," and 
nagai, "long." 

kurushi-magire, " wildness caused by pain;" from ku^ 
rushii, " painful," and magireru, " to be confused." 

shiro-kane, "silver;" from shiroi, "white," and kane^ 

yasu-domari, "a cheap lodging; from yasui, "cheap," 
SiTid /omarUf "to stay." 

yO'SUgi'ru, "to be too good;" from yot) "good," and 
sugi/'u, "to exceed." 



N, B, There is a slight difference of signification, or at least of 
intention, between such expressions as iakaiyama, " a high mountain," 
and iaka-yama, " a high-mountain," similar to that which we fed in 
English between " high land " and '* the Highlands," or « a black 
bird" and "a blackbird." The compound form is more idiomatic, 
it tends to assume a specific meaning irrespective of the original 
signification of its constituent parts (e. %* futa-go^ "twins," from 
/«/«, " two," and ko, " child "), and it is that preferred in proper 
names. Thus there are several places called Takayama^ but none 
called Takai yama. 

•jf 184. From the foregoing remarks, we may proceed to 
construct a table of the primary inflections of adjectives, 
as used in ordinary conversation. We take as specimens 
the adjectives iakaij *'high;" yoroshti, "good;" shiroi, 
''white; and samuiy **cold;" i.e., one for each of the 
four vowels «, z', o^ u, with which Japanese adjective stems 
almost invariably terminate : 


**Good." "White/' 


Stem taM 

yoroshi shiro 


Attribut. \ ... 
Conclus. 1 "''^' 

yoroshii shiroi 



yoroshiku shiroku 


Predic. with ) 

verb "tobe"W^>t^ 

yoroshiu shiro 


expressed ) 

N. B, Onajif "same," is irregular, as its attributive (conclusive) 
form coincides in Colloquial with the stem. The adverbial form onajiku 
is still often heard ; but with the verb " to be," more speakers say 
onaji de than onajiu, 

^ 185, The following are a few examples of the use of the 
primary inflections of adjectives : 


hayo gozaimasu. *'Good morning." 

TIonrntriMy eart/y {it) U. 

Yol tenki de\ 

Good honourable tveather ( . 

£Ozaimasu, \ '' It is fine weather. " 

W i*. ) 

Zbsa ga nai. \ *' There is no difficulty." 
J>iffietdty (fiotn.) ia-nou ) {Gozaimasftt would be more polite than nai,) 

Yakamashiif shabeicha \ 

{Vou) are-naisy ! as-for-ehaUering, I "Don't chatter and 

dkenai. fmake such a row ! " 

it-ia-no-go, ) 

Yoku wakarimasen. i ''I don't quite un- 

TTeW understand-not. J derstand, " 

Warui no da, ( " It is a bad one." 

Bad one is. \ (For no, see ^ 112.) 

Tsut ni naku narimashila, { " He is dead at last." 

Finally non-existent haa-become, \ 

BJU (accus.) «»'<*'«' ^l"*'] bill quickly." 

Ano wakai kirei na htlo, r "That handsome 
That young pretty person, (young fellow." 

Shina mo yoi shi, nedan moyasui, \ " It is both good 

AartiOe vUbo {it) good, price al9o{is)eheap, J and cheap. " 

Takai to yasui to Tjua, 
Dear and cheap and aa-for, 

tamochi-kaia ga chigau, 
durtOdlUy (nom,) differs, 

Ai-niku no ame, ( "A rainy day coming just 
Meet-odtoua of rain, (when it is not wanted." 

N, B. Observe the stem-form niku with no suffixed, here used ex- 
ceptionally for the attributive form nikui. The nick-name Arigaia 
no KicMbei, in one of the stories in the Practical Part (f 451), is a 
similar case. 

**The cheap ones 
do not wear so well as 
the dear ones. 




^ 1 86, Besides the primary inflections of adjectives, as set 
forth above, there is a series of secondary inflections which 

I I 



o g 

'^ rO .2 ^ ^ W) 

c Sft -ti ±1 3 c 

b£) P^ 

'?^ 5 ^ 

k. 'Sk <Sk "^ 


'3 k 

>§ »^ »B 

2^ 2^ i 

^ 5S ^ 

^ 5s ^ 5\ ^ 




2 8 

O M 

.5 s 

I I 



are employed to indicate tense and mood. Most of these 
secondary inflections are obtained by agglutinating parts ot 
the verb aru, *'tobe," to the adverbial or indefinite form 
in hi, euphony producing certain slight changes, as will be 
seen by comparing the table on the opposite page with the 
paradigm of the first conjugation, to which aru belongs. 
The use of the various moods and tenses will be found 
explained in •f 273 e/ seq. We have omitted from the table 
such imperative forms as yoroshthare, ''be good I " and 
Tvarukare, ''be bad!" because they rarely if ever occur in 
practice, save in a few such idiomatic phrases as osokare 
hayakare, ''sooner or later." 
^ 1 88. One of the most useful adjectives is what is called 
"the negative adjective nai" Its proper meaning is 
"non-existent;" but it commonly replaces the negative 
conjugation of the verb aru, "to be," and also sometimes 
corresponds to our preposition "without." Its inflections 
are as follows : 

Attributive nai. 

Conclusive nai, rarely nashi. 

^Adverbial naku, 

N. B. The contracted form no is not in common use. 

/Certain Present \' fis not or will not 

or Future J - 1 be. 

Improbable Pre- ^^ | probably is not or 

sent or Future J ' I will not be. 

Certain Past nakaiia, was not. 

Improbable Past nakaiiarb, probably was not. 
And so on, through all the forms given in the paradigm 
of adjectives on p. 128. 

\ 189. Nai, added to the adverbial form of adjectives, serves 
to form their negative conjugation, thus : 



Certain Past 

{is or will not be 

( probably is not or 
\ will not be good. 

>• was not good. 

(probably was not 

Certain Present ox\yoroshiku 

Future j nai, 

Improbable '?it%^ii\.\yoroshiku 

or Future j nakarb, 

\ nahaila^ 

Improbable Past {^"TS... T good: 
And so on through the other moods and tenses. 
iV. B. In polite parlance, this negative eonjagation in nai is 
mostly replaced by one with the verb gomifnasen^ ** not to l)e," 
thus : 

Certain Present or) yoresAiu gozai- (is or will not be 
Future J mascn, \ good. 

Improbable VxesenXiyoroshiU gozai- f probably is not or 
or Future ( masumai, \ will not be good. 

And so on through the other moods and tenses. 

i\^Mtselfis not susceptible of the negative conjugation. 
There is no such expression as naku nai, *• not non-existent." 

N, B. Positive adjectives happ-ening to end in nai, as, for example, 
kitanaiy "dirty," must not be confounded with adjectives in the 
negative form. The negative of kiiartai is kitanaku nai, following the 
paradigm given in the above table. Similarly with abwmi, *' dangerous;" 
siikunai, " scarce," etc. 



I ought to have 

Kd sum to yokaiia ga. . . . 
T/iua do if, waa-good €ilthough.. 

Aa / kowakaita t 
Ah I waa-afradd. 

Are ga yokaro 

"nywu {nom,) 'iciU-probaJUy-be-aood' 

lo omoimasu. 

that (/) think. 

done it in this way. " 
(Conf. 1[ 287.) 

( **0h ! what a fright 
il have had!" 

''I think that that 
one will probably do. " 


Saku'han, inu ga hoete, i ''I couldn't sleep last 

liOgt^ight, dogs {nom,) barMng A Vi\gh{, on aCCOlint of 

sowshikuie neraremasen deshiia. | the noise the dogs made 

heing-noiay, crndd-not-aleep W **'«*• (bai'kinff." 

Kono hen wa, hai 

This neighbourhood fMS-for, fliea 

ga bJmte urusb gozaimasu, 
{ttom.)b€inff-tnany, tiresome is. 

Go isugo ga 

Aufftist convenience (ftom.) honountbUy 

zvarukereda, o yoshi 

if-is-beid, honourably cease 



Kono goro no ienkt wa, \ 

This period 'a toeather as-for, 

yokaitari warukattari 

beinff'Sometimes-oood being-sometimes-bad 

sKUCy aie ni narimasen. 

doing, reliance to beeomes-not. 

Tonio mo muzukashiku nai. \ ' 

JHfle even ' difficult is-not. j difficult. 

Muzukashiku nakereha, yaiie 

IHfficult if-is-not, sending 

mt'mashd. (Conf. ^ 296.) 

Nakucha naranai mono. 
As-for-non-being, beeomes-not thing. 

*' It is quite tiresome, 
the number of flies in 
this neighbourhood." 

*' Please don't do it, 
if it is inconvenient to 

The weather is 
so changeable just 
now, that one can't 
rely upon it." 

' It is not in the least 

" If it is not difficult, 
.1 will try my hand at 

) *' A thing one cannot 
J do without." 

7enka ni nat bijin. 

Empire in, non'existerU. belle. 

' "The greatest beauty 
in the land." 

{More at. "A belle with 
whom there is none to 
compare beneath [ka\ the 
Vsky [/<?»].") 


T[ 191. Compound adjectives are numerous, and offer no 
difficulty. They sometimes consist of two adjectives, more 
frequently of a noun or verb followed by an adjective, thus : 


usu-akaiy "light red,'* '*pink;" from usuiy ''thin," 

*' light-coloured," and akai, ** red." 
usu-guraiy "dusk," "almost dark;" from usui, "light- 
coloured," and kurai, " dark." 
kokoro-yasuiy "intimate;" from kokoro, "heart," and 

yasuiy "easy." 
yondokoro'tiai, "unavoidable;" irom yorUj "to rely," 

iokoro, " place," and nai, the negative adjective. 
kiki-gurushtt, "ugly (to hear);" from kiku, "to hear," 

and kurushh, "painful." 
mt'gurushh, " ugly (to look at);" from miru, "to see," 

an d kurushit, ' ' pai n fu 1. " 
ijoakart-nikuiy " difficult (to understand) ;" from wakaru, 

"to understand," and nikuiy "odious." 
wakari-yasm, "easy (to understand) ;" rom wakaru, "to 

understand,", an d^a5«/, " easy." 

\ 192. There are various classes of derivative adjectives. 01 
these the chief are : — 

I. Those in beh, corresponding to our phrases with 
"must" or "should," or to our adjectives in '* .. ,.ble," 
and already noticed on pp. 12 1-2 as being now used only in 
attributive constructions. It is to verbs that beki is suffixed, 
— in the first conjugati'on to the present tense, as aru-beki, 
"should be," ''necessary;" in the second and third con- 
jugations to the indefinite form, as iabe-beki, " eatable :" dekt- 
beki, "possible ;" not iaberu-beki, dekiru-beki. In the Written 
Language, beki is suffixed to what is termed the "conclu- 
sive form" of the present tense of the second and third 
conjugations, i.e., a short form ending in « without a fol- 
lowing rw, thus: iabu'bekiy (i)deku'beki ; and this use may 
still sometimes be heard in the Colloquial. A like rule 


obtains in the case of the irregular verbs kuru and suru^ 
which always make ku-beki and su-bekt. The verb mini is 
peculiar, making either miru-beki or mi-beku 

Su'beki kolo, *' A thing to be done." 

I>o-mu8l thing. 

SkinzU'beki kolo. •* A credible thing." 

Believe-niu8t tfiing. 

Kono hen ni rniruA ..^^^ ^^,g^^ „^ ,^^^3 

A*^,?*"**"^ ' TJ^vorth going to see in 

t ,.t \ '^^ Sozatmasen kaM^^^^^ neighbourhood?" 

afuMuld plaees {nofft.) are-^tyot ? J ° 

Omae no kamau-be/d kolo\ 

You of vneddle'Should thing I ''It is none of yOUr 
de «a2. ' (familiar.) [business." 

is^nat. J 

Kore wa muko ye yaruA ..^his is a thing 
/..t'^ '"t"'- "■""'^ '" **"* [which must be sent 

mual thing ia. ) 

N. B, Observe how our English passive idioms are replaced by 
active idioms in Japanese, following a general tendency of the language 
commented on in ^1[ 8i — 82, ^ 427, and ^ 439. 

Tf 193. II. The so-called " desiderative adjectives" in tat, as 
tabelaiy ''desirous of eating," '* hungry;" ikiiai, "desirous 
of going." These will be treated of when we come to 
speak of the verb, ^ 242 and ^ 285. 

T[ 194. III. A noticeable class of derivative adjectives is form- 
ed by agglutinating to nouns the termination rashu, which 
corresponds ta the English terminations "ish" and '*ly,'' 
and occasionally to some such phrase as "said to be," or " I 
think," thus: 

baka-rashii, *' foolish ; " from bakay *' a fool." 

kodomO'tashiiy " childish ;" from ^(?^(y/?/£?, ** children." 


oioko-rashit, | (,'^^^^^^,^^1!^ 1 from j'dzu, * ' skilful. " 

konnichi-rashii, ] 5^]^^^^^."' \ixom konnichi, '* to-day. 

A much smaller class is obtained by reduplicating an 
adjective stem and agglutinating the suffix shii, thus : ara- 
arashii, *'rude and rough;" id-ddshii^ "lengthy;" uio- 
uioshii, *'cold" (metaph.), "estranged." 

^ 195. It may be well to notice, in connection with these 
classes of derivative adjectives, two classes of verbs derived 
from adjectives. One of these is obtained by suffixing to 
the stem the suffix garu, a contraction of ^^ aruy — ge or ke 
(ft) being an old word signifying "spirit," "air." When 
added to the desiderative adjective in iai^ the resulting 
compound suffix is iagaru : — 

kowagaru, "to think fearful;" i.e., "to be frightened," 

from kowatf " fearful." 
mezurashigaruy "to think strange;" from niezurashh, 


ikilagaru, "to want to go;" from ikiiai^ "wanting to 

go," — itself the desiderative adjective oliku^ "to go." 

A. B, Observe that gam occasionally serves to verbalise noons, 
thus : zanttengarUy " to regret,*' from zannen, " regret;" iyag'aru, " to 
dislike," from /y«, "nay!" "repugnance." Also that the termination 
/rt:^rtr« often means "to be apt to " rather than "to want to " 

Of the second class of adjective-verbs the following 
specimens will give an idea : 

/iiromeru, " toj spread " (trans); hiromaru, "to spread" 

(intrans.), from ^//w', "wide." 
marovierti, " to make round," from marui, " round." 

A'. B, Both these classes of verbs are, like verbs in general, suscep- 
tible of the passive and causative forms (conf. Chap. TX), thus 


MeztirashigararerUy " to be thought strange," " to be lionised." 

Urayatnashigarareru^ " to be regarded with envy," from urayama- 
shigarti, "to regard with envy," itself derived from urayamashii, 

UreshigaraserUy *• to cause to feel joyfnl," i.e., "to make happy;" 
from ttreshigaru^ "to feel joyful," itself derived from tireshii^ " joyful." 

Hiromesaseru^ " to cause to spread." 


^ 196. There are large numbers of words in common use, 
such as nama, ^* X2i\w )" shizuka, ^ ^ (\w\Qiy' yasela, *'thin;" 
koraerarenai, *' unendurable," which at first sight appear to 
be adjectives, and which must be translated into English by 
adjectives, but which are not true adjectives in Japanese, 
either as regards origin or grammatical treatment. Some of 
them are nouns, some are verbs, some are phrases formed 
from various parts of speech. They may be best understood 
by being classed under the following five headings : — 
^197. I. Nouns followed by no; as Amerika no, "of 
America," i.e., " American." Such are : 
gwaikoku, "foreign countries:" gwaikoku no, ** foreign." 
kin, *'gold;" kin no, ''golden." 

konaida, *' a short while ago;" konaida no, *' recent." 
II. Nouns followed by w^:,* a corruption of the Classical 

* It has been stated in ^112 (p. 78) that the postposition no often 
assumes the signification of the English word "one" or " ones," used 
substantively. Thus from the adjective ttagai^ " long," one can form 
the phrase nagai no, "a long one," and similarly from such quasi- 
adjectives as shojiki and kirei one can form the phrases shdjiki na no, 
*'an honest one;" kirei na no, "a pretty one," etc. This idiom 
must not be confounded with another nearly alike in sound containing 
the word nan, which it is difficult to explain in English except 
by the help of examples, and whose origin is obscure. The following 
sentences containing it may be taken as representative of i|;s use : 


verb naru, ** to be" (not to be confounded with naru, 

"to become"); as sho/tki na, lit. "honesty being," i.e. 
** honest." Such are ; 

menddy "a bother;" mendo na, "bothersome." 

mudaj " uselessness ;" mudana, "useless." 

rambo, "disorderly ranibo na^ "disorderly." 

shizuka, " quiet " (subst.); shizuka na, " quiet" (adj ). 

N, B. No mostly follows concrete nouns, va abstract nouns. 
Indeed the same noun will take no or fia^ according as it is viewed 
from the concrete or the abstract point of view. For instance, baka 
tio hanashi means " a fool's story," •' the sort of story a fool would 
tell," whereas baka na hanashi means " a foolish story " Very fine- 

Kor^ de,h-oka?-Aa! sore nan d»u.\. 'l}^ *'^ "--Ah! Jes; that 

(IS It 

Ano otoko way dofno akip- 
pd. — So sa ! Meturashii koto 
ga suki nan da kara. 

hikkomu fto ga atarimae da to 
taiiei wa omotte imasu ga^—jitsu^ 
way asa taiyo ga deru no de wa" 
nakutey taiyo no deru no ga asa 
nan desu» 

" He is a very fickle fellow. — Yes in- 
deed, because he is always hankering 
after something new and striking." 

rr> ' - J . -z / ** Most people suppose it to be the 

Tmyo wa asa deU, »*«*«» (^tural oJSr of ^s for the sun 

to rise in the morning and to retire 
in the evening. But the truth is 
not that the sun rises in the mor- 
ning, but that the sun's rising is the 

Of the various authorities, both Japanese and foreign, whom the 
present writer has consulted on the subject of this idiom, some pro- 
nounce it to be " relative," others " relative!, elliptical, and reflective(!)." 
Some say that it is a corruption of naruy ** to be." Others would trace 
it back to the word nani ? " what?" used as a kind of expletive indicat- 
ing vagueness, like •* thingummy " or " what-d'ye-call-'em " in vulgar 
English. Others again assert that the phrase means nothing at all. We 
ourselves incline to see in it a survival of the Classical particle nauy 
(Archaic na mo)y wliich served to emphasise the word to which it was 
suffixed. Observe, however, tliat whereas Classical nan may occur 
before any verb, this Colloquial nan survives only before the verb ** to 
be," as in all three examples given above. 


drawn distinctions are sometimes produced in this way. Thus f/tarui 
kao no hlio means " a man with a round face," the concrete idea of 
** face " being here prominent. But tnaru-gao tm hiio means " a round- 
faced man," the abstract quality of round-facedness being uppermost 
in the speaker's mind. This particular phrase might be turned in yet 
a third way, viz., kao no marni hiio, " a man round of face." Such 
idioms as this last are dealt with in \ 202. In some few cases no and 
na may be used almost indiscriminately. Thus we may say mugaku 
no Juto or mugaku na- htto equally well. But na is more common. 

^ 198. To the class formed by means of na belongs a 
numerous body of words obtained by adding so, •* appear- 
ance," to the stem uf adjectives proper or to the indefinite 
form of verbs, thus : 

omoshiroi, ** amusing;" onioshirosu na, 'Mikely to be 

amusing." ** amusing-looking." 

Yifnai, *' nice to cat ;*' umaso na, ** appetising." 

^uru, " to rain ;" furisb na, " likely to rain." 

kikoeru, '* to be audible ;" M'(?^56» «a, *' audible, one 

would suppose." 

The ioxx£i% yosasb na, " apparently good," and nasaso. na, 

*' not likely to exist," are derived irregularly from the 

adjectives ^(?/, **good," and «^/, '* non-existent," by the 

insertion of an epenthetic syllable sr?. Compounds of nai, 

such as isuniaranai, ** worth nothing," "trifling," may 

either follow nai'm this its irregularity, or else be made to 

conform to the rule affecting adjectives in general, thus : 

isumaranasasb na or isumaranaso na, * 'looking worth 

nothing," *' trifling-looking." 

^ 199. Sometimes words of the above two classes may be 
compounded with the following noun, instead of being 
divided from it by no or na, for instance : 

kara na (or no) hako, or karaha-ko, ' * an empty box. " 
kin no tokei, ,, kindokei, '* a gold(en) watch." 


Sometimes, again, a word may be treated indifferently 
either as a true adjective or as a quasi-adjective of class II, 
for instance : 

chiisai, o\ chusana^ ** small." 

okit^ ,, oHna, "big." 

yctwarakaty ^, yawaraka na^ ''soft." 

T[ 200. The forms of classes I and II given above are the 
attributive forms. When the quasi-adjectives of classes I 
and II are used predicatively at the end of a clause (conf. 
\ iSo), no OT na is replaced by de, "being," which thus 
corresponds to the termination ku of adjectives proper. 
When ihey are used predicatively at the end of a sentence 
(conf. ^ 177), no or na is replaced by any tense of the verb 
"to be," such as da (familiar), desu (polite), de gozaimasu 
(very polite). The word de in such contexts has been 
treated of at some length in ^ 88, pp. 62 — 64, which the 
student should carefully read over. 

^ 201. The following examples will show the use of these 
various forms of the quasi-adjectives of classes I and II : — 

fgirisu m o kaia.\ ..An English gentleman." 

England 'a honourable side, f 

Gin no ga hoskiu gozaimasu. \ „ j ^^^^ ^ silver one." 

SUver one of desirous am. ^ 

S^Si^}^-"^^^'- "A funny story." 

Kekko na o shina \ 

Splendid honourable artiael *' It is a Splendid thing." 

de gozaimasu. f (-Sn/V/ /« thanking one for a gift.) 

(t/) is, ) 

Ftishigi na yume wo ^ 
strange dream {accus.) 


" I had a strange dream." 


Fushwi da. (familiar) j 

.„ desu. (poUte) ) "I^'^^l'-ge." 

RtM na inu desu. | ,. ^ j^ ^„ intelligent dog." 

Clever dog is. f s b 

Kono inn wa, riko desuA - This dog is intelligent. " 

TMa don aa-for, cUwer is. f ^ ^ 

Ano hiio WQy shdjiki\ 

That person as-for, fionestl "He is honCSt, and he 

tie, yoku haiarakimasu, j works hard." 

heing, loeK works. ' 

Amari somalsu de, shttsureil ''^J >« ^^^^^ rude of me 

Too coarse being, rude JtO offer yoU SO trifling a 

desu. 1 present" 

(itHs. I {Said in depreciating a gift made 

\by oneself.) 

Are hodo yonda no m, \ ..Qne would think he 
Thai amm€nt caUed t€^/*«'c«w, I would hear, after being 
kikoeso na mon{o) da, [called so often." 

Hkettf-to-be-trndiiffle thing is. ' 

Yosasb na hilo deshtia. { "He seemed a good 

ApparevMiMfood pe son was, tfellow." 

^ 202. III. Phrases composed of nouns (including indefinite 
verbal forms used as nouns) followed by no, " of," and an 
adjective proper, ^ genki^ no'yoz', lit. good* of* spirits', i.e. 
' ' spirited," * ' lively. " Such are : 

me^ no* chikai^, " neat* of eye'," i.e., ** near-sighted." 
mtmi no ibi, ' ' far of ear, " , , ' ' hard of hearing. " 

wakari no hayai, "quick of understanding," i.e., "sharp- 

\ 203. Great numbers of quasi-adjectives belonging to this 
Class HI are formed by means of the words ^(?/, "good" 
(often corrupted by the Tokyo people to it), warui, ** bad," 
and nai, the negative adjective. Such are : 


benri no yoi, * 'good of convenience, " i. e. , ' 'convenient. 
benrinowaruiy "bad of convenience, ,, "inconvenient. 
sKi-kaia no naij "no way to do," ,, "unavoidable." 

Such quasi-adjeclives in «^/ as that last instanced corres- 
pond to English adjectives with the prefix "un" or "in," 
or with the suffix "less," as tsumi no nai, "innocent;" 
kagiri no nai, "unbounded." 

T[ 204. The above examples are all attributive in form. When 
the quasi- adjectives of class III are used predicatively, 
the postposition no changes to ga ; thus : 

Minii ga tbi. " He is hard of hearing." 

SKi-kaia ga fiai. " There is no help for it." 

Ano ko way wakari ga hayai " That child is sharp." 

These examples arc in the style used between inti- 
mates. It is always more polite to add the word gozai- 
masUy except when addressing an inferior. Of course with 
gozaimasu the i form of the adjective is exchanged for that 
with the long final vowel (see pp. 120 and 124). Thus the 
preceding examples would, in more polite parlance, become ; 

Mimi ga id gozaimasu, 

Shi'kaia ga gozaimasen {no gozaimasu is not used). 

Ano ko wa, wakari ga hayo gozaimasu, 

^ 205. IV. Various tenses of verbs ; also phrases formed from 
such varbs, as : 

mierUy "to appear;" hence "visible." 

fuioiia, ' ' has become fat ;" , , " fat. " 

, , . . f " forthcomes not ; " ) ,, . .. , „ 

Mtnai, j.^cannnot;" [ - " impossible. 

yomeru, "reads;" (intrans.) ,, "legible." 

shireia^ " was know able ; " ,, "self-evident." 



nakereba} na 

ranai', ( 'n<»''°' '^'""'"1 hence « indispensable. 
iame^ ni* na- *' becomes Mo* sake\*" ,, ''beneficial." 

ki ni iranaiy 

'* enters' to' spirit^ ;" 
''enters-not to spirit ;" 

h'^ no* kiiid^y " was -efficacious* of* 

spirit^ ; " 
isumi^ no^aru^y '* is* of guilt' ; " 
enry(?^ suru^^ *' does* diffidence' ,*" 
iai^ sma\ *' did* great' ; " 
choiio'^ shiia* ' ' did* slightly'; " 

gaiet^ no^ /"goes-not^ of* com-l 
ikat^ ^ orehension': " i 

** distasteful." 

" diffident." 
" important." 
" incomprehen- 

prehension'; " 

^206. The above are the attributive orms. Most of them 
serve also to express the predicative relation at the end of 
a sentence. Observe, however, that no must then be re- 
placed by ga^ and the simple past tense in ia by the com- 
pound present tense in ... ./^ iru (^ 294), thus : 

Ano ojiisan wa^ ' 

That old-genUeman aa-for, 

fuioiie iru. 

fat ia, 

Ano jochu wa^ ki \ 

That maid aa-for, aptrii 

ga kiiie iru. 
{nom.) beinff-efflcaciotts is. 

"That old gentleman is 


" That maid-servant 

Of course the simple verb may in all cases be replaced by 
the polite inflection in masu. It is almost always so re- 
placed in predicative constructions, except when an inferior 
is addressed. Thus the above examples would become, in 
ordinary polite parlance : 

Ano ojiisan wa^ fuioiie imasu (or orimasu). 

Ano jochu zua, ki ga kiUe imasH (or orimasu). 


N. B. Quasi-adjectives of Class iv ending in shliay as iai skita^ 
choito sJniay are never used predicatively. 

\ 207. When employed predicatively at the end, not of a 
sentence but of a clause, most of the words of this Class IV 
turn into gerunds, thus : miele./ultole, dekinaJniie, etc. But 
sometimes a periphrasis with de is used instead, as : ki nt 
iranai de, 

\ 208. Foreigners speaking a little Japanese constantly say 
yoroshii no cha, shiroi no iima, okii no nekOy etc. etc. But 
this is mere '*pidjin." li ^houXd he yoroshii cha, "good 
tea ;" shiroi iima, '* a while horse ;" okii neko or bkina neko^ 
"a large cat." {Yoroshii and shiroi are always true adjec- 
tives, whereas we may either use oMi as a true adjective, or 
bki na as a quasi-adjective.) The mistake arises partly from 
a contusion between no and na, partly from the fact that 
nouns followed by no often correspond to the adjectives of 
European languages, e.g. Nihot^ no^ koioba^, **the language" 
of* japan,^" i.e., *' the Japanese language ;" moio^ no^ sumori^, 
lit. ** intention" of* origin'," i.e. , "the original intention." 
No is only used after adjectives in the sense of the indefinite 
pronoun " one " or ** ones," as already explained in ^ 112: — 

n ,. •• J rr • ("Which are the best?— The 

Docht ga It P — Kurot no, i ui 1 »* 

^ (black ones. 

OH7mno\ ^^^"^ kimashtia, \ "I have bought 

_ f havinff'boiight have'Come. fsome bier oneS." 

Big ones ) } ° 

^ 209. Do not confound such Chinese quasi-adjectives as 
kireif "pretty;" mumei, "anonymous," with real adjec- 
tives, simply because they happen to end in i. One can- 
not say kirei onna, " a pretty woman ;" one must say 
kirei na onna. Similarly mumei na kaiana, *' a sword without 
the maker's name inscribed on it." 


^ 210. V. The words ko forming diminutives and 5 forming 
augmentatives, together with the honorific prefixes o,* 
"honourable;" go, ''august;" ki, "exalted;" and mi, 
" honourable," are quasi-adjectives, as in the following 
examples : 

ko'bin, "a small bottle." 
o-bm, ** a large bottle." 
o iera, " an honourable Buddhist temple," i.e., simply 

"a Buddhist temple." 
go hon, *' the august book," i.e., *' your book." 
ki-koku, " the exalted country, i.e., " your country." 
mi ashiy lit. ' ' august honourable feet," i. e., generally 

"your feet." 

N, B, and ko frequently cause the nigort'ing of the word to 
which they are i..refixcd, as o-dcra^ "big temple;" ko-dera, "small 
temple ;" ko-jima^ " small island " (but o-shima, without the nigori^ 
" big island"). Such compounds as these are extremely common in 
place-names, the whole Japanese coast being lined with Oshima's 
and Kojima's. To express the idea "« big island," "a small island," 
the longer equivalents dki va skima, chiisa na shima, would sound 
more natural, and similarly in most other cases. 

The honorifics o and go are also used adverbially, thus : 
O^ yasumi^ nasai^, lit. ** honourably' deign" to rest,*" 

i.e., "good night." 
Goyururiio, " augustly quietly that," i.e., " Don't in- 
jure yourself by overdoing it (in walking, etc.)." 

A noticeable peculiarity of this fifth class of quasi-adjec- 
tives is that they only occur prefixed to other words. They 
cannot be used predicatively at the end of a clause or 
sentence. If, for instance, we want to predicate smallness 
of a thing, we cannot say that it is ko. We must use a to- 

• Carefully distinguish long dy "large," from short o, " honourable." 


tally distinct word, such as chiisai. (For further details 
concerning the honorifics o, go, etc., see Chap XI, \ 395 
et seg,) 


^211. Comparison in Japanese is more often implicit than 
explicit. Thus, when referring to the relative height of 
Fujiyama and Asama-yama, a Japanese will not say as we 
should, *' Fujiyama is the higher," but simply "Fujiyama 
is high " {Fuji ga iakai^ or Fuji no ho* ga lakai), that is, it is 
high as estimated from the standpoint of the other mountain 
mentioned. Similarly, when pricing various goods, a 
Japanese will not say " Which is the cheapest ? " but simply 
" Which is cheap ? " {Dochira ga yasui P) i.e., by implica- 
tion, cheap as compared witli all the rest. Indeed, even 
in English the so-called positive is not infrequently 
a comparative by implication. When, for instance, we 
talk of a lake as large, what do we mean but 
that it is larger than most other lakes in the country or in 
the world ? When we say that such and such a man is old, 
what interpretation can be put on our words, except that 
the man in question is older than the majority of people ? 
This is a consideration which will hardly occur to such as 
are familiar with European languages only ; but it may well 
engage our attention for a moment as a curious, though 
simple, instance of the different channels in which Eastern 
and Western thought runs. The only disagreement between 
English and Japanese usage is that the Japanese employ 

* Bo means literally "side," hence *'one," "ones," as Kono ho 
ga katai, " This one is hard.'* In phrases like that in the text, it has 
no English equivalent. Similarly in such contexts — and they are of 
frequent recurrence — as ioshi no wakai ho, " the younger of the two." 


these "comparatives and superlatives by implication" in 
nine cases out of ten, whereas with us they are somewhat 

^212. Comparison may, however, be rendered explicit by 

using the postposition >'on, " than," properly ** from,'' as : 

Asama yori, Fuji ga takai^ or (more frequently) Asama 

yorij Fuji no hb ga iakai, i.e., * '(Viewed) from (the stand-point 

of) Asama-yama, Fujiyama is high." 

Umibe de sodaila hiio tva, \ 

Seashore at gretv-^ip people as-for, 

rikugun yori kaigun no heishi ni 

artny than, navy 'a troops to 



Muda na hanashi wo sum yori 

Useless t€dk {accus.) do than 

wa, damaite iru ho ga 
<Ma~for, silent being side (nom,) 

a io omoimasu, 
{is)good that {l)thlnk. 

At bottom, the idiom is the same as that explained in 
tiic last paragraph, only more circumstantial. In negative 
phrases yori is replaced by hodoy which means "quantity," 
"amount," "about," e.g. 

Asama wa, Fuji hodo iakaku nai, lit. "As for Asama, (it) 
is not Fuji('s) amount high," i.e., "Asama-yama is less 
high than Fujiyama." 

T[ 213. The idea of the superlative may be rendered explicit 
by the use of the word ichi-baUy "number one," "first," 
for instance : 

"A coasting popu- 
lation makes better 
sailors than it does 

" I consider silence 
abetter than useless 

Sore wa, ichi-han omoshirb 

That as'for, one-number amv»fng 



'That will probably be 
number one amusing," 
!>., "That will no 
doubt be the most 
.amusing of all." 


* * The Otonie-toge 
pass is the best place to 
see Fuji from." 

Fuji wo miru ni wa^^ 
Ft{ji-yania {accus.) see for, 

Otomc-toge ga ichi-ban 

** Maiden pass " {nom,) one-number 

yoroshiii gozaimasu, 

goo€l is. 

Ichi'han kisha, \ *' The first train in 

Onc-nutnber imin. J the morning." 

There are various other periphrases employed for the 
same purpose. Specially noticeable is one with the word 
uchiy ** inside," *' in," or its Chinese equivalent chu 
{nigorted to ju ; conf. ^ 28) ; thus : 

Sono uchi no yosaso 

TFiat inside 's apparenUy-good 

na mono, 
being thing. 

*' Whichever may seem 
to be the best of the lot." 

Nihon-ju no yushi. | "The bravest man in 

Japan-inside 'a bravo. I Japan." 

^ 214. After all, the chief thing the student should bear in 
mind with regard to the Japanese equivalents for our 
comparative and superlative, is no/ to have recourse to 
them, but to accustcm himself from the beginning to use 
the simple positive instead, which alone, in nine cases out 
of ten, is idiomatic. 

^215. "Still "with the comparative is rendered by one of 
the adverbs motto or nao\ thus : 

Motto choj-o made joborimasho. Ltj,',' ^^l^^^ ^o ^Jl^ 

More snnimit iUl tviU-probcMy-aacend. l .% . y, 

( the very lop. 

(food I '*This is a still 
j belter one." 

Kono ho 



Tlhls side 





^j 216. '*The*' with the comparative repealed is rendered by 
hodo, lit. *' amount," thus : 

Mireba miru hodOy rippa 

As'I'iodk, look amouni splendid 



"The longer I look 
at it, the more splendid 
it appears." 

Takai iokoro hodOy haze wo \ ''The higher the 

-BTiflrA vUtce *^^^o,tnt,^Hndi,accusA^^^^^^ ^j^^ windier 

aiemasu. jj^j^. 


^217. "Very" (comparatively little used) is expressed by 
such words as hanahada^ itaiie^ iaiso (ni), or iakusan. The 
word iaihen (ni) resembles the "awfully" of English 
Colloquial parlance, and is in perpetual requisition. The 
following are a few examples : 

Taiso ni kirei, *' Very pretty." 

liatic muzukashii mon(p)\ " It is an extremely difficult 
da, (Or more politely, dcsu,) ) thing. " 

Hanahada o kinodoku^ ,, j ^^ extremely sorry." 
Vent lumourMe somn. b More 111. " It is honourable 
soma (de gommasu). \\^^^^^^, ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ „^ 

Taihen ni omoshiro | ,, j^ ^^^ ^^^^^jj j „ 
gozaimasmia. j j j ^ 

^218. Another favourite phrase answering to our Colloquial 
" awfully " is the gerund of the adjective or verb, followed 
by the words shi-yo ga nai or sht-kaia ga nai, which signify 
literally " there is nothing to be done," " there is no help 
for it," thus : 

Aisukuie shi-yb ga nai. " It is awfully hot." 

z^, u , L' - i ''lam awfully tired," or "I 

Kiiia^refe shi^yo ga\ ^^ ^j,.^^ j don't know what 

^^'- (to do." 


Taikuisu de sht-kaia ga nat, ''I am awfully bored." 

N, B. Observe de in this last instance, where it replaces the gerund 
because taiktiisu is not an adjective, but in reality a noun here used as 
a quasi>adjective. 

The following expressions may serve to exemplify a 
kindred idiom answering to our **so " or '' too :" 

^ ,s.. . . ( *' It is so dark, I can't see :" 

[or '* It IS too dark to see. 

rr-j. J I ( " It was so far, we couldn't 

, ,-y -< walk there: or ** It was too far 

deshiia, ) . n » 

f to walk. 

Ano hiio zva, haka de^ 

Thctt persan as-for, focH beinfff 

tsukai-michi ga nat. 
employ-way {nam.) isn't. 

"He is such n fool that 
it is impossible to make any 
use of him." 

^219. '* Not very " is expressed by amari, '* excess," ** too," 
or yoket (m) ''superfluity," with a negative verb, thus : 

Amart omoskiroku nai (familiar) | '' It is not very 

Amari omoshiroku gozaimasen. (polite) j amusing. " 

XT 1 • • ( " There are not very many, ' 

Yoket gozaimasen. | ^^ „ ^^^^ j^ ^^^ very much." 

Yoket ni mckartmasen. j *'Tiiere is not much money 

Superfinou^y ffctins^not. | made." 


The Verb. 


220. The nature and functions of the Japanese verb differ 
considerably from those of the verbs of European languages. 
Conformably with the absence of number in the noun and 
of true personal pronouns, the Japanese verb entirely dis- 
regards all considerations of person and of number. **I 
am," "thou art," '* he is," *' she is," " it is," •' we are," 
**you are," *' they are," are all expressed by the same word 
da (familiar) or desu (polite). Similarly all the persons of 
the past tense (** I was," *' thou wast," etc.) are expressed 
by the same word daita or deshiia ; all the persons of the 
probable present or future (**I probably am, or probably 
shall be," ** thou probably art, or probably wilt be," etc.) 
by the same word daro or desko. The present and past 
indicative can be used as adjectives (see ^ 8i and ^ 205), 
and even as nouns (see Tf 45). Many of the moods are 
different from anything that exists in Europe. There are 
negative, potential, and causative conjugations, etc., etc. 
In fact, the whole verbal conception has been worked out 
in an alien manner. 

[221. Most of the Japanese verbal forms occurring in actual 
practice consist of four elements, viz., the root, the stem, 
the inflection or **base," and the agglutinated suffix or 
suffixes. Take, for instance, the word komarimashiia^ which 


is SO often heard in conversation, and which signifies "(I) 
was in trouble," " was at a loss," '* didn't know what to do." 
The root is kom, which we meet with in the small group 
of related verbs komu, '*to stuff into," "to crowd into," 
"to inclose," " to confine ;" komeru, synonymous or nearly 
so with komu ; komoru, an intransitive verb signifying * ' to be 
in a state of confinement," " to be shut up." From the root 
kom is formed the stem komar by the agglutination of ar{u)y 

* * to be. " To this is added the unexplained suffix t, which 
gives the " indefinite form " of the verb, a sort of participle 
or gerund (see ^^ 278 — 281 and ^^ 422 — 426), which can 
also be used as a "base" or foundation form, to which 
certain suffixes are agglutinated.* In this case the agglu- 
tinated suffixes are nias/ity which originally signified **to 
be," and /a, the index of the past tense, itself shown, by 
reference to the Classical form of the language, to be a 
corruption of the gerundial suffix /^ and o( aru, *'tobe." 
The single word komarimasKUa therefore contains the verb 

* * to be " three times over. 

* It seems almost incredible that serious grammarians should ever 
have thought of applying the name of " root " to the indefinite form of 
the verb, which is as much an inflection of the stem (probably an 
ultimate analysis would prove the inflection to be an agglutinated form 
obtained from the stem) as any other. There is no more reason for 
calling komari a "root" than komaru or komare. But the unfor- 
tunate precedent set by Rodriguez, and followed by Hoffmann, has 
been constantly adhered to by writers who have not taken the trouble 
to think out the subject for themselves. Hence we are treated to such 
sesquipedalian " roots " as araserare (really the indefinite form of the 
potential of the causative conjugation of aru^ " to be "), and we are told 
that such is the form from which all the other principal parts of the verb 
are derived ! It would Ic about as reasonable lo call " disregarding " 
the root of the verb " to disregard," and to say that " disregardest," 
" disregardeth," etc., are derived from it. 


^222. Again tske samasanat, "(I) do not cool" (transitive). 
The root is sam or sad, which we find in sameru, "to 
cool" (intransitive), *'to fade," **to wake;" in samui, 
"cold;" and in samuskii ox sabiskii, "lonesome." The 
stem is samas, formed from the root sam and the verb suru, 
"to do," the second a apparently owing its existence to the 
"attraction " of the first (see ^ 3). The third a is the in- 
flection constituting the * * negative base " samasa, to which 
is agglutinated the negative adjective nat\ "non-existent," in 
order to form the certain present tense of the negative con- 
jugation. In some cases — for instance in sameru, * * to cool" 
(intransitive) — the stem {sam) is not a lengthened form of the 
root, but simply the root itself. In others again there is 
no agglutinated suffix, the base itself being used as an 
independent word. Of this the imperative of verbs of the 
first conjugation offers a good example. 

Tf 223. Japanese roots form an obscure subject, and one into 
which it is not necessary for the beginner to plunge, as it 
has scarcely any practical utility. For practical purposes 
the stem (whether identical with the root, or a lengthened 
form of the root) may be accepted as an ultimate fact, — not 
indeed as a complete word, but as the unit to which the 
bases are attached. The stem itself should, theoretically 
speaking, always remain absolutely invariable. But we 
shall see later on how phonetic decay has caused all verbs 
of the first conjugation to depart from this standard in the 
modern Colloquial speech. 

^ 224. The "bases" are formed from the stem by the addi- 
tion of one or more letters, whose origin is too obscure to 
discuss here. The bases are four in number, and all the 
other conjugational forms are obtained by agglutinating 
certain suJQ5xes to them. Their names are the Certain 



Present, the Indefinite Form, the Conditional Base, and 
the Negative Base.* The Negative Base is never used as 
an independent word. The Conditional Base is, in the 
first conjugation, identical with the imperative. In the 
other conjugations it is not used as an independent word. 
The bases are not always formed in the same manner, nor 
are the [sufl&xes always attached to them in quite the same 
manner. Hence the distribution of verbs into different 
conjugations. Of these there are in the Written Language 
four, but in the Colloquial only three, as the third and fourth 
have coalesced. 


Certain ) 
Present j 
Negative ) 

Base J 
Condit. ) 

Base j 

Observe how the letter r never enters into the formation 
of the bases of verbs of the ist. conjugation, but always 
enters into the formation of those of the 2nd. and 3rd. con- 
jugations. Of course r may appear in the stem of any verb, 
as it does in that of «ru, " to sell," ist. conj. 

[The stem is italicised^ 

1st. Conj 

2nd. Conj. 3rd. Conj. 

to sell to put 

to sleep to cut to fall to see 

ur\x ok\x 

«eru /a^eruf ocMtu m'\T\i 

ur'\ oK\ 

ne fabo oc/ii m\ 

ura 0.^3, 

«e labQ ochi mi 

ure okc 

were tadQVQ och'ixQ wire 

* For the Certain Present, see \^ 273 and 240; for the Indefinite 
Form, see W 278 and 241 ; for the Conditional Base, see ^f 252 ; and 
for the Negative Base, sec \ 256. 

t The stem — indeed the root — is really ot^ as in the active verb otosu, 
"to drop" (1st. conj.). But the ccmsonant / changes euphonically to 
ch before the vowel i (see p. 25). 


*|f 226. Before proceeding to the more important matter of 
verbal paradigms, we may just mention in passing that, 
when naming Japanese verbs, it is usual to mention the 
present tense as in Greek, not the infinitive as in English, 
Latin, and most other European languages. Thus uru, ** to 
sell;" yorokohu, *'to be glad;" neru^ **to sleep;'* koshi- 
raeru, **to prepare;" ochini, *' to fall;" kiru, *'to wear." 
But «r« has not the infinitive signification of *'to sell;" at 
least it has not generally or properly that signification. 
It means '* I (6;/- you, they, etc.) sell." Similarly in the 
case of all other verbs. The Japanese language has no 
form exactly answering in signification to our infinitive. 
The usual makeshift for an infinitive will be found men- 
tioned in \ 277. 

\ 227. The following paradigms of the three regular conju- 
gations and of the three most important irregular verbs, viz. 
kuru, *'to come;" sum, '* to do;" and masu, for which 
English has no equivalent, will serve to show how the 
various Japanese moods and tenses are formed by ag- 
glutinating suffixes to the bases. The memory will be 
assisted by noticing that almost all the tenses of the Positive 
Voice are obtained from the Indefinite Form and the 
Conditional Base, while those of the Negative Voice are 
obtained from the Negative Base and the Certain Present. 
Note further that the only difference between the second and 
third conjugation is that while the vowel e characterises the 
former, the vowel i characterises the latter. This fact has 
caused some European grammarians to class them together 
as a single conjugation (the second). They are thus 
classed in Mr. Aston's Grammar, and in Messrs. Satow 
and Ishibashi's excellent little ** Dictionary of the Japanese 
Spoken Language. ' 
















^ 3 bi 


I (have) put. 
I probably (have) 
if I had put. 
though I (have) [ 
sometimes putlin 




1— 1 




























sasuoj osoqi in paddcip 




SI uiajs om jo .y enx 

t— » 










+ + 



*^ >s > > ^ ^ 















's 'S '^ ^ ^ 'S 






















onal Past 
live Past 
itative Form 




CQ ^ 






c :5 -13 ^ s 




<u ? 







' Certai 

- Proba 



I Frequ 











o S 

'O HH »-H 



> i 

? 2 


1$ •§ 

r—l P, P 

2 o 


'^ '»3 Cti 

IT o 
o c 

ShH HH J ^ 

« 5 S « R 8 

« 55 Q Q Q e 

>^ oC^ a^ <^ K^ l^^ I 

«3 ^ d ts . *f -« ^- 

^ s TJ fl 'o ^ a, rr , 

O 2 


H^ M HH W» I-) I— I 


its s*^ i* 






S ^ 


rt a" 


«ts b 










■3 s 




-«- rt 

S V 




a " 

•»- ,^ 



(3 '^ a; 


for the 
to be," 


^- be 

%» ^ a 






» "H- 



.§ 1 














*j o 

c ^ 

P ^ 

.2 <n 


(ft > 

o ft> 

H 5 

.S 5 >: S 

Tj to 

fl S c . 

.'2 1=! o rt tj 

« ^ -S ^=5 o 

^ g* ^ «> ^ <u 

'^ 1131 11 




« rt 



Ph fS 



13 'c3 





•ZJ 'XS 



^3 '^ 


g § 









(^ P 
*S o 


!£ hH 1^ H-( »G H-l 

rt c « _ 

>. w rt JO ^ 

'3 rt H-l C S 

rt « ^ .S ^ 

-g '2 bfl "S ^ 

,_^ JJ5 ^ o) O) 


^ •? 5 I I 

'^j ^ Vi ^ "\> 

Si Ki Ki Si -^ 

>5 -Vi "K* "lij ^ 

*^ .« 


00 4) in " 


-5 .M "K ^ 

&• to rt r-J 

W f^ o § 

.S -^ '-^ 

^' s I 'g 

U & U 



> rt > 

(/) (J a 

U r3 >-• 

'i s-l 

S ■£ 

rt g > 


o U U 






rt o o 




O o 

o r 




^ ^ 





11 I 

^ =3 _• ^ ^ tn O 

2 2^ o o -S^ 

•5 ►^ w > 

2 ^ 




fi-rt 55 

*** «i2 *Si 

S«> <S I I ^5 

<U U >-« HH 1-1 

0) oj 


i 2 rt P 

I M its *3 

tw to O 


§ 1 

■■§ -s 


I I 2 

K5 ►«* <» 


•5 ■§ 



p; 2i 




•55 ^2 




< (S 

m P^ 

« O 

U Ph U 

I il 

^ "§ 
.^ .^ 
►$ ^ 

. 1 










6 ^ ')i ^ .3 

S 'o -d «> t$ 

S ^>H g I 

HH K. ^ :S S 


41 ^ 

-? (S o 

_ ^ o 

u ^ u 

a o 

o r 

c o 

o u 

P^ w o 

l-HHH o 



1 59 













t3 to 



1 1 

o « 
fa bo 


<v U 



2 ^ - I 15 § 






>-t o 

►^ ^s 






f 234. It will be found good practice to conjugate, accord- 
ing to the paradigms of the three regular conjugations, a 
few of the verbs in commonest use. Such are : 






( ** to 
'* to beat." komaruA . 

"to take out." nomu, 

be in yg f 
"to drink, 


to make 

"to hear." 



"to think.' 
"to call." 

5)0 n 

" to go out 

"to prepare." neru,^ 

"to get tired.' 

"to bathe." 

"to be able." 

"to borrow." 




" to be beaten. " 

(in war* etc. ) 

"to sleep." 

" to throw away." 

" to wear." 

"to boil." 

" to be enough. " 

Tf 235. As may be seen by the paradigms, the Japanese 
verbal forms are not numerous in comparison with those 
of French, Latin, and most other European tongues. 
But a peculiar difficulty arises from the fact that all 
verbs of the first conjugation are more or less anomalous. 
In the Classical language each suffix was simply aggluti- 
nated to one of the bases, without any letter-changes oc- 
curring, e.g., gerund (?^i-/(?, "having put;" ari-le^ "having 
been; isugi-ie^ " having joined. " But in modern usage 
phonetic decay has obliterated this pristine simplicity, and 
has given us oite^ aite, tsuide, — forms in which the stem 
loses its final consonant, and other letter-changes are 
apt to take place. The nature of the irregularity thus 
caused depends in every case upon the last letter of the 

' Vulgarly contracted to kosaeru. 



Stem. The student will more easily master this difficulty 
by committing to memory the following examples, than by 
being furnished with a set of abstract rules : — 


1^ 1 1 1 




•r 'C 

5 § 

-c: .» ^ 

•tj ^ ^ "w 

I rl 1 1111 It 

2522 S B 2 B B B 

B M 
2 S 

o o 2 o 2 ° 


•S a 

a* a 

M a 

go IP 

■I I 


^ "5 



2 2 


'{OMOA •!« JO '^ UI '^ UI '^ UJ 'f UI V Of 

V UI 3aipa9 ^ ui Saipud 3uipu9 Soipud Suipud 3aipu3 !Raipu9 
sui9)s sui9;s smais suid^g suis^g suis^g suiq;^ 


^ 2^^. It will be observed that most of the above letter- 
changes have ease of pronunciation for their sole efficient 
cause. Some, however, may appear strange ; for instance, 
that affecting the stems in g^ where d andy replace / and cA 
in the terminations. The reason ot this is that when the 
nigoried letter g^ dropped out, there remained a feeling 
that the wijg^^ri* should be marked in some other way. It 
was therefore carried on to the next syllable, converting 
plain / and ch into nigorVed d andy. Had this not been 
done, many forms of such pairs of verbs as isugu and tsuku 
would have become indistinguishable,— a disaster which 
has actually overtaken verbs with stems ending in b and w, 
and also those ending in a vowel, in r, and in /. Thus it 
is only by the context that we can tell whether^(?»dfe is to be 
understood as the gerund oi yohu, '*to call," or of yomu, 
"• to read ;" whether nu//e is the gerund ofnuu, '* to sew," 
or of nuru, * * to lacquer ;" whether u//e is the gerund of 
uru, ** to sell," or of u/su, *' to strike." 

"If 238. The Kyoto people, together with the people of Central 
and Western Japan generally, say 

skimote^ shimola^ etc., for shimaite, shimaila, etc. 

lute, iuta, ,, ,, itte^ iiia, ,, 

omdie^ omota, ,, ,, omoUe, omoiia^ ,, 

nutet nuia, ,, ,, nuttey nutta, ,, 

and the educated in Tokyo sometimes follow their example, 
especially when speaking in public. But this sounds some- 
what pedantic. The habit has arisen from the fact that in 
former days, when the Court resided at Ky5to, the dialect 
of that place was naturally esteemed above the vernacular 

* See If 28. 

164 THE VERB. 

of Eastern Japan. A similar case is offered by the verbs 
kariru, ** to borrow ;" /ariru, '' to suffice," and one or two 
others, which the genuine usage of Tokyo inflects according 
to the third conjugation, but which public speakers some- 
limes make of the first conjugation (karu, /aru, etc.), in 
imitation of the Kyoto dialect and of old Classical rules, 

^ 239. In the case of stems ending in s, the change of 5 into 
sk in the indefinite form is caused by the inability of the 
modern Japanese to sound an 5 before the vowel t. Ori- 
ginally nas/it was probably nasi, and so in other cases. 

The changes in the / series have their origin in a similar 
modern inability to pronounce that consonant before the 
vowels z and u. It is probable that, some centuries ago, 
people consistently said 


ma/u, ma ft] viate, maia, ''to wait;" 

and the conditional and negative bases still retain the 
pronunciation which theoretical unity postulates, while the 
other two bases — maiu and mati — have slid respectively into 
maisu and machi. All that we know for certain on this 
point is that the modern pronunciation was already esta- 
blished at the close of the sixteenth century, from which 
time the first Jesuit works on the language date. The 
insertion of a w in the negative base of verbs ending in 
vowel stems (shiina^a^ iwa, omo^a, nuwa) has its origin in 
a curious phonetic change which took place many centuries 
ago. Originally the stem of all such verbs ended in an /I 
thus : 


shimaW shimaU shimdU shimaia. 


But according to a rule which permeates the whole 
vocabulary of the modern language, the/" has been dropped 
before u, t\ and e, and has been converted into a w before a, 
thus giving skimau, shimai, shtmae, shimawa, 


1 240. Certain Present or Future (the ist. base) : to 
the stem add u for the ist conjugation, eru for the 2nd., 
and iru for the 3rd. The origin of these terminations is 

N. B. In the Written Language, both eru and iru are replaced by 
ttrti, a peculiarity to be heard also from the lips of some speakers. 

t 241. Indefinite Form (the 2nd. base) : to the stem add i 
for the ist and 3rd. conjugations, and e for the 2nd. The 
origin of these terminations is unknown. 

f 242. Desiderative Adjective : to the indefinite form 
add tau Tat is an adjective originally identical with i/at, 
*' painful," and is capable of conjugation like other ad- 
jectives, according to the paradigms on pp. 126, 128, and 
130, thus : okiiaku, okito gozaimasu, okiiakereba, okUaku nai, etc. 

If 243. Adjective of Probability : to the indefinite form 
add so na (see p. 137). 

\ 244. Polite Certain Present or Future : to the in- 
definite form add masti, which can itself be conjugated 
through most of the moods and tenses, thus : okimasMta^ 
oktmasho, etc. (see p. 160). 

^ 245. Grerund (by some called the Past Participle) : to the 
indefinite form add te, observing the rules of phonetic 
change in the ist. conjugation (see p. 162). Te is supposed 
by the native grammarians to be a fragment of the verb 

1 66 THE VERB.. 

haieru, " to finish." If this view is correct, oiie, for instance^ 
literally means "having finished patting/' or "finishing 
putting." The next six tenses in the paradigm are all 
obtained by agglutinating other suffixes to the /e.of this one. 

^ 246. Grerund Emphasised : to the indefinite form add 
cha, observing the rules of phonetic change in the ist. 
conjugation (see p. 162). Cha is a corruption of/^ wa, 
which latter original form is still mostly preferred by cultured 
speakers. Wa is the postposition treated of in pp. 85 ei seq. 

^ 247. Certain Past : to the indefinite form add ia, observ- 
ing the rules of phonetic change in the ist conjugation (see 
p. 162). Ta is a corruption of the Classical past iari, itself 
derived from leari {ariis the Qassical " conclusive present '' 
ofaru, " to be"). Otifa therefore etymologically means " am 
having finished putting." 

Tf 248. Probable Past : to the indefinite form add /ard, 
observing the rules of phonetic change in the ist. conjuga- 
tion (see p. 162). Taro stands for /e ard, lit ''probably 
shall be having finished." 

f 249. Conditional Past : to the indefinite form add /ara^ 
or ^ara, observing the rules of phonetic change in the ist. 
conjugation (see p. 162). Tarawa stands for te araba, lit 
"if am having finished," arcUni being a Classical form — the 
so-called " hypothetical mood"— of flr«, " to be " (see ^f 287, 
p. 184). 

f 250. Conoessive Past: to the indefinite form add 
iaredomo or iaredOy observing the rules of phonetic change in 
the 1st conjugation (see p. 162). Taredomo stands for te 
aredomo, lit "though am having finished." Aredcmo, the 
concessive present of aru, " to be," is itself compounded of 
the conditional base are and the postpositions io and mo. 


T251. Frequentative Form: to the indefinite form add 
ion, observing the rules of phonetic change in the ist. 
conjugation (see p. i6a). Tart would seem to stand for 
ieari, in which case its original meaning is the same as that 
of the past indicative tense. 

1 252. Conditional Base (the 3rd. base) : to the stem add 
^ for the I St. conjugation, ^r^ for the 2nd., and /W for the 
3rd. The origin of these terminations is unknown. The 
name of '* conditional base " was given to this form by Mr. 
Aston from one of its functions, that of serving as the basi^ 
on which the present conditional tense is built up. From 
it is also formed the concessive present. 

If 253. Imperative : in the ist. conjugation it is identical 
with the conditional base ; in the 2nd. and 3rd. .conjugations 
it is formed by adding to the indlefinite form the syllable ro, 
which seems to be a corruption of yOy an exclamation 
Tcsembling our word "oh 1" 

N, B. Some speakers drop the termination. — A familiar imperative, 
often ustd by members of the same household in addressing each 
other, is obtained by adding na to the indefinite form, as yoH-na I 
" call !" sM-na / " do !" It is uncertain whether this tta be simply an 
interjection, or a corruption of the word fiasai, " please." The former 
view is, however, the more probable. 

f 254. Ck)ndltional Present: to the conditional base add 
da, which is an irregularly nigoHed form of the postposition 

f 255. Ck)noessive Present: to the conditional base add 
domo or do. Do is the tngor{ed form of the postposition io, 
and MO is also one of the postpositions. 

f 256. Negative Base (the 4th. base) : in the ist con- 
jugation add a to the stem ; in the 2nd. and 3rd. conjuga- 
tions the negative base is identical with the indefinite form. 

1 68 THE VERB. 

The name of *' negative base " was given to this form by 
Mr. Aston with reference to one of its functions, that o^ 
serving as the basis on which most of the tenses of the 
negative voice are built up. Note, however, that it likewise 
helps to form the probable present or future of the positive 
voice, together with all passives, potentials, and causatives. 
The name is, therefore, not a completely adequate one, 
though there is*no harm in retaining it, provided the nature 
of the form itself be always borne in mind. 

^ 257. Probable Present or Future : in the ist. conjuga- 
tion add u to the negative base, and then contract the 
diphthong au thus obtained into o. The termination » is a 
corruption of the unexplained Classical n. The steps of the 

• process therefore are okan (the Classical probable present or 
future of oku), okau, oko. Rapid speakers sometimes go 
further still, and, shortening the 0, say oko (retaining an 
emphasis on the final syllable). In the 2nd. and 3rd. con- 
jugations the Classical language also simply adds n, thus : 
/aden, " I shall probably eat ;" ochih, " I shall probably fall " 
(not to be confounded with the negative present iabenti and 
ochinuy Some of the Colloquial dialects of the Western 
provinces vocalise this n into u exactly as in the isL 
conjugation, and say iabeu, ochiu. The Tokyo forms in 
yd, as iabeyo, ochiyo, are built on a false analogy suggested 
by the sound of the future in the ist. conjugation. 

^258. Negative Imperative: to the present indicative 
add na, which is probably a fragment ofnoAare, the Classical 
imperative of the ** negative adjective nai." (Nakare^naki^ 
are^, be* not-being^) 

Y 259. Negative Probable Present or Future: in the 

ist conjugation add mai to the present indicative, in the 


2nd. and 3rd. conjugations add it to the negative base. Mai 
is a corruption of maji, majtki, majikUj a Classical adjective 
expressing doubt or prohibition. In the Colloquial it has 
ceased to be conjugated. 

f 260. Negative Certain Present or Future : to the 
negative base add «, which here and throughout the 
negative tenses is probably a corruption of the Classical 
negative particle ani^ which exists likewise in Korean. The 
n should properly be followed by short w, but this letter is 
now generally omitted in pronunciation. 

T 261. Negative Certain Past: to the negative base add 
nandUy a termination of unknown origin.* 

f 262. Negative Probable Past : to the negative base add 
nandard, formed from the negative certain past on the model 
of the same tense of the positive voice. 

t 263. Negative Frequentative Form: to the negative 
add nandari, formed from the negative certain past on the 
model of the same tense of the positive voice. 

Tf 264. Negative Conditional Present : to the negative 
base add neba, Ne is really a sort of negative conditional 
base formed on the analogy of the conditional base of the 

• positive voice, and ba is the postposition wua with the nigoru 

1 265. Negative Concessive Present : to the negative 
base add nedomo or nedo. For ne see the preceding 
paragraph. Do (for to) and mo are postpositions. 

1 266. Negative Grerund : to the negative base add zu, a 
termination of doubtful origin. The postposition m is often 
added to this form without affecting its signification, as 
Ud^ezu ni for tabezu, "not eating," ** without eating." 

• See, however, the present writer's " Essay in Aid of a Grammar of 
Lixchoan,'' f 124. 

170 THE VERB. 

% 267. Second Form of the Negative Voice : to the 

negative base add the " negative adjective nai" (see p. 129) 
in one or other of its conjugational forms. 

M B» In order to avoid tedious repetition, we leave the student to 
analyse for himsdf on the above modet the conjugation of adjectives 
given on p. 128. A carious little item for him to notice is the occasional 
substitution of the Chinese negative prefix /u or du for the negative 
Japanese negative suffixes. The use of this idiom implies, not simple 
negation, but the additional idea of badness, dereliction of duty, etc. 
Thus,/j»-rf^/&/, " badly made ;" fu^iki-todoki, " negligent ;'* bu-asHrai^ 
" discourteous.** 


^ 268. Japanese has very few irregular verbs, and the irregu- 
larities even of these few are but slight We have already 
given paradigms of the three chief ones, viz. kuru, " to 
come" (p. 158); sum, "to do" (p. 159); and w^isw (p. 
160), which formerly meant *' to be," but which is now used 
only as a termination that may be added to the indefinite 
form of any verb. With its aid there is obtained an 
honorific conjugation, which sounds more courteous than 
the ordinary conjugation and which is therefore in parti- 
cularly frequent use. The plain verb without ma^y^ apt to 
strike the ear as curt, especially at the end of a sentence. 
Instead of giving masu alone, the paradigm shows it attached 
to the verb nasaru, "to deign to do" (for nasaru see also 
below, Tf 270 and ^ 402). 

T[ 269. The peculiarities of the other slightly irregular verbs 
are as follows : — Aru, " to be," when combined with the 
postposition de, loses its final syllable, making da instead of 
daru. It lacks the desiderative adjective. Its negative 
voice likewise is not used, being replaced by the " negative 


adjective " nai The improbable present or future arumai 
alone remains, used concurrently with nakaro. 

If 270. Gozaru, "to be," in the mouths of most Tokyo 
speakers, drops the r of its last syllable ' when masu is 
suffixed; thus gozatmas^ for gozanmasu (but see end of 
Tf 388). The same is the case with the polite verbs 
irassharu, " lo go," ** to come ;" kudasaru, " to condes- 
cend ;" nasaru, ** to deign to do ;" and ossharUy ** to deign 
to say." These latter verbs also use the forms thus obtained, 
viz. irasshai, kudasai^ and nasaij as imperatives, in lieu of 
the older iraserare, kudasare, and nasare. But osshai is 
rare, osshaimashi being preferred. Another peculiarity of 
these four verbs is that, though now conjugated according 
to the ist conj., they are corruptions of verbs originally 
belonging to the 2nd, viz. iraserareru, kudasareru^ nasareru^ 
and oserareru, — properly potential forms which early 
assumed an honorific meaning (conf. ^ 403). KurerUj 
"to give," 2nd. conj., follows their example, having the 
imperative kurei for kurero. Moreover, irassharu, kudasaru^ 
and nasaru may drop the letter a of the termination aru in 
the gerund and in the six following tenses, thus : irashtte 
for irasshatte, kudastiaro for kudasaiiaro, nasttara for nasaitara. 
In familiar conversation gozaimasu is often shorn of all its 
middle letters, and pronounced gozasu, gasu, or gesu. 
Similarly gozamashiia becomes gasfnia^ etc. When the 
particle de precedes it, gozaimasu is apt to lose its initial 
letter as well, de gozaimasu being fused into desu, de 
gozaimashtia into deshtiay etc. 

f 271. Iku, " to go," instead of the gerund Hie, the emphasised 
gerund ticha^ etc. , which would be required by the rule for 
verbs of the first conjugation with stem ending in k (see 
p. 162), shows the following irregular forms : 




Emphatic Gerund 
Certain Past 
Probable Past 
Condit. Past 
Concess. Past 
Frequent. Form 

"having gone, going." 
** having gone, going." 
**I went." 
* ' I probably went " 
''if I had gone." 
'* though I went" 
** sometimes going." 








These irregular forms of iku coincide with the regular 
forms of the same tenses of the verb z«, "to say." Other- 
wise the verb iku is conjugated regularly. 
T 272. Shtnuru, "to die," is conjugated regularly through 
most of the moods and tenses, as if it were shtnu (stem shin)^ 
and belonged to the first conjugation. But the addition 
of the syllable ru makes its certain present shinuru, and also 
the negative imperative shinuru-na, irregular. It has, 
moreover, inherited from the Classical Language a condi- 
tional base shinure, which occasionally replaces the regular 
shine. Altogether it appears as a sort of hybrid between 
the first conjugation and the third.* 


^273. Present, Future, and Past, — The Japanese verb does 
not, like ours, clearly distinguish present from future time. 
It has one form serving to denote any certain action or state, 
whether present, future, or habitual, and another serving to 
denote any merely probable action or state, whether present 
or future. It is the question of certainty or uncertainty that 

*Sach does shinuru appear from the exclusively CoUoqaial stand-point. 
Proof has been supplied elsewhere (" Essay in Aid of a Grammar of 
Luchuan,'* section entitled " Excursus on the Origin of the Japanese 
Conjugations," pp. 139 et seq.) of the thesis that all Japanese verbs 
originally followed a system of which shinuru is the sole surviving relic. 


y^s the criterion, not the question of time. Still, as future 

oft ^*^^ ^"^ events must, in the nature of things, be more 

^ '^ uncertain than present actions and events, the form 

^^i^^g certainty is applied in the majority of cases to 

^- ^^Ht time, while the form denoting mere probability is 

^vv^^^^d in the majority of cases to future time. This it is 

. ^^h has led most writers on Japanese grammar to term 

^u^ former the present tense, and the latter the future tense. 

But such a terminology is really incorrect, and it has been 

the cause of much misunderstanding between Europeans 

and natives. 

Bara im, ii hana da, ( *' The rose is a beauti- 

JBow aa-for, goad flower is. | ful flower. " 

Doko ni sunde trassharu P'{ *' Where are you liv- 

Where in dwelling deign^tO'be 9 | ing ?" 

Kimasu ka P (certainty) ** Will he come ?" 

( ''Is he likely to 
-^/OTtfS/^^ /^a / (mere probability) J come ?" "Do you think 

( he will come ?" 

*y.'L' z- ^ //»^w-,;«f„\ ( ''He will come im- 

yth hmasu. ictri^rnty) j „,ediately. " 

^masAo I {^er* probability) | " He will probably 

KtmasH desho. ) *^ (come, 

Kimasumai. (Pf^^Sn"') i "J do"'' think he will 
V a negation / (^ come. 

1*'It snows;" **it is 
''It will certainly 

Vukiga/urimasho. i „;;lj. ^'» P^^^ably 

174 THE VERB. 


Mybnichi shuUatsu shimashd, i to-morrow *' 

Myomchi shuiiaisu shimas^, j **I (shall) start to- 

Jkh^iMrrow tUurt do. 1 morroW." 

ICaze wo hiiia kara. 

Wind {accus,) have-drawn because, 

yu wo yoshimashd. 

*'As I have 
caught cold, I think 
I won't take any 

hot-water (accus.) (/) wOl-pnAiaily-fknrbear, \bath lO-day." 

In this last case there is little difference in English 
between "I think I won't," and plain '* I won't." The 
former is less abrupt ; that is all. Similarly in Japanese, 
where consequently the merely probable present or future 
tense sometimes comes in a roundabout way to correspond 
exactly to our real future.- Thus : 

Isolde iko, \ '* I will go quickly," or 

Saving-hastened, wUl-probahly-go, f *' I will make hastc and 
(More politely , Isolde ikitnashd.) ) go. " 

But it would do equally well to use the present, and to 
say Isolde ikimasu. — See also T 291. 

^ 273. A. The essence of the probable present or future in 
Japanese being uncertainty with a strong tinge of probability, 
this tense is often used to express a guess, such as English 
idiom generally conveys by means of the word "may" or 
**must/* thus : 

So omou mono mo arb \ 

So think persons also may-^l ** There may be some 

ga. . . . [folks who think so, but. ..." 

4MX/Qwugh / 

Sazo go fu'jiyu \ 

Indeed august inconvenience \ ** You muSt find it very 

4e gozaimashb. finconvenient." 

prolfMiMifM* ] 


^, B, Needless to say that this idiom cannot be osed to express oor 
vay different " most " denoting necessity. The " must " of necessity 
is rendered by a doable negative, thus : 

Harawanakereba narimasen, \ "If won*t do not to pay, i.e. 
If-pay-not, wonU-be, I " You must pay." 

Englishmen knowing a little Japanese are apt to use this double 
negative too freely, because in English we habitually scatter must*s 
broadcast, even where no real necessity is implied, as, when rising to 
take leave, we say " I am afraid I must be going.'* A Japanese would 
say Mo o itotna itashimasu, lit. " Already I will do honourable leave.'* 

f 273. B. Both the certain and the probable present must, 
in many cases, be translated by our conditional mood, 
thus : — 

Mayoimasu ne f J ** Indeed I shouldn't 

Am-in-qnwmdaiiry indeed ! \ knOW what tO do. " 

Tokyo no hiio loa, nan i * * What would Tokyo 

iShyd 's person as-far, what] people say, I wonder } {e.g, 

to iimasho P U/ told 0/ the dearness 0/ 

ift«« wm-prtXHOay-my 9 \living in America, )' 

Kimo wo tsuhushimasu, j ' * They would be pei - 
Mver {accus.) {th€y)wlU'-^burat, | fectly astOUnded." 

A^. B. " I wonder," in the second of these instances, is intended to 
represent the shade of uncertainty inherent in the Probable Present 
iintasho, Japanese possesses no actual equivalent of our useful verb 
*' to wonder.'* 

1 274. The difference between the certain past and the 
probable past is precisely analogous to that between tiie 
certain present or future and the probable present or 
future :— 

-frimo isubushimashita, 
^ver (A^) burst.. 

•Kimo isubushimashitarb. 

'* He was astounded." 

** He must have been 

176 THE VERB. 

Needless to dwell further on this point after the copious 
illustrations in the preceding paragraph. The student will 
be more perplexed by certain anomalous uses of the certain 
past itself. Thus this tense is sometimes used where English 
idiom would prefer the present, for instance : Arimashifa 
(ht. **has been"), "Here it is 1" said when one finds 
something which had been lost ; WakarimasKUa, '* I have 
understood," i.e., "I understand;" Gozen ga dekimasHiia 
(lit. " dinner has forthcome"), '* Dinner is ready;" Nodo 
ga kawaUmasKUa (lit. '* throat has dried "), *' My throat is 
dry, " i. e. , * ' I am thirsty." Contrariwise the Japanese often 
use the present — especially the present of the negative — 
where strict logic demands the past, thus : 

Waiakushi wa Amerika ni 

Me a8'for, America in 

oru aida. 

dw^ while. 

*' While I was in 
America. " 

Narawanai kara, dekimasen, ( *' I can't do it, because 

JLearU'-fiot because, fortheomea-^not. "[ I haven't learnt how." 

^ 275, In such an example as the following, the Japanese 
may seem illogical in using the past tense. But the English 
are equally illogical in using the present, seeing that the 
time referred to is future : 

ShUaku no dekUa ioki,\ *. Let me know when 

PrcttKirecMon '8 haa^fcrtheome time,\ ,. j >t 

sAirasMe o kun nasai. P^f/'.^Vng '« ^f ^y- , 
, ^ , , „ , ^ , I (Scad to an tnfertor.) 

informing honourably give deign, J ^ 

In the following example (and many similar ones might 
be quoted) the two languages play still more strangely at 
cross purposes, English using the past where Japanese has 
the future, and the present infinitive where Japanese has 
the past : 


Kb shUa ho ga ' 
Thit» have-done side (ttom,) 


" You had probably better do 
it in this way," or **1 think you 
ought to do it like this/' 

JV. B, Observe the phrase... //J ga yoi equivalent to our " should," 
" ought/* " had better," and compare the foot-note to p. 144. 

Somewhat similar are instances like the following, where 
the past tense (especially the past tense of adjectives) has the 
sense of our conditional : 

Massugu ga chikahatia, C ''It would have been 
straight {nom.) wasttear. | shorter to go Straight on." 

So suru to yokatta. f ''It would have been 

Bo do if, wa8-ffood. ( better to do that." 

-A^. B» If we were to use the bookish English idiom " it /tad been 
shorter,*' " it had been better," we should obtain a close approximation 
to the Japanese expression. Compare also last part of ^ 287. 

If 276. Notwithstanding the occasional appearance of such 
cases as those hitherto exemplified, the use of the present 
and past generally gives no trouble, thus : 

Tsune ni iu koto desu ka ?{ ''Is it a thing people 

GeneraUy say thing is 9 {generally Say ?" 

Ano fnto wa kt-yo da 
That person as-fkir, handy is, 

kara, nan de mo shimasu, 

because, anything-whaievei* docs, 

Vchi no shafu wa, ^ 

House 's JinrikMha-fnan as-fot*, 

ashi wo iiamemashtia kara, 
foot {acctis,) has-hwi^trofts,) beeatise, 
kawart no otoko wo 

eoeehange 's man (acais,) 

yonde mairimashiia, 
hminff'eatted have^fonts. i 

"He is so handy, he 
can do anything." 

(Be carefd to pronounce ki-y3 
as two syllables. Ji^d, as one 
syllable, means " to-day.") 

'' As the house/r«ri)^^a- 
man has hurt his foot, 
I have called another 

178 THE VERB. 

Senkoku kiki 7ii yatta 

JPormer-lwur Jiettr to sent 

ga, — mada heriji ga 

whereas, stiU answer (nam.) 



'* I sent to enquire a 
'•little while ago ; but there 
is no answer yet." 

^ 277. The certain present and certain past, sometimes 
followed by the word koto, ** thing," ''act," "fact," to 
some extent replace the infinitive, a mood for which the 
Japanese language lacks a special form. Thus oku koto, 
*'to put" in general; oiia koto, ''to have put" in the 
past : — 

Mabushikute, niiru koto ga \ 

Belno'dazzling, to-see {tiom,) l ** The light is SO daz- 

dekimasen, jzling that I can't see." 


ma koio ga nai. \ .. j ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ jj .. 
To-have^seen {nam.) is^not, ) 

^278. Indefinite Forniy Gerund, and Emphasised Gerund, — 
The indefinite form of Japanese verbs is one to wliich 
there is nothing that exactly corresponds in our Western 
tongues. It is by itself of no tense and mood, but may denote 
any tense or mood according to the context. The rule 
regarding its use in the Written Language is as follows : — 

When several clauses are correlated, that is to say, follow 
each other and express the same tense or mood, then only 
the verb or adjective of the last of such correlated clauses 
lakes the termination which indicates the tense or mood 
intended by the speaker, the verbs or adjectives of all the 
foregoing clauses being put in the indefinite form. One 
thus has to wait till the end of the last clause before one can 
tell whether the writer intends to refer to the past, present, 
or future, to the indicative, conditional, imperative, etc. 
The final verb or adjective, so to speak, focuses and clinches 



all that went before. Thus the Shinto theologian Hirata, 
when insisting on the inscrutableness of the divine nature, 

says ; 

Kami no mi ue wa, \ 

'*The nature of the 
gods is not a thing 
which men should rashly 

no mi ue iva, 

Gods of (tugtut surface etS'far, 

midari ni hakari-iu-beki mono 

rashly cfOetdate^ayshotad thing 

de wa nai. Tada sono iatioki 

is-not. Simply iftetr venerableness 

WO tattobi, kashikoki wo 

iaccus.) to-venerate, awfkdness {accus.) 

kashikomi, osoru-beki wo 

UHreveren^, fearfuiMess {acais^ 

osoreru hoka nashi, 

to-fear besides is-not. j 

speculate and talk about. 
There is nothing else for 
us to do but to honour 
their greatness, to rever- 
ence their majesty, and 
to fear their power." 

In this passage iaiiodi and kasKthomi, the indefinite forms 
forms of the verbs tattohu and kashtkomu, must be rendered 
by our infinitive mood, because they are correlated with 
osoreru, which is in the certain present tense, here corres- 
ponding to what we term the infinitive (conf. ^ ^77)* 
Note also the use of the bookish form in h' {see ^^ 177 and 
^78)of the attributive adjectives /a//oh and kashikohi (for 
^tioi and kashikoi), here — as generally in the higher style — 
Employed in preference to the abstract substantives in sUy 
such as tattosa^ kashikosa, 
"1 279. In the negative voice, the place of the indefinite form 
is supplied by the negative gerund, thus : 

Sekai no kuni-guni no' 

World 's eoufUries 
uchi ni wa, sbmoku 
middle in, Iwrbs-trees 

mo haezu, jimhuisu 

<dso grow-not, human-beings 

mo nai /okoro ga 

'<tlso exist-not jaUaces (rtcm,) 

''Among the various coun- 
tries in the world, there are 
some where no plants or trees 
grow, and where no human 
'beings live." 

{N. B, Haezu ib the negative 
gerund of haeru, "to sprout,'* cor« 
related with the present of the negative 
. adjective nai^ 

l8o THE VERB. 

^ 280. In the Book Language the foregoing rule concerning 
the use of the indefinite form is exemplified at every turn. 
It is also followed pretty frequently in set speeches, and 
sometimes even in the ordinary conversation of careful and 
cultured speakers. Foreign students should, therefore, not 
fail to make themselves acquainted with it. At the same 
time, it must be admitted that the familiar and lower styles 
of Colloquial almost completely disregard it. Sometimes 
it is replaced, as in European languages, by two or more 
clauses in the same tense. But more frequently the inde- 
finite form gives way to the gerund, so that, for instance, 
the last example but one, if made genuinely conversational, 
would run thus : 

Kami no koio wa^ midari ni suiryo wa 

Gods of matters ns'fov, rasMy specuUtHon ttS'forr 

dekiviasen. Tada sono tattoi iokoro wo tattonde, 
cannot, Sini^y tlieir venertMe place (acctif,) i>enet*aHng, 

sono uya-uyashii tokoro wo uyanxatte, sono osoroshii 

thevr attfo-inspirina place ((iccus.) reverencing, ilieir fe<xrf%d 

tokoro wo osoreru yori hoka wa nai. 

place (acctfs.) to-fear iJian besides ns-for, is-not. 

A\ B. Notice the word tokoro^ "place," used as a sort of suffix to 
the adjective tattoi ^ "venerable," to express the abstract quality of 
" venerableness," and similarly in connection with the adjectives of the 
other clauses. 

^281. Hardly a sentence — especially a sentence of any 
length — can be uttered without the gerund being thus 
used. Take, for instance, the following : 

Haya-isuke-gi ivo ^ 

* ' Bring some matches ! " 
{More lit. " Having carried 
matches, come! ") 

QtiicJc-strikc-tvoofl {accus.) 

motte koi! 

havinff'carried come ! 

Kikashite kudasai! ** Please tell me." 

Cmtshig-to-Jiear condescend ! 



Vchi ni He, hon de mo 

Bouse in being, books even 

mi/e orimasho, 

lookitig-at (I,' shdtt'prtibfMybe. 

Kaeri-gake ni kzvankoba 

JReturning-whOe in, bazaar 

ye yoiiey sukoshi kai- 

at stopping, a-lHUe jmr- 

mono shtie kinia- 

eJiases Jutving-done, (i)have- 


Kind hiru'gozen wo 

Yesterday midday-tnetd {accus.) 

tabeiej uchi wo 

having-eaien, house {accus.) 

demashiie, sore kara 

having^gone^out, that frotn 

sumo wo ?ni/e, 

wrestling {acctu.) Jiavtng'Seen, 

han-nichi asunde ki- 

hvUf'day havlng-'plaged 


f ** 1 think I will stay at 

home and read." (MorelU, 

''Staying at home, I shall 

probably be looking at 

^books. ) 

**0n my way home, I 
looked in at the bazaar, 
and made a few purchases. '' 
(More lit. "Having stop- 
ped at the bazaar, and 
having made fome pur- 
chases, I have come home 

» **I went out yesterday 
after luncheon, was present 
at a wrestling match, and 
was away half the day." 
{More lit, ' ' Having eaten 
luncheon, having gone 
out, then having looked at 
wrestling, having played 
half the day, I have come.") 


\ 282. Sometimes the gerund expresses instrumentality rather 
than correlation, thus : 

Susugi-seniaku wo 

Uinserwashing {accus.) 

shile, kurashi wo 

doing, livelihood {accus,) 

isukeie orimasu. 

affixing is, 

Tf 283. The gerund of adjectives occurs most frequently in 
phrases where English idiom employs the word "so," for 
instance : 

"She gains her liveli- 
hood by washing clothes." 

1 82 THE VERB, 

) " It is 

Ktirakute miemasen, \ " It is so dark, I can't 

Behiff'darkf cannot-aee. 

liakute shiyb ga nai. 

Beitiff'pninftd, tvayio-do {ftom,) isn't. 

*'It is so painful I 
don't know what to 
do," or *' It is awfully 
.painful." (Conf. If 218.) 

Occasionally the gerund of verbs is employed in the same 
manner, to help to express the meaning conveyed by our 
word ** so," thus : 

Ash' ga hiete \ 

Feet {t7om,) being-cold, "My feet are so 

/amaranai. fcold, I don't know 

(/ ) cannat-endin^. j what tO do. 

^ 284. The Emphasised Gerunds oic/ia, tahecha, ochichay 
shwha, are somewhat vulgar, or at least familiar, and 
cultured speakers still prefer the uncontracted forms oile zva, 
taheie wa, ochife iva, etc. 

Necha inaL j **0h! no; he is 

As'f<yr-s1eeiHn0-inde€d, isn't. | not asleep." 

Matcha oraremasen, 

AS'for-tvaiUng'indeedf cannot'be. 

{ ■ 

* I can/ wait." 

I/cM do da P { '* What do you say 

As-for-aoing-dndeed, hmv is {it)? \ to OUr going there } " 

So shicha komarimasu, ( '* Annoyance will be 

80 doinff-indeed, tvUl be-trMMed. (Caused if yOU do that." 

''It won't do for you 
to do that," or **You 
mustn't do that." 

"It won't do not to 
do this," ic, *'You 
mus/ do this." 

So shicha ikeniasen. 

So doing indeed, is-^io-go. 

Ko shinakucha narmasen, 

Tliia not'doing, 9COn't'become. 


Ki WO oiosKicha \ 

Spirit (acats.) lettina-faU as-far, I " You mustn't let 
ikemasen. fyour spirits droop." 

is-no-go. j 

N. B. The last three examples illustrate what has already been said 
in the Note at top of p. 175 concerning the rendering of our word "must" 
by a double negative in Japanese, while also showing that " must not " 
is rendered by a single negative. Observe, moreover, the general 
tendency to use the emphatic gerund chiefly in phrases expressing ne- 
gation, interrogation, or something disagreeable. 

Tl 285. Desideratrve Adjective and Adjective of Probability. — 
The use of these forms may be best understood from a few 
examples : 

Mitai mono. j ** Something I 

iran<-to-«ec ihhm. (should like to see.' 

Sono mono wo mitai. ] "I want to see 

That thinff {acctis.) want-to-see. 1 that. " 

Chotto negaito gozaimasti. i *' I want to ask 

Slightty wantinff'to-bea am. ( you a slight favouf." 

Ariso na koto. j ''Something which 

Zikeiy-to-he fact. ( ig ijkely to happen. ' 

A7-isb mo nai koto. [ '* Something which 

Zik^-to-he also isn't fa^. ( jgn't likely to happ>en. " 

Ame ga agarisb destiA *'It looks as if the 

nain {nom.) likeiy-to-rise is. (rain would clear off.'' 

Oishiso desu. (from the ad jec-) «< if i^^i,^ «.^^rJ " 

Ul.ely-toA>e-nice is tive oisMi, ' }^ ^^^\ g^od. 

"good to eat.")) {e.g. a cake:) 

\ 286. Besides this " adjective of probability '' obtained by 
agglutinating so to the indefinite form, there is an idiom 
formed by using so after the present or past tense. ^S"^, 
which is then best written as a separate word, has the 
force of "it would seem that," '* they say that" : — 



so desu. 




appearatuse is. 

Ano yado-ya 
That Iioid, 

SO desti. 


Taiso ni ii so 

GreaUy good appearance 



** It would seem 
that he is coming. " 

**They say that 

(that hotel has burnt 

j **It is said to be 
1 excellent. " 

^287. Conditional Present and Past. — These tenses have a 
somewhat peculiar history. In the Classical form of the 
language there is what is called a ** hypothetical present and 
past," thus : 

Condit. Pres., okehay *' when I put, ** as I put;" tahureha^ 
** when I eat," *• as I eat." 

Condit. Past, okitareba, " when {or as) I had put; " tabe^ 
tareba, "when {or as) I had eaten." 

Hypoth. Pres., okaba^ "if I put;" tabeha, **if I eat.'* 
Hypoth. Past, okitaraba, **if I had put ; tabetaraba, '*if 

I had eaten." 
The hypothetical present, it will be noticed, was formed 
by suffixing ba to the negative base. All four forms may 
still be met with in the so-called Colloquial of certain books. 
But in actual Colloquial practice the distinction between 
hypothetical and conditional has been given up, and the 
sense of " when " is generally expressed by a periphrasis 
with the word toki, lit. "time," as kuru tokiy '*when he 
comes." The curious thing is that what have survived are 
the present tense of the old conditional mood, and the 
past tense of the old hypothetical. The single Colloquial 
mood thus pieced together from the halves of the two 



Classical moods might perhaps better be termed the hypo- 
thetical, as it has the sense of "if " But we have 

preferred the name of conditional as being more familiar 
to European ears, and as having been employed by other 
writers on Japanese Grammar. The only present tense 
hypothetical forms that have remained in common use are 
iwaba, from i«, " to say," which is employed in the sense 
of *'so to say/' and naraha, from naru^ a Classical verb 
meaning '*to be," and not to be confounded with the 
nam which means **to become/' iV^^ra^a therefore pro- 
perly signifies *'if it be;" but when employed as an auxi- 
liary attached to other verbs, it comes to mean no more 
than *'if." Thus iku nardba is **if I go." Naraha is 
often clipped of its last syllable, and becomes nara : — 

DekUara{ba)y motie 

Jf-has'forthoonve, carrying 

kite kudasai, 

f ^rning eondeaeend, 

O iriyb 

MwwunMy reqttniigite 


honourcMy taMng 

I ** Please bring it with 
[you if it is ready." 

naraba, \ 

ifHa, I ** Please take it if you 
nasai. j require it." 














*' If you have no use for 
it at present, please lend 
it to me." 

yd gozamasu\ **I wish there were 
good {it) is [some {but I hardly think 

\ there are);' hence **I fear 
I there are none." 

Kochira de zonjiie oreba, 
Bere in Tcnowing if-be, 

mdshi-agemasu ga 

say-tviU'lifl^up aUhottgh 

* ' I would tell you if I 
knew {but I dont know.)" 



Kb sureba, dekiru {no) ni. . 

Thus if 'do, forlhcomea whereas.. 

or, with a stronger tinge of blame, 

Hlo sureba, dekiru mono 

Thtis if-do, farthcomes thing 
WO. . , . 

(accus.) • 

" You could do it 
in this way if you tried 
{5u/ you haveriLt tried, 
although you ought to 
have done so)" 

These last three examples are specially important as 
illustrating a whole class of elliptical idioms with which 
Colloquial Japanese abounds, and by which our **I would 
if I could," "I should, had I been able," etc., etc., are 
expressed. It is true that the qualifying particles {ga, nt, 
no ni, mono wo) are sometimes absent ; but they are 
generally there, and the sentence remains unfinished. 
After all, there is nothing to be astonished at in this. 
From the point of view of logic, a conditional sentence is 
always incomplete. For instance, when we say *' I should 
like to travel," the implied rider is ''but I cannot," or 
'•I cannot yet," or some such clause. Compare also the 
words within parenthesis in the examples under discussion. 
Observe that ni final implies regret or reproach, while no nt 
superadds to this a further shade of meaning, showing that 
the thing to be done is either something concerning which 
a command had previously been given, or else that it is a 
point of duty, or that it refers to some other circumstance 
known to both speaker and doer. Mono wo is more em- 
phatic still. It lays still greater stress on the failure to 
perform the desired action, and often alludes to some ac- 
cident or misfortune as the cause of such failure. 

288. Concessive Present and Past, — The peculiar force of 
these forms corresponds most nearly to that of our word 
''though," but is generally best rendered in practice by 
prefixing "but" to the following clause. The orthodox 


*' I have looked for it, 
but can't find it." 


concessive forms given in the paradigms are not often heard 
in actual practice, being mostly replaced by the independent 
word keredo (mo), "though," itself of verbal origin, construed 
with the present or past indicative, thus : 

t.^,t frt '^''^^t) "I'i« distasteful to 

{nom.) ianH. (familiar) j ^*^^'- 

// keredo, 7ie ga takai. 1 ^^ The article is a good 
Good though, 39rice {nvm.) {is) high, jone, but it is too dear." 

Sagashita keredomo, shi- 

Sontght though, can- 

■ remasen. 


Sometimes, instead of keredomo or keredo, we hear the 
longer periphrasis to wa iedo{mo)y lit. ** though one says 
that." Thus oiiaredo{mo)y oiia keredo{mo), and oiia to wa 
iedo{mo) are all synonymous and equally correct. 

T[ 289. A well-marked shade of meaning distinguishes the 
concessive mood proper from expressions closely resem- 
bling it in te mo, de mo and to mo. Thus aitaredomo, 

aita keredo, or atia to wa iedo signifies * * though there was," 
"though there has been," whereas aitd> to* ttie^ mo* (lit. 
"even* saying^ that^ there was^) signifies "though there 
may (or might) have been," and aru to mo signifies " though 
there be." The former set of idioms serves to state facts, the 
latter to hazard suppositions : — 

Kartnakute mo iarimasu. 

Karinai de mo iarimasu, 

Borrowing'-not even, suffices. 

"I have enough, without 
borrowing any more." 

Mtru mo lya desu,) ,,,. ,^ . 

„ ^ ^^ "^ ,, ^ L I can t bear even to see 

Seeing even disagreeable is. r. „ 

or Miru no mo iya desu, ) ^^- 

1 88 THE VERB. 

Iku io mo, yosu io mo,\ 
.0 «*^^, --» --^. .. P..ay suit you..elf whe- 
^ ^ . ^, ^ ftner it be to go or to stay. 

imgitst convetiience according to, I ° -^ 



IwanaJme mo shiiieru, ( '*I know it without your 

Saying'iwt crew, knowinff-am. (telling me. 

N. B. Skittcru stands for shitte iru. See end of \ 294. 

I* * There will be no harm 
done, even if you throw it 
away." Z^. , "You may 
throw it away." 

Sonfta ni yoku tiakule mo 

' ' You need not use such 
a good one." 

Thtts good not^being even, 


(is) good, 

N. B. These examples suggest the manner in which some of our 
idioms with " may," •' need," and ** without " are to be rendered in 

We have already noticed in ^ 118 (p. 83) the force, not 
unlike that of the concessive mood, often inherent in the 
postposition loie. Here is another example : 

Seijin-tachi ga donna 
Sages {nom^ in-^chat 

ni yoUe kangaeia iole, 

way assembling reflected even-if, 

'*That can never be 
known, however much the 
"philosophers may put their 
heads together.'* 

shire ya shinai, 

able'to-h'now as'for, do^noi. 

^ 290. Frequeniaiive Form. — Frequentatives are almost always 
used in pairs, the second member of the pair being generally 
followed by the verb sum, * ' to do. " The fundamental 
force of this tense is either to show that the action denoted 
by the verb is occasional, or else to imply the alternation or 
opposition of two different actions. The English translation 
must vary according to circumstances : — 


KUari konahattari \ '* Sometimes he 

SomeHmeS'Comhiijf aomethnes-not-eomh^ rcomes and SOme- 

s^^asu, Kimes he doesn't." 


Naitari waraitari, . ** There is a great 

8otnetime»-eryinff wnveHmes-taitghing, SCene going on, — tears 

osawagi desu, ' and laughter turn and 

great'h^aOntb {it)U. HUinabout." 

Kagen ga ivarukuie, [ '' IJeel so un- 

BodUystate {nom.) 6elii|y-6rt<l,l well that I divide 

neiari okiiari Jmy time between 

wi»6llw»e«-lylnflr-ffouffa M>m0eii#MS9-f/ef#li>0r-upj getting up and 

sKUe orimasu, jlyinp: down a- 

didtiff am. Igaln. '' 

Tf 291. The ImpercUive occurs in military words of command^ 
such as iotnare ! *' halt !" Sindyasume ! " stand at ease !" But 
in social intercourse, even with the lowest classes, it sounds 
rude, and is therefore rarely employed except in the case 
of a few honorific verbs, for instance asodase, "be pleased 
to do." An honorific periphrasis is mostly preferred, even 
when addressing an inferior, as will be explained in ^ 409. 
It is to that paragraph that the student should devote his 

N. B, Observe, however, the idiomatic use of the imperative in 
such phrases as /^ani shiro! or nani itase ! " do what you may !" " act 
as one will !" Conf. also end oi ^ 186. 

A noteworthy idiom, by means of which the English first 
person plural of the imperative (*' let us . . . .") may generally^ 
be rendered, is shown in the following examples : — 

Kd shiyb ja nai ka ? ( ** Let us do it in this way." 
I7it« tciU-do isn't ? \ (familiar) 

Hana-mi nt ikb ja\ w l^^ ^g go and see the 

Fimvw-aeehig to wUi-go [(cherry, etc.) blossoms.'^ 

artmasen ka P J (polite) 
is-nof 9 

190 THE VERB. 

Or else the future alone (without ja nai ka, etc.) may be 
employed. For instance, Isoide iko may signify, not on^y 
*'Iwill make haste to be off," but ** Let us make haste 
to be off." 


^ 292. Properly speaking, several of the suffixes helping to 
form the moods and tenses are auxiliary verbs which were 
once independent, some of which are indeed still independent 
in other positions. Thus, when we make use of the 
common phrase yoku nemashUa, "I have slept well," the 
polite suffix mashi originally meant ** to be," and the past 
termination ta (for te aru) means ** am having finished," as 
explained in \ 247 and T[ 245. The whole word nemashtta^ 
resolved into its constituent parts, therefore signifies '*am 
having finished being asleep." Many verbal stems, too, 
have been built up by means of the verbs aru, *'tobe," 
and eru, ** to get," as : 

atsumaru, ''to collect" (intr.); atsumeru, **to collect" (trans.); 
suwaru, * 'to squat;" sueru, "to set." 

N, B, Uneducated persons use such forms in aru unnecessarily 
when they say, for instance, narabaru, " to be in a row ;" akatte imasuy 
" it is open." The simpler forms ftarabu and aite imasu are the correct 

^ 293. More modern, and still felt to be separate and 
independent words, are the following auxiliaries : 

ArUy '* to be," which is often construed with the gerund 
of an active verb, to give a sense which we should render by 
a passive idiom, thus : 

MuzukasKiku kaiie aru\ 

JHffijcuX/Oy tvrUinff is 

kara, waiakushi-domo ni 

becauact the-lik^a-of-me to 

zva, yomemasen, 

aa-for, is-^tnreadahie. 

'* It is written in too diffi<:ult 
a hand for me to be able to 
'read it." {More /it. " It is in such 
difficult writing that,'* etc.) 


Furoshiki ni isuisunde 

* • It is wrapped up in a 

cloth. " {More lit. It is in a 
state of wrapped- up-ness in a 

CUiOi-wtappev in havinff-wrapped 


N. B, The corresponding active phrases " is writing," " is wrapping 
up," etc., would be rendered by kaite iru or oru^ tsutsunde iru or oruy 
as explained in ^ 294. Notice, moreover, that these quasi-passive 
idioms with art4 always denote something which is done already ^ not 
something which is being done, that is to say that they are never what 
English grammarians term " continuative tenses." They are also rather 
intransitive in intention than properly passive. 

The most frequent use of am as an auxiliary is to form 
compound equivalents for the probable present or future, 
and for several of the tenses of the negative voice, thus : 

Kuru de arb or huru daro, for koyOf * * will probably come. " 

Konai de alia or konaidalla, for konakalla, '* did not 

Konai de allarb or konai dallarb, for konakallarb, '* has 
probably not come." 

For daro, dalla, etc., may be substituted their polite 
equivalents deshb, deshila, etc., already mentioned on 
p. 171, thus : kuru deshb, konai deshila, konai deshtlarb. 
Notice that the compound future expresses a somewhat 
stronger shade of doubt than the simple future. Aru is also 
replaced by the politer gozaru in such phrases as naorimashtle 
gozaimasuj for naoriniashila, * * He has got well again. " The 
lower classes, too, when addressing their superiors, frequently 
use the periphrasis gozaimasen de gozaimasu in lieu of simple 
gozaimasm, " there is not'' 

f 294. Iru and oru, **to be," construed with the gerund, 
form continuative tenses corresponding to such English 
expressions as *' I am reading," *' I was writing," *' I shall 
be working, " etc. , thus : 

192 THE VERB. 

I " What is he doing ? 
I *' He is still sleeping/' 

Nam wo shtie imasu P 

What {accus.) dainff is f 
Mada nek ortmasu. 

8tm Oeepinff is, 

Necha i??iasumaL \ *'He is not likely to be 

Sleepinff-as'fof, inHib€aily-iS"not, ) sleeping,*' (emphatic gerand) 

Kesa kara kumotte 

This-^ncming since, ^oudinff 

orimashiia ga, tbtb ame ni 
had-been whereas, fltiaUy rain to 

naite kimasKUa, 

having-hecanie has-eotne, 

Ei no icht-ri to, Nihon 
England 's cne^niUe and, JTapanese 
no ichi-ri to, dochira ga 
's one-league and, which {ttom.) 

nohUe imasho P 

extending probabl/y-is ? 

**It has been clouding 
over {or cloudy) since the 
morning, and now at last it 
has come on to rain." 

"Which do you think is 
the longer, an English mile 
or a Japanese r/?" 

Kite orimasu, j " He is having come. 

j "H( 

Having-come is. \i,e.f "He has come. 

In such an instance as the last, the simple past kimasKUa 
would be less clear ; for it might only mean that the man 
had come and had gone away again, whereas kite orimasu 
can only mean that he has come and is still there. 

Sometimes we must translate such sentences by the 
English passive, Japanese idiom almost invariably preferring 
the neuter, thus : 

Mada dekite imasen ka P 

Stat forthcoming is-nol 

Very often the word iru, "to be," loses its initial 1 after 
the gerund, especially in the present tense, and we hear 
neteru for nete iru, *' is sleeping ;" kaiteru for kaite iru, " is 
written " (lit. " is writing "), etc. This is a good example of 
the tendency of the Japanese language to turn independent 

^^ ^ I " Isn't it finished yet ?" 


words into agglutinated suffixes. In very vulgar paHance 
the particle wa, used with an exclamatory force, often 
coalesces with a preceding tru. Thus nat^e ira f '" oh I he 
is crying." Such expressions are to be carefully avoided. 
JV, B, Observe, too, that tru is often politely replaced by irassharu, 

\ 295. Kuru^ '* to come," construed with the gerund, forms 
what grammarians of certain other eastern Asiatic languages 
have termed " illative " tenses, — " illative " because they 
superadd to the main idea the subsidiary idea of motion 
towards the speaker or the person addressed, thus : 

Kippu wo katte 

Ttek€t {accus.) ha/vlng-bought 


"I will go and buy a 

Vonde kimasko ka ?{ ''Shall I go and call 

IBLfwina-fsaata auai{I)eame ? {him ?" 

Omoshirot koto wo iite \ 

AmuMng iMng{,accus.)sayiHo[ *' He haS told US a funny 
ktta. J story." 


N, B. Observe how English sometimes exactly reverses the Japanese 
idiom, vising ** to go " where Japanese has ** to come." In other cases, 
as iu the last of the above examples, the word '* come " must simply be 
omitted in English as saperflaoas. 

^296. Miru, ''to see," construed with the gerund, shows 
that ah action is to hfi' attempted, but without any very 
great effort, — that it is to be, as the slang phrase has it, just 

' taken a shot at : ^ 

Yatte mimasho. {^^^^^ \^, 'j^f. ^'" J"^* '^^ "^ ''^"^ 

Kiiie tniru ga «. ) "You had better 

AMMang to-^ee (nom.) ia^ood. ) enquire." 

194 THE VERB. 

Neie miie mo neraremasen \ 

Sleeping trying even, emdd-not-^eep ( "I tried tO take a 
desAUa. i nap, but couldn't" 

^297. Nara{da), "if it be," serves to form a compound 
conditional (see p. 185). 

*|f 289. OkUj " to put," construed with the gerund, indicates 
the full and complete settling of a matter, thus : 

Kippu wo kaUe 

TMcet {accus.) having-bmtght 

* ' I have got my ticket 
all right" 

Kangaeie oiie kudasai. ( ' ' Please think the matter 

RefieeHng putting eondeaeend. (well OVer, " 

''I think I will put it 
down in my note-book ($0 
as to be sure to remember it). " 

"There is nothing for it 
•but to let the matter rest 

Techo ni tsukete ' 

Note-hook in having-fhoed 


Sore made no koto ni shtte^ 

That tm *s thing to doing 

oku hoka, shi'kata ga 
to-put beeidea, way-to-do (nom.) 



Atsuraete oita. \ <<ihave ordered it (at a 

Saving-ordered 7utve-put, Ishoo"^ 

(More politely okimashtta). J ^ '* 

N, B, The word oita in this last example shows that the speaker thinks 
that the order will be satisfactorily execated. Atsuraete Hta would 
mean that one \aAjust come from leaving the order with the shopman. 

Oku suffixed often causes e final of the preceding gerund 
to be clipped in hurried speech, — atsuraete oita, for instance, 
becoming atsuraet'oita, 

Tf 299. Shimau, "to finish," construed with the gerund, 
expresses the completion of an action, thus : 


Shinde shimaita. (familiar) ) 
JBTaviMfjr died haa-fitUthed, ) 

Isha sama ni naiie 

JPhyaieian Mr. to having-heeonne 








" He is dead and gone." 
"He has become a 

doctor.*' (after having had 
several other professions in view) 

" He has carried it off,*' 

shimaimasho. ( "I think I will throw it 
(/ )-toiu-/lnl«ik. ( aiuay, * * 

Toid hom-huri ni naite 
AirUut fnain-failina to Juwlng-beeonte 



''It has ended fy 
turning into a regular 
wet day." 

N. B, " M^in-falling/' in this last examine, having been supposed 
by some students of the first edition to be a misprint for *' rain-£alUng/' 
it may be well to point out that hon^ " main (rain)," is here antithetical 
to " occasional (rain)," or what we should call " a shower," '^z.^.yudachi. 

Beginners might easily be led into misapprehension by 
attributing to shimau an independent force, instead of look- 
ing on it as a simple auxiliary to the verb which precedes 
it This point requires attention. Thus neie shimaita does 
not mean *' He has finished sleeping," but rather '* He has 
finished by sleeping," or more simply *' He has gone to 
sleep." Deie shimaimasKita does not mean " He has finished 
going out," but " He has gone out." 

^ 300. The negative present of sum or iiasu, *'to do," con- 
strued with the indefinite form of any verb and the 
postposition wa, forms an emphatic equivalent for the 
negative present of that verb. In such contexts wa is 
generally pronounced^a in familiar intercourse (con f. p. 88) : 

196 THE VERB. 

:l«-;^.£T^£r i " There ,W/ an,." 
Sonna koio wa, ii 

' * i shouid never dream of 
saying such a thing." 

a%iah iMng aa-for, sayinff 

ya iiashimasen. 

aa'for, (/) do-notr-do. 

Mo ki ya itashimaseH, ( " I am 5«rtf he won't 

Again comififf aa-for, (^^) tirfll fi«<-<lo. |come again." 

When two such clauses are co-ordinated, mo replaces wa 
in both, thus ; 

*' I neiiher saw nor 
heard anything. " 

Afi mo shinai, kiki mo ^ 

Seeing even do-not, hearing even 


do-^ot, {/am/iar) 

The first of two clauses thus co-ordinated is often put in 
the conditional, strange as such a construction may seem to 
European ideas. Thus the last example might equally well 
read thus : Mi mo shinakereba, kiki mo shinaL Indeed this 
last would be the most strictly grammatical manner of 
expressing the idea; for the two clauses would then be 
' correlated syntactically, according to the rule explained in 
^^ 278 — 279 (pp. 178-9), sezu being the negative gerund 
ofsuru, " to do." 

f 301. Faru, *'to send," ''to give," construed with the 
gerund, often helps to form a periphrasis for the simple 
verb when that verb is a transitive one, the peiiphrasis 
always retaining something of the idea of ''giving," as in 
the following examples : 

basKiie yarn, or dasu. "To put outside." 

" I will give him a beat- 

Buiie yariviashiK 

mg. {Buchimashd would be 
simply '* I will beat him.*') 


. w f "I am going to give 
Inu wo toxie ^«;«»;«»- the dog his liberty V 

{Inu wo tokimasu would be simply " I am going to ontic the dog.") 

Daiku ni koshiraesasete 

Carpenter by, cauHng'to^repare 

''I think I will let the 
carpenter make one." 

(Either in order to ^v^ Mm 
work, or in order to benefit 
some poor person). 

There are a few more auxiliary verbs ; but as their force 
is purely honorific, the student is referred to ^ 402 et seq,, 
where the subject of honorific verbs is discussed at length. 
f 302. The Japanese have a great fondness for rounding off 
their sentences by one of the equivalents for " to be," or by 
kurUj okUf shimauy or yaru. The plain verb, without one 
or other of these auxiliaries, is apt to sound bald. We do 
not mean to say that the auxiliaries are meaningless ex- 
pletives. Far from it They always retain in the mind of 
the Japanese speaker a portion of their original force. But 
whereas English idiom for the most part simply states the 
occurrence of an action, Japanese idiom delights in 
describing more particularly the manner of the action's 
occurrence with reference to the subsidiary ideas of 
"coming/* '* finishing," etc., which the auxiliaries express. 
For instance, an English maid- servant, speaking of a piece 
of dirty linen, will say *' I will have it washed. Sir." Her 
Japanese sister would say ArawashUe okimasho^ lit. " Having 
caused (some one) to wash (it, I) will put (it)," that is to say, 
**I will have it washed, and there it ivill be.** The simple 
verb merely states a dry fact. The addition of the auxiliary 
makes the action seem to pass vividly before you. The 
sentence becomes lifelike and picturesque. 


The Verb (concluded). 


303. The Japanese language has no special conjugation for 
the passive voice. All passive verbs belong to the second 
(active) conjugation, the paradigm of which has been given 
on p. 156. They are derived from the corresponding active 
or neuter verbs according to the following rule : — 

In verbs of the ist conjugation add rem, in verbs of the 
2nd and 3rd conjugations add rareru^ to the negative base, 
thus : 










" to wait ;" maiareru, "to be {more lit to 

get) waited for." 

" to put ;" okareru, " to be put" 

' ' to laugh ;" warawareru, " to be laughed at. " 

" to call ;" yobarerUy " to be called." 

" to kick ;" kerareru, 
" to eat ;" taherareru, 

" to shoot ;" irarerUy 
" to look ;" mirareru. 

"to be kicked." 
"to be eaten." 

"to be shot." 
"to be looked at." 

The irregular verbs kuru^ to come ;" shinuru, " to die ;" 
and 5«r«, ** to do," have the passives korareru, shinareru^ 
and serareru respectively. The polite termination masti is 
not susceptible of the passive form. 


^ 304. A glance at the origin of the Japanese passive will 
furnish the student with a key to all the difficulties con- 
nected with it. Properly speaking, the so-called passive is 
not a passive at all, but an active in disguise. Such a form 
as uiareru^ for instance, is etymologically uchi^ art* ert^, as 
literally as possible " to get* being* beatingV' i.e , " to get 
a beating," ''to get beaten," hence "to be beaten." 
Similarly irareru is from the stem i*, a euphonic r, and ari 
eruj i.e., "to get being shooting," " lo get a shooting," 
'* to get shot." Hence the place of all passive verbs in the 
second conjugation along with the verb erUy *' to get." 
Hence, too, the fact that intransitive verbs are susceptible of 
passive forms, such 2iS/urarerUf ** to get rained upon," *' to 
have it rain," fromy^r«, "to rain;" shinareru, "to have 
some one die." 

1[ 305. This curious idiom may be better illustrated by some 
complete sentences, thus : 

" Oh ! you will have 

OioHsan ni okorareru 

Plnqpa hy {you) wm^fe-gU-angry, 


(or make) papa angry 
with you ;" more liL 
" You will be got angry 
,wilh by papa." 

'*A man doesn't know 
what to do, when he has 
such guests as those come to 
the house ;" more HL "when 
he is come to by such 

Or take from the opening sentence of the second chapter of 
the '*Boian Dord " in the Practical Part of this work, the words 

Go shimpu sama ni wa naku 

August retd'father Mr. hy aa-f&r, non-existent 

Harare. . . . 


Anna kyaku ni korarecha, 

Such guests by getttng-come-i 

meiwaku shima^, 

perplexity does. 



Parsed literally, they signify^ ''Being died by his father;" 
but they simply mean *' Having had his father die/' or, as 
we should generally express it, "Having lost his father." 
N, B. As shown in the above iDstances, the preposition "by " of 
English passive constructions is expressed by the postposition ni. Some 
further examples will be found in f 105. 

*![. 306. The following examples are of a somewhat different 
nature : 

Ano Kiio wa, dare ni 
That permm a»-fcr, everybody 

de mo homerarete imasu. 

hy even, geUing-praiaed ia. 

Kono inu wa, muyami ni 
This dog as-for, veiMeaAy 

hoeru kara^ hiio 

harha beeauee, people 


Kubi wo hanerareia, 

Mead {acctis.) got-atrueh-off* 

* * He is praised by every 

As At wo 

I^eg (accus.) 

(/ ) have-^ot'biUen. 



''This dog gets itself 
^^ ^disliked, because it is for 
^ ever barking.*' 

"He got his head cut 
off," less lU, "His head was 
I cut off." 

" I have had my leg 

«n bitten by a dog;" less lit. 

fty)"I have been biiten in the 

leg by a dog ;" siill less lit. 

' ' My leg has been bitten by 


Osha koto ni wa^ yukyo ni 

J^egrettaUe fitet ae-for, plettaure by, 
kokoro wo ubatmremaskiie, 
heart {accus.) having-got-aioien, 
gyd ga orosoka ni 

buaineaa {nam.) remiaaneaa to 

has-beeome, { 

iV. B. The phraseology of this last example would hardly be 
understood by the lower classes. 

" I am sorry to say that 
he has become engrossed in 
^{lit. has got his heart stolen 
by) pleasure, and has become 
remiss in his work." 


Tf 507. The presence ofwa in such examples as the last three 
is apt to puzzle the beginner. But there is nothing really 
illogical about it. The word accompanied by zva actually 
ts in the accusative in Japanese, as shown by the literal 
translations we have given. It is not in any way the subject 
of the sentence. That its English equivalent in a free 
translation may happen to be the indirect object of the verb, 
or even a nominative, only shows how necessary it is for 
those who would speak idiomatically to get into the habit of 
looking at ideas from the Japanese point of view. The real 
nominative here, as in sentences of every kind, is very 
rarely expressed in Japanese. (Conf. ^ 131, p. 92.) 

T 308 It is important for the student, when occupied with 
Japanese passive constructions proper, to compare what has 
been said in Tf 293 (p. 190) concerning an intransitive 
idiom w'lih aru, ''to be," by which the English passive is 
frequently expressed. To that paragraph he is accordingly 

T 309. The passive passes by a natural transition into the 
potential sense. If such and such an action is performed 
by me, evidently I am able to perform it. If it is not 
performed by me, a somewhat hasty logic will assume that 
I am not able to perform it. Hence ohareru may mean 
either " to be put," or ''to be able to put ;" korareru may 
mean either " to have some one else come to one " ( " to be 
corned'"), or "to be able to come." 

N, B. The single form onwwareruy from omou, " to think," is 
somewhat exceptional. When taken potentially, it does not mean 
" to be able to think." but •' to venture to think,'* " I am inclined to 

N. B, For the natural transition of these passive-potential forms 
to an honorific sense, see ^ 403. 



Ano HUo ni wa, sake wa 

That person hy aa-for, liquor as-'for 

Gozen ga taberaremasen. 

Biee (ftom,) geU-not-eaten, 

Ikareso mo nau 

Iiiik4Ayi»-be-ak^'Uk-go even am-noi. 

(or more politely gozaimasu), 

Mazukuie taheraremasen, 

Being-nasiy, eannot^eat. 

** He cannot drink 
sake.'* (More lit " Sake 
does not get drunk by 

) "I can't taste a 
J morsel. 

'*One can go." 

}*' I am not likely to 
be able to go." 

f" It is too nasty lo 

Kyo no 



Ih-'day 'a 





korae-l «*The heat to- 
oanno«-Uay fg unbear- 
I able. 

T[ 310. Potentiality is often otherwise expressed by means 
of the verb dekiru, a corruption of the Classical {t)de'kuru, 
"to come out," to " forthcome." Dekiru has assumed the 
signification of "to eventuate," *'to take place," "to be 
ready," "to be done," "possible," but must often be 
rendered in English by the active "can," "can do," thus : 

Waiak&shi wa agaru koto gd 

Me aa-for, 'go-^tp faiet{nom) 

dekimasen kara, anaia ga 

foriheomea-not heeauae, you (nom.) 

tde kudasaru koto 
honourdUeexU condeaeend fotet (nom.) 
dekimasu fiara, me ni 

fortheomea if, honouriMe eyea on 


The original intransitive meaning of dekiru sufficiently 
explains why this verb is construed with the nominative 

"As I cannot go 
to you, I can only 
^^Vsee you if you will 
be so kmd as to 
come to me." 



particle ga, and not with the accusative particle z^<?, — a point 
which foreigners often fail to grasp. 

^ 3ii. Impossibility is sometimes expressed by means of the 
\txh kaneruy "to be unable," "cannot," which is suffixed to 
the indefinite form, thus : 

Sekkaku no sasoi 

SpeeUOrpaina of hcnournUe invUaHon 

de gozatmasu ga, — konnichi wa 

is aUthough, to-day 


"I am sorry I 

cannot avail myself 
of your exceedingly 
kind invitation for 

Makoio ni moshi-kanemashiia 

3VM</i in say-eaidd-not 

ga, — kasa wo ip^pon 

aUhough, umbreUa(<(iccus,) one-piecey 

kashi kudasaimashu 

honcvroMy lending 

"I hardly like to 
ask you for it, but 
would you kindly 
lend me an um- 

This idiom, which is inherited from the Written Lan- 
guage, is now heard only from the lips of the educated. 

^312. The verb morau, "to receive" (more politely Uadaku^ 
"to put on the head," in allusion to the Japanese custom 
of raising a present to the forehead), construed with the 
gerund, helps to form an idiom which closely resembles the 
so-called passive both in formation and meaning, thus : 

Shimbun wo yonde morau, 

Newspaper {accf4S.) reading to-receive, 

i.e. , '* to receive [somebody else's] reading of the newspaper," 
or, as we should generally say, " to have the newspaper read 
aloud to one." 

Monde morau, 
Butbing to-reeeive. 

( "To have one- 
( self shampooed. " 

204 THE VERB. 

Asa hayaku okoshtfe 

JUIorfUnff eatrly, nnuHng 


**I \yish to be 
called early in the 

Doka go shitsen zvo shtie 

Fleage mtffust oaHsianee {actus.) doing^ 

UadakUd gozaimas^, 

tcishing'to-reeeive am* 

' * I wish you 
would be so very 
kind as to help me/' 

(very polite) 

N, B, These last two examples show how wishing is expressed in 
the passive voice, the desiderative adjective of passive verbs not being in 
colloqoial use. 

^313. Many English passive verbs must be rendered by 
Japanese intransitives. This happens when the idea is one 
which does not necessarily imply the action of an outer 
agent, as in kutdbirerUy "to be tired;" odoroku^ "to be 
astonished;" tasUkaru, "to be saved" (not by another 
person, which would be the passive tasukerareru, but rather 
"to be safe owing to having escaped from danger") \yoro- 
kobu, '* to be pleased ; " hasen^ ni* au*^ " to be shipwrecked," 
lit "to meet* with* shipwreck.*" ' After all, "to be tired," 
"to be astonished," "to be pleased," are not necessarily 
passive ideas even in English, as may be seen by comparing 
them with such synonyms as "to be weary," "to wonder," 
"to rejoice." 

N. B, Many of the verte here spoken of are inchoative, i.e., they 

mark the beginning of a condition For instance, hutabireru means 

properly " to become tired ; ** nttreru is " to get wet ; " kawaku is " to get 

dry." "I am tired" is expressed hy kiitabirete iru, or by the ^st 

• tense kutabiremashtia. Similarly : 

Nurete wtasu, or Nuremaskita, " I am (ie., have become) wet." 

"Your clothes are dry" (i.e„ 
Kimono ga kawakimasktta, . have become dry after having 

been wet). 


^314- The aversion of the Japanese language to the use of 
passive constructions is strongly marked. In nine cases out 
of ten, the English passive must be replaced either by one of 
the intransitive verbs just mentioned, or by an active though 
subjectless construction, thus : 

Risuk^ i(^ ii^ oioko\ '^A man called Risiike;" lit "A 
man* (of whom people) say* that* (he is) RisQke^" 

Kyo-net^ icUeicf ucht^, *' A house built last year," lit ''A 
house* (Which some one) built* last-year.*" 
: Ai^ nt* nanmasen*, *' It is not to be depended upon," It'/. 
*' (It) becomes-not* to* reliance^" 

Yosfnid}' ho^ ga^ yokaro*, **It had better be given up," ///, 
"The forbore* side* will-probably-be-good*." 

Kore^ wc? nani^ ni* isukaimast^ ? " What is this used for?" 
lU, " As-fof* this', (people) use* (it) for* what* ? " 

Kor^ zva^y nan^ de^ dekiie^ orimast^ ? '* What is this made 
of? " /wf. *' As-for* lhis\ what* by* forthcoming is* ? " 

Konnd}^ ianst^ wa^, doko* d^ kaemastf ? ' ' Where are such 
cabinets as this to be bought ? " //*/. ' * As-for' such* cabinets*, 
where* at* are-buyable* ? " 

These examples, together with those given on pp. 57 — 8 
and in ^[439, besides others scattered throughout the volume, 
may serve to show the student how passive idioms are 
avoided. He could hardly do better than forbid himself the 
use of them altogether during the first six months of his 
battle with the language. 


^315. Japanese has a large class of verbs which it is generally 
convehijent to translate by English passive or potential 

: idioms, bat which in Japanese itself are, properly speaking, 
intraiisitiye. Even in English we feel a difference between 

206 • THE VERB, 

two such assertions as '* The gold is melting in the furnace,** 
and " The gold is being melted in the furnace." In the first 
case the melting appears as a spontaneous event; in the 
second case it is explicitly declared to be the work of some outer 
agent The verb of the former corresponds to the Japanese 
iokerUt " to melt " (intransitive) ; that of the latter to hkareru, 
" to get melted " (passive derived from the transitive hJtu, 
"to melt"). There are thus numbers of intransitive verbs 
of the second conjugation, formed from transiiives of the 
first conjugation by changing the termination u into eru : — 


kaku, kakeru, "to write." 

kiru, kireru, "to cut." 

ioku^ tokeru, " to melt." 

torn, ioreru, "to take." 

uru, ureru, "to sell." 

yomu, yomeru, "to read." 

^316. The Iransitives Jdru, uru, yomu, etc., are used in 
translating such phrases as "to cut a slab of stone," "to 
sell goods," " to read a sentence." The in transiiives kireru, 
ureru, yomeru, are used in translating such phrases as " This 
stone cuts easily," "These goods sell cheaply," "This 
sentence does not read well." The Japanese construction 
is less closely followed, but practical convenience often best 
served, by employing the word "can," thus : 

" You can cut this stone easily." 
" These goods can be sold cheaply." 

More especially is this the case when the original verb is 
itself intransitive according to English ideas, thus : tkUj " to 
go ;" ikerUj " (I) can go." But there is never any reference 
to " I " or *' can " in the mind of the Japanese speaker. 


Tf 317. The difference between the intransitives in eru and the 
true potentials in areru and rareru is that the latter tend 
to express moral ability — "may" rather than ''can," — 
because the moral ability to perform an action depends on 
the sanction of a law outside the agent ; whereas the forms 
in eru express a physical ability — **can" rather than 
** may," — because the physical ability to perform an action 
is generally independent of any outer will. Thus ikemasu 
means '* one can go" (because the way is easy, or because 
one is a good walker). Ikaremasu means " one can go " 
(because there is no prohibition against so doing). It is 
true that the two forms are sometimes confounded, just as 
English speakers occasionally use *' can't " where * * mayn't " 
would be more appropriate. 

N, B, Ikenai (politely ikemasen) is an idiom of constant occurrence 
in the sense of ** (that) won't do." 

T[ 318. The difference in meaning between the passive forms 
in areru and rareru and the intransitives in eru, the former 
implying, and the latter not implying, the action of an outer 
agent, may be illustrated by the following example. Kirare^ 
mashtia would be used in speaking of a man who had been 
killed (lit. cut) by some highwayman or other person. 
Kireta would be used in speaking of a rope which had 
snapped spontaneously, or of friendly intercourse which had 
dropped without either of the parties to it formally breaking 
with each other. 

T[ 319. Verbs belonging to the second and third conjugations 
are not capable of forming intransitives in eru, and therefore 
make shift with the passive potentials in rareru. Note 
however mieru, "to be visible," "to seem," formed 
irregularly from miru^ " to see." Like it is kikoeru, "to be 
audible," formed from kiku, " to hear." 



Sbzoshikuie kikoemasen, 

Betng-noUy, is-twt-audUde. 

lenai koto wa nai. 
CktnvMi'ac^ fact iMa^for, iS'tiot. 

Kono mama de wa irarenai. 

TMa fdsMon by €ts-for, cannat-be. 

Kore de wa^ iotemo tkemasen, 

TMa bff a»~for, positively goes-not. 

Tf 32a The following are a few examples of intransitives : 

** There is such a 
row, I can't bear a 

I "It can be said 
{though in practice 
people do not often 

( ** We can t go on 
(in this way." . 

( **This won't do at 
all.'^ ' 

Do de mo shire ya 

Anyhow he-hnawabie as-fovA ** There is no means 

shinai. {ya =.wa ; see N. B. to p. 88.) [of knowing. ' 

r\ "' 



Jieing-naa y, ia-undrinkable. 

•* It is too nastv to 





( '^It 


is too nasty to 



ni tua 

ie ga 
hand iftom.) 

yomemasu\ ''Oh 1 yes, one can 
*»-re€ttfaWe read it; but it is ex- 
wartimeXx^^y^^Xy difficult, owing 
Mng-hadA^^ the badness of the 
) handwriting." 

koto no hoka mendo \desu, 

eactrctordinarily troubleaome ia. 

Observe the repetition of the verb at the beginning of this 
last example. A specially strong emphasis is often expressed 
by this idiom, for which see T[ 124 (p. 88). 


^321. In English the same word commonly does duty both 
as a transitive and as an intransitive verb, the.conl^xt alone 
determining in which of these acceptations it is to be 
understood. Sometimes the. passive does duty' for the 



intransitive, sometimes altogether different words are 
employed. In Japanese the transitive and intransitive 
meanings are almost always expressed by different verbs 
derived trom the same root, thus : 


aku^ I St. conj., "to 

be open ;" 
hajimaru, ist. conj., **to 

begin ;" 
hirakerUy 2nd. conj., **to 

become civilised ;" 
kaeru, ist. conj., '*to 

return f 
kakureruy 2nd. conj., "to 

hide (oneself) ;" 
naoru, ist. conj., "to 

get well ;" 
nohiru, 3rd. conj., "to 

stretch ;" 
orerUy 2nd. conj., "to 

break f 
oriru, 3rd. conj., "to 

descend ;" 
soroUy ist. conj., "to 

match f 
i.isukaru, ist. conj., "to 

be saved ;" 
taisuy ist. conj., "to 

stand '" 
yakeru, 2nd. conj., "to yakuy ist. conj., "to 

bum;*' burn." 


akeru, 2nd. conj., "to 

hajimeru, 2nd. conj., "to 

hirakUy ist. conj., " to 

kaesu, ist. conj., 

kakusu, I St. conj., 

naosu, ist. conj., 

cure. " 
nohasu, ist. conj., 

oru, ist. conj., 

orosu, 1st. conj., 

soroeruy 2nd. conj., "to 

iasukeru, 2nd. conj., "to 

save. " 
tateru, 2nd. conj., "to 

set up." . 




N» B, Sometimes only one of the pair is in modern use, e.g., hosu^ 
" to dry " (1st. conj., trans.), the corresponding intransitive of which- — 
hiru (3rd. conj.) — is now always replaced by the synonymous verb 

^322. The derivation of these pairs of verbs from a common 
root follows no fixed rule. Practice and the dictionary are 
the only guides. At the same time we may note that : 

I. Numbers of intransitives of the ist. conjugation end 
in aru, thus : 

Such mostly have 
I corresponding transi- 
l tives in eru belonging 
1 to the 2nd. conjugation, 
I thus, aralameru, kakeru, 
]kasaneru, etc. 

araiamaruy *' to be reformed." 

kakaru, "to hang." 

kasanaru, " to be piled up." 

mazaru, **to be mixed." 

sadamaru, *' to be fixed." 

iodomaru, ' ' to stop. " 

The reason for such verbs in aru all being intransitives 
is that they are formed by the agglutination of the substantive 
verb aru, " to be," to the stem. 

^323. II. Numbers of transi tives of the ist. conjugation 
have stems ending in s, thus ; 

The corresponding 
-intransitives follow no 
fixed analogy. 

Tiie s terminating the stem of such verbs is probably — in 
many cases at least — a fragment of the auxiliary suru^ ** to 


" to extinguish." 


-to break." 


*'to turn." 


"to give back." 


"to remove." 


"to boil." 



^ 324. The Japanese language has no reflective verbs. Bat 
we may, before quitting the subject of intransitive verbs, 
draw attention to the fact that many Japanese intransitives 
correspond to European reflectives, as, for instance, the 
following : 


asohuy *' to amuse oneself' (** to play "). 

haiaraku, *' to exert oneself" ("to work "). 

kutabireru, '* to tire oneself" (** to get tired "). 

shitagau, *' to conform oneself" (*' to obey "). 

Many compounds with sum likewise correspond to 
English reflectives, thus : 

jisaisu surUy *'to kill oneself" ("to commit 

suicide "). 
manzoku suru, "to content oneself" ("to be 

content "). 
shiiaku wo sum, ' * to prepare oneself " ( " to get 

ready "). 
iaikuisu sum, "to bore oneself" ("to get 

bored "). 
iV. B, The alternative non-reflective English equivalents, which we 
have given for each of the ahove, will saf&ce to show how easy it is to 
render a reflective idea in some other way, and how natural it therefore 
was for the Japanese mind not to hit on the reflective form of verbal 

In cases where the word "self" would be emphasised in 
English, Japanese idiom adds some other word to the 
phrase. Speaking, for instance, of a child amusing himself 
(playing), one would simply say Asonde orimasH, whereas 
the emphatic ** He is amusing hwise^" (i.e. playing alone) 
would be Htiori de asonde orimasu. 



^325. Causative verbs are derived from transitives or intran- 
sitives according to the following rule : — 

In verbs of the ist. conjugation add serUy in verbs of 
the 2nd. and 3rd. conjugations add saseru, to the negative 
base, thus : 

(korosuy "to kill f korosaseru, '' to cause to kill." 
oku, *' to put ;" okaseru, ' ' to cause to put. " 

o -< ( ** \r\ cause to know 

'shim, -to know;" shtraseru, j.^^ -to inform." ' 

.yomuy ** to read ;" yomaseru, '' to cause to read. 



. , . „ C to cause to obtain/' 

eru, ' ' to obtam ; esaseru, | ^. ^^ ,, ^^ ^ j^^ ,, 

I \ tt^ * " / z ('*to cause to eat," 

taheru, ' ' to eat ; iabesaseru, U^^ ,, ^^ ^^^^ „ 

^^iahirUf '' to bathe ;" ahtsaseru, *' to cause to bathe. "^ 

^"iywi- ('*tocometo isukisase- ('*to cause to come 
^]^suhru,)^ an end;" ru, | to an end." 

N, B, The s of the causative temiination is probably a fragment 
of the verb sum, ** to do." 

The chief irregular verbs are made causative as follows : 
kuru, "to come ;" kosaseru, " to cause to come. *' 
shinurUj '* to die ;" shinaseru, "to cause to die." 
suruj "to do ;" saseru, " to cause to do." 

The polite termination 7nasu is not susceptible of the 
causative form. 

\ 336. An alternative method of forming the causative, which 
belongs to the Written Language, but which may still 
occasionally be heard from the lips of the educated, is to 
agglutinate shtmeru zxidlseshimeru instead ofseru and saseru 
respectively, thus : horosashimeru, eseshtmeru, isYdiseshimeru. 


N, B. The verb imashimeru^ " to warn," is an interesting example 
of this method of formation. Forjthoagh now current as a transitive 
verb, it is evidently nothing more than the old causative of imu, " to 
shun." When you warn a man of a thing, you naturally cause him 
to shun it. 

T 327. All causatives are conjugated according to the paradigm 
of the second conjugaiion (p. 156) and are, like other verbs, 
susceptible of the passive voice, thus : 

shiraserareru, *' to be caused to know/' i,e,, to be 

informed. " 
iabesaserareru, ** to be caused to eat," ue., "to be fed." 
abisaserareru, * * to be caused to bathe. " 
In practice, however, these complicated forms are rarely 

^328. The Japanese causative includes several shades o 
meaning. Thus koshiraesaseru, the causative of koshiraeru 
to prepare," must be rendered sometimes by "to cause to 

prepare" or "to make prepare," sometimes by "to 

allow to prepare" or "to let. .. .prepare." The funda- 
mental idea of the causative is that while the action is 
actually performed by one person, the question as to 
whether it shall be performed at all is in some way or othe* 
decided by another person. 

N, B. In a few exceptional cases the causation is purely imaginary. 
For instance, you hope it will not rain to-morrow, and you say Myonichi 
furasetaku nai^ lit " (I) do not wish to cause (it) to rain to-morrow." 

^329. In causative constructions, the noun standing for the 
person who is made to perform the action is marked by the 
postposition niy and the noun standing for the person or 
thing the action is performed upon is marked by the 
postposition wo. 



Kiku WO uekt-ya ni 

Chrysanthetnnms (acctts.), gardenet* by, 

sugu ni uesashtle kudasau 

imniedUitelfj ca^isinrfHo-plant condescend. 

'* Please make the 
gardener plant out the 
chrysanthemums at 



futsugb na 



wo yojidey 

{accus,) havino'CaUed, 
iokoro wo 

jila^e {acctis.) 

S!a iu 

t€>-cause-to-repair (tfom.) {is) good. 

Ima kozukai ni ii-lsukele, 

Now coolie to commanding, 

niwa no soji wo saseru 
garden 's cleansing {accus.) to'canse'to-do 

ga u, 

(jM^m.) (is) good. 

*' It will be as well ta 
send for the carpenter, 
and get him to repair 
the broken places." 

*' You had better tell 
-the coolie to come and 
sweep up the garden." 

'* I tell you it will 
end by his getting 
bullied into treating 
the other fellow to 

*' Please tell the 

messenger to wait 

while I write an 
answer. *' 

Tsumari sake de mo kawase-\ 

At-laat liquor even to-be-eaused- 

rareru no deshb yo I 

to-b%iy fact wUl-ptiibalbly'-he, oh! 

(Example of passive of causative from 
the " Botan-Dordr) 

Henji wo kaiie iru kara, 
Answer {accus.') writing am becattse, 

isukai no mono wo matasKite 

fitessage 's person {accus.) cnusing-tO'wait 



A\ B. The gerunds uesasMte and matasKite should, strictly speak- 
ing, be uesasete and matasete, according to the paradigm of the second 
conjugation to which all causative verbs belong. But it is very usual 
injordinary conversation thus to make the gerund of such causative verbs 
follow the analogy of the first conjugation. 

^ 330. Do not confound transitive verbs of the first conjuga- 
tion whose stem happens to end in 5, such as dasu, " to 
put outside," "to send out ;" ^^as«, " to grow " (trans. ), 
with causative verbs of the second conjugation, thus : 



Deiagaiie iru kara, \ 

Wtshinff-tO'ffO'Out is because, 

chin wo dashtie yaiie 

pug {accus.) pttUing-outside sending 



' The pug 
go out ; so 

let it out. 


3Iofo hara ima no yd 
Origin frontf now 'a fashion 
ni hige wo hayashtle ima- 
in, beard {acctts.) grotcing tvere 

shtta ka ? 

''Did (the 
ese) formerly 

as they do 

^ 331. It is true that we have been obliged to use the causa- 
tive word "let" in rendering the first of these sentences 
into English, and that we might just as well have used it 
in the second. Nevertheless the distinction has some 
importance in Japanese. It would be a great mistake to 
confound kasu, "to lend," with karisaseru, "to cause to 
borrow," just as it would be a great mistake to confound 
iateru, "to set up," with iataseru (horn /a/su), "to cause 
to stand up." In the case of ** lending " and "causing to 
borrow," the difference is quite clear even in our English 
idiom. In Japanese it is «o in all cases. Thus, /a/eru 
means to stand some dead object up, or to "set up" as 
king some puppet with no will of his own. Taiaseru, on 
the other hand, implies that the person who is caused to 
stand up is an agent possessed of independent volition. 
Taiesaseru^ the causative oi iaieru, "to set up," would 
mean to cause another to set a third person up. To take 
another instance, orosu means to "lower," i.e., "to 
launch," a vessel into the water, while orisaseru (causative 
of oriru, "to descend") would be used, let us say, of 
making a person descend the side of a ravine on his ..own 

2l6 THE VERB. 

"^ 332. Though scrupulous with regard to the above point, the 
Japanese are less careful than ourselves to distinguish the caus- 
ative from the ordinary active idiom. Thus, where we 
should say "I am going to have my hair cut," they prefer to 
say simply Kamt^ hasami* nt^ ikimasu*, lit. ** (I) go* to* cut* 
{my) hair*." Even in English, however, we often violate 
logical exactness in precisely the same way. Thus we 
are apt to say that we are building a house, when what 
we really mean is that we are having one built for us by an 
architect, who himself causes it to be built by the masons. 

M B, The causative occurs idiomatically in a few cases where 
European usage goes quite a different way. Thus, " Such and such a 
Chinese character is read so and so " is in Japanese Nani-nani no ji wo 
tta/ti-ftafii to yomasemasiiy vrith ihe causative representing our passive. 
The idea is of course that the literary authorities induce the world at 
large to pronounce the character in such or such a way. The phrase 
Kirashimashtie gozaitnasu (from kiru, "to cut"), used by tradesmen 
to signify that they are "out" of an article, is a still more curious 

TF 333- Observe that though Japanese, as stated in ^f 327, 
p. 213, has passive forms of the causative, it has no causative 
forms of the passive. It never uses such idioms as the 
English ** to cause to be arrested," *' to cause to be altered," 
etc., but always employs the corresponding active instead, 

Mikon wo moite kosa- 

Sample {afcus.) carrying hav- 

shiie, sodan 

■inff'Cattsed'tO'Coine, eonauHoHon 
(zve) wU'tdo» 

'*We will let some 
samples be brought, and 
then consult about the 
matter." More Ht, " We will 
cause {some one) to bring some 
samples^* etc. 

This is but an additional illustration of the marked pre-^ 
ference which the Japanese language has for the active over 
the passive voice. 


N, B. Note in passing how motte kuru^ " to bring,'* becomes motie 
kosaseru, "to cause to bring," the second verb kuru alone suffering a 
change of form. All such cases are treated in the same manner. 


1 334' Many complex verbal ideas are expressed in Japanese 
by means of compound verbs, which replace the preposi- 
tional verbs of European languages, and sometimes cor- 
respond to whole phrases, thus : — 

ioU-agaru, lit, ** jump-ascend," i.e., "to ascend by jump- 
ing," *' to jump up." 
/obt-komu, lit. *'jump-enter," i.e., *' to enter by jumping," 

"to jump in." 
tohi'kosuj "to cross by jumping," i.e., *' to jump across." 
kiri-korosuy "to kill by cutting," i.e., "to cut to death." 
buchi-korosu, * ' to kill by beating,*' i. e. , "to beat to death." 
buchi-iaosUf "to prostrate by beating," i.e., "to knock 

mi-mawaru^ "to go round by looking," i.e., "to look 

mt'OiosUy "to drop in looking," i.e., "to overlook." 
mi'sokonauy * ' to mistake in looking," i. e. , "to see wrong. " 
kiki'Sokonau^ ' * to mistake in hearing, " i. e., * * to hear wrong. " 
shini'Sokonau^ "to mistake in dying," i.e., "barely to 

escape death." 
wake-aiaeru, * ' to divide and give, " i. e. , "to give in shares. " 

IT 335. The following are further examples chosen from among 
many scores of those in commonest use : 

de-auy "to meet by going out," i.e., "to meet out of 
doors," "to encounter." 

deki-agaru, " to forth come and rise," i.e., "to be com- 

2l8 THE VERB. 

meguri-au, '*to meet by going round," i.e., *'to come 
across after many adventures.'* 

vii'tsukeru, *'lo fix by seeing/' i.e., "to notice." 

moshi-awaseru, ** to cause to meet by saying," i.e., "to 

arrange beforehand. " (^rm'^t!" '^' '^°'^''''' ""^ '"'*') 
nori okureru, *'to be late in riding," i.e., *'to be too 

late" (for the train, etc.). 
omoi'dasu, *'to put outside by thinking," i.e., "to call 

to mind." 

ioki-akasu, "to loosen and clear," i.e., "to explain." 

isuki-aiaru, "to reach by striking," i.e., "to strike 
against," " to come to the end " (of a street). 

uke-au, "to meet hy receiving," i.e., "to guarantee." 
uke-iorUy " to take by receiving, " i.e., "to take delivery 

uri'SabakUy " to manage by selling," i.e., "to sell off." 

T 336. Some verbs recur with special frequency in the 
character of second member of a compound ; thus (to 
mention only three or four) : 

Dasu denotes the action of coming out, taking out, or 
beginning, as in hashiri-dasUy "to run out;" iori-dasu, 
"to take out ; " naki-dasu, " to begin to cry." 

N. B. Dasu is properly a transitive verb, corresponding to the 
intransitive deru, ** to come ont." Its intransitive use in such com- 
pounds as hashiri-dasu is therefore somewhat anomalous, but it is 
sanctioned by usage. 

Kakaru shows that the action denoted by the chief 
verb is about to commence, or else that it is accidental, 
as in naori'kakaruj * * to be on the road to recovery ; " 
ibri'haharu^ * ' to happen to pass by. " 


Kakeru, generally shows that the action has been begun 
and then abandoned, as in shi-kaherUy ** to leave half done ;" 
hanashi'kakcru, *'to break off in the middle of saying some- 

Kiru, "to cut," indicates totality, as in kai-kiru, **to 
purchase the whole" (of a consignment, etc.); kari-hirUy 
*' to hire the whole" (of a house, etc.); shtme-kiru^ "to 
close up' (e.g. a room undergoing repairs). 

A^t>w« corresponds to the English word "in," as in ioln- 
komu, "to jump \xi\*' furi-komu, "to come in" (said of 
rain or snow coming into the house). 

On the other hand, toru^ ** lo take," is used in number- 
less compounds as their first member, with but little in- 
dependent meaning. Thus, iori-atsukaUy the same as aisukau" 
to manage;" tori-kaeru^ the same as kaeru, "to change," 
"to exchange;" tori-shir aheru, "to investigate." The 
prefix seems to make the signification of the second verb a 
little more precise. 

T 337- Occasionally three verbs are compounded together, 
as moshi-age-kaneru, a very respectful way of expressing * ' to 
hesitate to say. " It is compounded of mdsu, * ' to say ; " 
ageru, " to lift up ; " and kaneru, " to be unable." 

T 338. Compound verbs, like simple ones, are susceptible of 
taking the negative, passive, potential, and causative suffixes, 
as : 

huchi'taosanakatta, " did not knock dnown; " 
buchi'taosenakaliay " could not knock down ; " 
huchi-taosarete, " being knocked down ; " 
buchi'taosaseru^ "to cause to knock down ; " 

all from the verb huchi-taosu, "to knock down." 



^ 339. As illustrated in the examples we have given, the first 
member of a compound verb is put in the indefinite form, 
while the second member alone is conjugated through the 
various moods and tenses. The first member generally 
stands in an adverbial relation to the second. Thus in 
huchi-korosu, *'to beat to death," the first member huchi 
shows the manner of action of the second member korosu. 
In some few cases, however, the signification of the two 
members of the compound is co-ordinated, for instance in 
iki'kaerUy '* to go and come back again." 

^ 340. The Japanese language make such lavish use of 
compound verbs that it is essential for him who would speak 
idiomatically to get into the habit of employing them in 
preference to simple verbs wherever possible. Here are a 
few examples of their use : — 




Aa I kaki-sokonaimashiia. 
Ah I tvrite'huve'tnistdken. 

Kiki'Sokotiai desu. 

HeoT'tnistalee {it) ia. 

waiakYishi ga 

I {from ) 

/okoro deshita, 

place was. 



Tsukai ga iki-chigai 

Messengers {fwm.) go-differ tt 



Kono tichi kara^ ii no 

TMs inside from, good ones 

WO ; eri-dashimash '. 
{acciis,) choose'-wUl'piU'OuU 

(**It has just occurred 

("Oh ! I have made a 
mistake (in writing)." 

(' * You have heard 

"I was just on the 
point of going out." 

'*The two messengers 
f crossed each other." 



will select the • 
from among 





kara^ deru 

f^ctnisOf ffolng-out 



no wo 

tuition {acctts,) 

"As it has come on 
to rain, I think I will 
put off my walk. " 

Afo hilotsu 

Stm one 

ga aru 

{fwm.) is 






karUy ima 
beeatiae, noia 







'*I have another 
order to give to the 
-messenger who has 
just started off; so 
please call him back." 

having-given-baek condescend. 

JV. B, With regard to the gerund kayashite in this last example^ 
observe that the verb is properly kaesu (compare kaeru, " to go back "); 
but the corruption kayasu is in common colloquial use. 


Tf 341. The Student who is perplexed by the variety of man- 
ners in which the Japanese language expresses the sense of 
our substantive verb "to be," should note the following 
remarks : — 

Aru^ aiia^ arb^ etc., except in the case to be mentioned 
in the next paragraph, mean properly "there is," "there 
was," " there perhaps will be," but are often best translated by 
"I (yon, etc.) have," "had," "shall have," the Japanese 
nominative becoming the English objective case, as : 






' y " I have sv)me money. 

By the addition of masu, as arimasu, ariinashila^ arimashby 
the expression is made more polite. Gozaimasu, gozaimashila^ 
gozaimasho (conf. T[ 270, p. 171) are more honorific still, 
but the signification is exactly the same. 

22 2 THE VERB. 

^342. However aruy arimasu, gozamasu s'lgnUy simply **to 
be" (not ** there is") when construed with a gerund, as 
illustrated in ^ 293. Gozaimasu also means simply "to be" 
when construed with an adjective, as 

Kono mizu wa, iaihen ni 


This ttfater tiS'for, awfuXly 

{it) is. 

liffhti "This water 
deliciously soft." 


The certain present tense oi aru and o{ arimasu is rarely, 
if ever, thus used with the ii ox d form of adjectives (see p. 
120 and pp. 124 — 5), as the adjective includes in itself the 
idea of the verb ** to be." Thus the less polite equivalent of 
thb above sentence would be simply Kono mizu wa, iaihen ni 
karui. In the other tenses, however, the verb aru appears 
as an agglutinated suffix, as explained in \ 186 (pp. 128 — 9), 
and there exemplified in a paradigm ; thus karukaua, " was 
light ; " karukar'j, *' is or will probably be light," etc. 

^343. De aru, de atta^ de aro, eic. (familiar), — De arimasu^ 
de arimashila, de arimasho, etc. (rather polite), — De gozaimasu, 
de gozaimasKUa, de gozaimashb, etc. (truly polite)^ are the 
simple verb ''to be" without ** there," — that is to say, they 
mean '*I am," '*he, she, or it it is," ** we are," *'you are," 
** they are," and so on through all the other tenses. Da is 
a corruption of de aru; datia and daro are corruptions offlfe 
atla and de aro, with which they exactly agree in meaning. 
(Conf. end of ^ 88, p. 64.) These forms might with 
propriety be written ^a, d'aiia, and dard, in order the more 
clearly to mark their composite origin. 

Kore wa nan de aru?\ ** Wiiat is this ?" 
This aa-for,uj1ua is {it)? ) (More oiten, /iTore wa nan da?) 

Uso de gozaimash-o. ) <• il ii probably a lie." 


Tokaidb kara maivaite ilia h~f ( ** Though you 

TJkuidj bjf, Utrnino tvetU side\m\ghin\ think SO, it 

ga kaette ioku darb. J will probably be 

{^nom,)€4miTaritolae profit vMl-iirfAwMy-^^ tO gO roillld 

(politely, de gozaimaskd.) (^by the Tokaido." 

IT 344. DesUy deshitay and desho have the same signification 
respectively as ^1? ^(?zam^sw, de gozaimashitay and de gozai- 
mashoy of which they are contractions. Thus the second 
and third examples in the preceding paragragh might 
equally well read thus : 

Uso desho. 

Tokaidd kara viawatte itta ho ga kaeiie tokii desho, 

\ 345. Iru (3rd. conj., stem i) and oru (ist. conj., stem, ori) 
signify properly " to dwell," hence ** to live," '* to be" (in 
a certain place). Their chief use is as auxiliaries (see 
^294), in which function they are now often employed in 
speaking of inaminate things, notwithstanding their original 
signification, which would seem to limit their application to 
living creatures. 

N, B. The use oiiru for animate beings and aru for inanimate still, 
however, maintains itself in many idioms. Notice, for instance, the 
difference between imasu or orlmasu, •* he is there " {or here), " and 
arimasu, " it is there " (or here), " there is some." 

^ 346. Irassharu and o ide nasaru are honorific synonyms of 
irtiy '* 10 be," and of several other verbs, as will be shown 
in f 405. 

If 347* 7^y ^s a verb, is not heard from the lips of Tok}o 
speakers. But in the Colloquial of Kyoto, in the language 
of the stage, and frequently in printed Colloquial (co-called), 
it takes the place of dfa. It must not be confounded with 
_/'«, the Tokyo contracted form of the two postpositions </<? 
way as in Koreja naiiox Kore de wa naiy ** It is not this." 
(Conf. \ 89, p. 64.) 

224 THE VERB. 

^ 348. Naru, " to be," not to be confounded with naru, *' to 
become," belongs almost entirely to the Written Language. 
We still find, however, in common use the form naraha 
explained on p. 185, and such expressions as isoganakereba^ 
nan'masen', lit " it-is-noi* (i.e., it won't do) if-one-hurries- 
not^" i.e., "you must make haste;" also occasionally the 
"conclusive present*" nan\ used to separate the various 
items of an enumeration, and hence coming to correspond 
to our conjunction " or :" 

7oka nari, haisuka nari. 
Ten-days is, twenty •tUtys is. 

" Ten or twenty days ;" 
less It/. ' ' ten days or a 

^349. AS^/rw, properly "to do," sometimes passes over into 
the sense of "to be." See TfT[ 356 and 357. 


^ 350. No verb recurs more constantly in Japanese than the 
irregular verb suru, the paradigm of which has been given 
on p. 159, and whose primary signification is "to do," 
" to make," the French /izzre. Sometimes it stands inde- 
pendently in its proper sense of doing or making, the noun 
governed by it taking the accusative postposition wo, as 
usual with transitive verbs, thus : 

Ikusa wo suru. " To make war." 

Shiiaku wo suru. " To make preparations." 

Ryori wo suru. ' ' To cook " {/aire la cuisine). 

yama wo suru. \ " I*^, "^^^ obstruction." i.e.. 

^ \ " to be m the way. 

Mane wo suru. 

r " To make imitation," " to 
} imitate," also simply to "to 
( do " (something bad). 

* One form of the present tense is so termed in the Written Language. 
Conf. If 177, p. 121. 

So sKiie, 

suRU, 32.5. 

" Having done so ;" *« and 

I then. 

Omae do shimasu P " What are you doing ?" 


Compare also such adjectival and adverbial expressions 
as c^an^ to^ shtfa^, lit. "did* that' quieO," i.e., simply 
'* quiet f sube-sube^ shti^y lit. " having-done* smooth*," i.e., 
siniply "smoothly." {Chan and sube-sube are onomatopes.) 
^351. More often sum sinks into being a mere suffix serving 
to verbalise nouns. Of verbs thus formed, the modern 
language contains an enormous number. The following 
are a few specimens : 

atsuru, " to love ;" from «/, *'love." \3h 

chakusuru, "to arrive;" ,, chaku^ "arrival." 

hisuru, " to compare ;" ,, hi, "comparison. 

jisuru, "to refuse;" ,, jt, "refusal.*' 

kessuru, " to decide ;" ,, ketsu, "decision. 
sassuru, " to guess ;" ,, salsu, "a guess." 




( " an 
anshin suru, " to feel at ease ;" from anshin, j , 

choatsuru, " to love ;" ,, choai, "love." 

, ., (" to be(come)) , ., ("civilisa- 

ia,hmsuru.\ ^i^i^,i.»^\ .. iatizva, ^ ^j^^ „ 

kenkuua sum, " to quarrel f ,, kenkwa, "a quarrel." 

r-oshi suru, " to die in prison ;"„ | ''''"S?" ^""^ ^^'' 
iochaku suru, " to arrive ;" „ tochaku, "arrival." 

N, B, It seems to have become asaal among transliterators to 
attach suru to the preceding noun (e.g, aisuru, chakusurtis when this 
noun consists of a single Chinese character, and to write it separately 
(e.g. anshin suru, chdai suru) when the noun consists of two Chinese 
characters. There is nothing to object to in this practically convenient 

226 THE VERB. 

1[ 352. When the noun is a monosyllable, the verb formed 
from it by means of suru is sometimes treated as if it 
belonged to the first regular conjugation, ihus jisanai, " he 
does not refuse " (as if from jisu), instead o^jishinai. But 
this is incorrect and somewhat vulgar. 

1[ 353- When the noun is a monosyllable ending in «, suru 
generally changes to zuru in the Written Language, and 
thence to jiru in Colloquial speech, this jiru being con- 
jugated regularly according to the paradigm 'of the third 
conjugation. The same thing sometimes happens even 
when the final letter is not «, thus : 

anjiru, *' to be anxious ;" from an^ *' opinion." 
djiru, *' to correspond ;" ,, o, *' correspond- 

ronjiru, ** to argue ;" ,, roUy *' argument." 

sonjiru, *' to be injured ; ,, son, '* injury." 

If 354. The examples given in W 351—3 are all Chinese 
words. Suru is less frequently attached to words of native 
Japanese origin. The following and several others are, 
however, in common use : 

agari-sagari suru, ** to go up and down ;" from the 
indefinite forms (used substantively) of agar u, "to ascend," 
and sagaru, * * to descend. " 

ne-gaeri suru, '*to turn in bed;" from neru, *'to lie," 
*' to sleep," and kaeru, " to exchange." 

kega suru, ** to be wounded ;" from kega, " a wound." 

^355. There are a few instances of zuru or Jiru (for suru) 
being agglutinated to an adjective stem, as : 
karonjiru, '' to think lightly of;" from karui,* " light." 

* KaroH, karoski in the Written Language, whence the o of 

SURU. 227 

omonjiru, ''to esteem;" irom omoi, ** heavy." 

But these words sound bookish, and are not much used 
in genuine Colloquial. 

IF 35^- J"st as in French the expressionyizir^ chaud does not 
mean ''to make hot," but **to be hot," so also in Japan- 
ese the verb resulting from the combination of sum with 
a noun is not necessarily a transitive verb. It may in- 
deed be transitive; but sometimes it is intransitive, and 
sometimes it corresponds to an English passive, as variously 
illustrated in the examples given in the preceding paragraphs. 
In a few cases, e.g., shbjiru (for shosuru), "to produce" or 
"to be produced," it has a double acceptation. Usage is 
the sole arbiter in each instance. When usage sanctions the 
transitive use, then the corresponding passive is obtained by 
substituting for sum its passive serareru or sarem, thus : 
aisurUy " to love ; " aiserareru, " to be loved." 

,- , I ic «.u u n chochaku sera- ("to eret a 

chochakusuru, "to Xhx^h; ^^^^^ | thrashing." 

omonjiru, ** to esteem'/' omonjirareru, i a*' 

a 357- Sometimes suru, when used independently, takes ga 
instead o(wo. It then signifies "to be," as in 
O/o ga suru, ' ' There is a noise. " 
Ztifsu ga sum,* "There is a headache," i.e., "I have a 
headache. " 

Tf 358. Construed with the particle /o, suru means "to be 
about to," thus : 

Jko to shite, " Being about to go." 

Construed with the particle ni, suru forms an idiom 
which the following sentence may serve to illustrate : 
Kaeite kara no koto ni shiyo. ( "I will leave it till 

Having-refumed afier «' thino towiU-do, (after my return." 

328 THE VERB. 


^359. Foreign Students of Japanese are often naturally per- 
plexed by the fact that the stems of many verbs of the ist. 
conjugation end in r, while two of the * ' bases " (the cer- 
tain present and the conditional base) of verbs of the 2nd. 
and 3rd. conjugations always contain an r. For instance, 
is shaherUy ''to chatter/' of the ist, conjugation or of the 
2nd.? It is of the ist, because the stem is shaber, the 
indefinite form shaberi, and the negative base shahera. On 
the other hand, tsumeru, ''to pack," is of the 2nd. con- 
jugation, the loiter r belonging in this case, not to the stem, 
but to the termination. Similarly chir-u, ''to fall'' (like 
faded flowers), is of the ist. conjugation, while ni-ru, "to 
boil," is of the 3rd. Especially perplexing are such pairs 
of verbs as her-u (ist. conj), " to diminish," and^^-r« (2nd. 
conj.), "to pass through"; kir-u (ist. conj.), "to cut," and 
ki-ru (3rd. conj,), "to wear." Neither is it easy at first 
sight to distinguish correctly all the forms of, say, todomar-u, 
the intransitive verb "to stop," from those of todome-ru, the 
corresponding transitive verb "to stop." Practice and the 
dictionary are the only guides in this matter. 

\ 360. The comparative paradigm on the opposite page will 
serve to illustrate the differences obtaining, in the various 
moods and tenses, between pairs or sets of like-sounding 
verbs, such as those above-mentioned. The three verbs 
given are all in daily Colloquial use. They are : 

irUy ist. conj., stem ir\ "to go in," used chiefly in the 
sense of " to be useful," and in the phrase hi niiru, " to 
go into one's mind," i.e., "to be agreeable to one." 
ireru, 2nd. conj., stem ir \ " to put in," 
iru^ 3rd. conj., stem i\ "to dwell," "to be," 



/r«, ** to go in," 2ind ireru, **toput in," are related to 
each other as respectively the intransitive and transitive 
forms of the same verb. The resemblance of these two to 
zru, "to be/' is merely fortuitous. 




O M^^ 

is is 







I -a -5 •"» .54 --^ -u •■« •:? .15 .h -ts -h -^ 

S>8 *^ I 


V u Ih 

3 3 

« 2 2 a « 

O O c^ 

™ Ti .S .B 

250 THE VERB. 


^ 362. Some few verbs, mostly in the gerundial form, are 
used as postpositions, e. g. , 

motie, "with," "by means of;" from ?wt?/s«, "to hold." 
ni yoite, "owing to ; " irova yorUy " to rely." 

1[ 3^3- Others correspond to English adverbs, adverbial 
phrases, or conjunctions, thus : 
amari, "too (much) ;" indef. form o^amaru, "to exceed." 
hajimeiey "for the first time,") gerund oi hajimeru, "to 
" never before. " j begin " (trans. ). 

kaeite, *' contrary to what one might expect;" gerund o^ 
kaeru, "to return" (intrans.). 

kiri{vM\g. kkiri), used as a suffix meaning "only," e.g. 
sore-kiri, "only that;" indef. form of ^/r«, "to cut." 

nokorazUy " without excep- ) negative gerund of nokoru, 
tion,""all." j "to remain." 

sayo nara, "good-bye," lit. "if that) nara{ba\ condition- 
be so (we shall meet again). " j al of naru, "to be." 

sevieiCy " at least," "at most ; " gerund ofsemeru, to "treat 
with rigour." 

shn/ey "urgently; " gerund of sMru, "to urge." 

suiete, "altogether/'"all."|S«™'?f .°f ^^'■«' "'° 
, ait 5 , j ^jj^g jj^ one. 

iatoehay " for instance ;" condit. of /<3!/(9er«, "to compare." 
^ 364. The present tense is in some few cases doubled and 
used adverbially, thus : 

kaesu'gaesu, "over and over again;" from kaesuy "to 
send back. " 
^ 365. It has already been shown in pp. 140 — i how Japanese 
verbs, and phrases formed from verbs, frequently rep lace 
the adjectives of European languages. 



1[ 366. Japanese has few if any true adverbs. Almost all the 
words corresponding to our adverbs prove, on examination, 
to be stragglers from the other parts of speech. It will, 

- however, aflford some insight into the nature of the language, 
and be practically useful to students, to glance at the various 
expedients by which the necessity for adverbs is obviated. 

^ 367. The indefinite forms in ku of adjectives are used 
adverbially, and correspond for the most part to English 
adverbs in " ly," although, as has been explained in W 
180 — 181 (pp. 122 — 4), such is not their original force, 
nor indeed their invariable force even at the present day : — 

Zosa naku dekimasu. { ''It can easily be 
DiffieuUy not'being, (ii)f€rtheames. | done. " 

AiarasMku tsukurimasKita. ( "It has been newly 

Newly havefMxde. [ built. " 

KitanarasJnh^ miemasu^, " It looks* dirt(il)y*. 

N, B. Some few adjectives are no longer used colloquially, except 
in the ku form corresponding to our adverbs, e.g., kotogotoku, "al- 
together ;" matiaktt, " quite." 

T[ 368. Japanese nouns often correspond to European adverbs, 
e.g., kon-nicht, lit. *'this day," i.e., " to-day ;"y^-^««> li^- 



**ten parts," i.e., * Aplenty," "exceedingly;" d-ka/a, lit. 
*' great side," i.e., ''mostly;" ko-ko, lit. "this" (ist. ko), 
"place" (2nd. ko), i.e., "here." (Conf. ^ 64, p. 45-) 
Words of this class retain their substantive character so com- 
pletely that the equivalents of such particles as *' of," " at," 
" from," etc., — in fact the postpositions, — can be construed 
with them as readily as with any other substantives, thus : 
Doko made ide ni\ 

Where tUl, honauraiUe exU 

narimasu / 

becomes ? 

Asuko kara 

There from, front aa-for, int" 

ki desu. 

mediately is* 

If sumo no kimono de yoroshiu 

Always of tithes by (is) good. 


"going ?" 

far are you 

sakt zva, jt'\ Mjt is no distance on 
.from there to the next 

" My ordinary clothes 
will do." 

{Said to one*s <nvn servant,) 

" Please clean this 
room afterwards." 

{Said to the servant at a 

" I say I you mustn't 
make such a row. " 

Ato de koko wo soji ' 
After by, here {accus.) cleaning 
sKUe kudasai, 

doing condescend. ' 

Sonna ni sawaija \ 

80 us'fovnuiiking'a'row, 

' ikenai yof 

is'no-go, oil / 

^ 369. Some nouns receive an adverbial tinge by means of 
reduplication, as : 

^O'do, " everywhere ;" from y5^, "side," "direction." 

naka^naka, " very," " more than you might think ;" from 

naka, " inside." 
tahi'iahi, " often ;" from iabi, " a time " {une/ois). 
toki'doki^ " sometimes ;" from told, " time " {le temps), 
tokoro-dokoro, " here and there ;" from tohoro, ** a place." 



^ 370. There are also many words which are nouns 
etymologically speaking, but which are always or almost 
always used as adverbs, and which mostly take the post- 
position «i, as jtki or jiki ni^ ** immediately :" sude ni, 
** already f sugu or sugu ni^ " directly." 

^ 371. Phonetic decay has considerably altered some of 
these words in their passage from other parts of speech to 
the state of adverbs. Thus do ? ^' how V* is a corruption 
of dono yd P **what manner?" Similarly koy *' in this 
way," '*thus;" so or sayo, ''in that way; and 5, *'in 
that way," are derived from kono yd, sono yd, and ano yd 

^ 372. Many words which we are obliged to translate by 
adverbs or adverbial phrases are the gerunds of verbs, as 
explained in ^^ 362 — 3 (p. 230). How truly words of 
this class retain their verbal force even at the present day, 
may be seen from the use of such phrases as hiiori^ mo^ 
nokorazu^y ** all without exception," lit. " even' one-person' 
remaining-not' (behind)." 

H 373. The following are some of the chief Japanese words 
corresponding to our adverbs, not already mentioned in 
this chapter. More will be found in the paradigm on p. 52. 

r^, ,, ^^^..., w — .J 

^f}'"'] "a little," 
1: f "Slightly." 

hakari, "about," "only." 


dake, "only," "about," 
"as.... as." 

hanahada^ "very." 
ikaga P "how?" 
ikubun ka, "rather," "more 
or less." 

iisudemo, * * always ;" wi/A a 
negative verb^ " never." 

ma, " quite " (always com- 
bined with the following 
adjective, whose initial 
consonant is doubled, as 
makkurai, " pitch-dark," 
from kuraiy " dark.") 

tnada, " still ;" wiih a nega- 
trve verb, * ' not yet " 



mata^ ** again." 

mazu^ **in the first place," 
" well I" (In this sense 
often abbrev. to ma. ) 

mo, "already;" with a 
negative verb, "no more. " 

mottOy "more" (adverb). 

naru'take, " as. . . .as possi- 
ble;" "if possible." 

naze P " why ?" 

sate, "well!" 

sukoshi, "a little." 

tada (vulgarly and empha- 
tically tatia)^ "merely," 
** nothing but." 

tadaima, "immediately" 
(from tada and ima, 

taiso, '* much," " very." 

takUsan, same as taiso. 

iokoro de, " thereupon," 
"and so." 

tokoro ga, "nevertheless," 

yahari (emphatically yap- 
pari), "also." 

yohodo (emphatically yop- 
podo), "very." 

zehi, * * positively *' (from 
Chinese 2;^, "good," and 
hi, ' 'bad," like our phrase 
' ' for better for worse "). 

zuibun, " a good deal," 
" pretty " (as in " pretty 

N, B, Avoid, as much as possible, the Japanese equivalents for 
" very " and " a little," as the Japanese rarely employ them. 

Tf 374, It may seen strange that the foregoing list should 
contain no equivalent for our adverbs of affirmation and 
negation, "yes "and "no." The reason is that there are 
no words exactly corresponding to our "yes "and "no' 
in Japanese. There exists, it is true, a word ie which 
means "no;" but it is little used, except when the denial 
is emphatic. The word he / hei! or hai! which may 
sometimes be translated by " yes," is properly an interjection 
used to show that one has heard and understood what has 
been said to one. It does not generally imply assent to a 
statement. Thus, when a tea-house girl is called, she 
will cry out hell simply to show that she is coming. 

Instead of "yes," the Japanese say "that* is' so'," s^ 
da^, more politely so desu, still more politely sayo de gozau 
masu. Similarly for " no " they say " that is not so," sbja 

''yes'' and "no." 235 

nat, politely sayd de gozaimasen. Or else they repeat the 
verb of the question, thus : 

O wakari ni nari-^ 

MwiwanMe understanding to hat' 

mashtia ha P( For use of past tense\ 
ftecome ? Vhere, conf. f 274, p. 176.; i 

* ' Do you under- 
stand r 

Wakarimashtta. I * ' Ves. " 



Wakarmasen. \ "No." 

ide ni narimasu ka ? \ «' Is he coming.?" 

tMrtdOe exit to becomes 9 ) 

Honourable exit to becomes 

Sayd de gozaimasu, \ «*Yes." 

80 {tf)is, i 

JV, B. In familiar intercourse, sayd de gozcdmasu is often abbreviated 
to the single word sayd, — Some speakers use the word ikammo for 
"yes ;" but this is decidedly old-fashioned. 

f 375. The Japanese have a habit, which generally proves 
irritating to foreigners, of answering one question by 
another, especially in cases where a European w^ould 
simply say that he did not know. Thus : 

O kaeri ni narimashiia ha ? { " Have they come 

Sonoura5le rt^wm to has-become ? (home ?" 

Jhaga de gozaimasu ha P ( ''How is it?" i.e.y *'I 
How is f (don't know." 

1[ 37^- Japanese idiom differs from ours with respect 
to the answer given to a negative interrogation. The 
following examples will serve to illustrate the difference, 
which must be constantly borne in mind if grave misunder- 
standings are to be avoided : — 

*' Isn't he coming ?" Kimasen ha ? 


*' No." {Le,, It is so as the) Sayo de gazaimasH, 
negative in your question >• Kimasen, 
implies.) ) He! 

*' Oh ! yes, he is." Ktmasu, 

'* Of course he is !'' Ktmasu io mo, 

(Coaf. middleofp. 85.) 

^ 377. Adverbial phrases are formed by means of the post- 
positions de, mo, iOy and especially «/, thus : 
don to, '' with a bang." 
jbzuni, "skillfully." 

marude, ** quite." 
meita ni (with a negative 
verb), ''rarely." 

shidai-shidai ni, "little by 

sude ni, "already," 
ionlo mo (with a negative 
verb), "not in the least" 
Tjuaza to, " on purpose." 

^ 378. Onomatopes, like the English words " ding-dong," 
" topsy-turvy," " higgledy-piggledy," etc., which are general- 
ly classed as adverbs, are extremely numerous in Japanese. 
Such are hura-hura, expressive of sauntering ; guzu-guzu^ 
expressive of complaining or scolding ; kyan-kyan, expressive 

. of the yelping of a dog ; pika-pika, expressive of glitter ; 
sorO'Soro, expressive of slow movement ; hon-yari, expressive 
of obscurity or listlessness ; katchiri, expressive of a clicking 
sound, etc., etc. Almost all words beginning with the 
letter/ are onomatopes, excepting /fl«, "bread." 

N, B, There is room for doubt whether Japanese pan is simply 
the like-sounding Spanish word, or whether it may not rather be a cor- 
ruption of Portuguese "pao," anciently spelt " pam ;" for the Portuguese 
came to Japan fully forty years before the Spaniards, namely, in the 
middle of the i6th century. 


If 379- The chief interjections, besides he/ (see p. 234) 
and those more or less inarticulate "ah's!" "oh's!" and 
** eh's ?" which occur in all languages, are : 


Aita/ z cry of pain, derived from the exclamation aa t 
and iia, the stem of the adjective Uai, " painful." 

Ara I an exclamation of surprise, used chiefly by women. 

Dokkotsho I a sort of sigh of relief, used for instance when 
one has safely lifted something heavy and put it in its place. 
This word is rarely employed by any but the lower classes. 

T[ 380. Ddmoy lit "even {jno) how? {do ?) This much-used 
term expresses difficulty, hopelessness, astonishment, and 
corresponds to some extent to such English phrases as "do 
what I may," "well I never!" "really now I" or to an 
emphasis on the chief word of the clause, thus ; 

Omoshirokuie ddmo. A c. it was so amusing, that. . . ." 

Being^afiMuing. ... i 

the sentence perhaps remaining unfinished. But very often 
domo or naka-naka^ domo is a mere expletive, used to gain 
time and to cover paucity of ideas. 
Hate na I equivalent to our " well, I never 1" 

\ 581. Ke or kke^ a final expletive conveying the idea of 
an indistinct conviction on the speaker's part, is often 
translatable by "surely" or "I believe." Thus atta 
means " there was ;" but atia-kke is " surely there was !" 

Ashiia made ni dekiru \ ^i believe he said it 

To-morrinc hy <n, «r<K-6c-rearfy I ^quJ^j ^g ready by tO- 

to sempo de iitakke, [morrow." 

ihea., other'Hde at, said-aurHy. ' 

Ke is used only in the most familiar intercourse. 
Koso, an emphatic particle, used to strengthen the word 
^ which precedes it. 

Ma I an exclamation of surprise or entreaty, used chiefly 

* See If 369, p. 232. 


by women. Very often it sinks into meaning nothing at 
all. Do not confound it with ma, for mazu (see p. 234.). 

Nan emphatic, see footnote to ^f 197, pp. 135 — 6. 

T[ 382. Naruhodo / 2l vtxy n^t^xiX word, for which there is no 
exact English equivalent. When pronounced in a tone 
of great surprise, it corresponds to ''who would have 
thought it?" **you don't say so!" "well, I never!" 
But more often it is pronounced in an assenting tone of 
voice, and then it means *'oh! indeed," ** really!'* *<I 
see." When some one is telling a long stoiy, it is 
usual to chime in with a naruhodo! at every point he 
makes, or every time he pauses to take breath. Instead 
of naruhodo i one may say sb^ desW ka^ ? lit. '* is* that 
so* ?'* or less politely so ka t^ 

1[ 383. Ne or ne, vulgarly and provincially na or no, serves 
to draw attention to the preceding word or clause, which 
it emphasises and separates, somewhat after the fashion 
of wa (see p. 85). Indeed it may be superadded to wa 
for the sake of greater emphasis and distinctness, as 
Kore wa ne, ''This, — this.'' The meaningless **you 
know," or ** don't you know?" with which so many 
English speakers interlard their remarks, has been sug- 
gested as the nearest equivalent to it in our language. 
Occasionally it might be rendered in French by **n'est-ce 
pas?" in German by ''nicht war?'' and in English by such 
idioms as "is it?" **do you?" ''won't they?" etc., 
according to what has gone before. Sometimes it shows 
that the speaker is puzzled, as so desu ne (pronounced in 
a hesitating tone of voice), " well, I don't know," or "let me 
see ! " Ne belongs exclusively to familiar intercourse, and 
should never be employed on official or public occasions. 


Many persons are in the habit of beginning sentences, and 
even of calling people, by means of the words ano nel {ano= 
" that''), just as English speakers often begin by *' I say ! " 

If 384. Oil an exclamation used to call people. 

Oya-oyaf 2in exclamation of great surprise, heard chiefly 
from the mouths of women. 

Sa I or Sa I — Short sa is used by the lower classes to give 
emphasis at the end of a sentence, thus : 

Kore kara iku no sa! f ' ' Now we'll go along ! " 
Sow front {zve)oo! 1 {No is emphatic also; see f 113.) 

Sa and sa are used indifferendy to urge, hurry, or defy, as 

Sal ide nasail \ "Come along! come 

Harwurabie exU dei^/n/ ( along ! " 

A very common idiom is sayo sa! ** of course," ''yes." 

Yo, used emphadcally at the end of a sentence, as : 
Arimasen yo! * * I have none, and there's an end of it ! " 

ZOf belonging rather to the Written Language than to the 
Colloquial, but still occasionally heard at the end of 
a sentence, to which it adds emphasis. Ze seems to be a 
variation of zo, 

N, B, The personal pronoun anata^ " you," is somes intercalated 
in a sentence with a certain interjectional or expletive force, chiefly by 
members of the lower classes. 


IF 385. Japanese is honourably distinguished from most 
languages of the world by being totally devoid of oaths. 
Where, for instance, a European driver . would probably 
swear at his unmanageable steed, a Japanese will only em- 
phatically exclaim kore! lit. "this I " or sore! "that ! " Ko- 
rya! and sorya! (for kore Tva, and sore tva) are used much in 


the same way, as scolding expletives. The words hdka! 
'* fool ; " herahd-me! " scoundrel ; " chikushof ** beast ; " etc., 
are common terms of abuse. The me ofderado-me is a sort 
of particle of contempt, which may be suffixed to any noun, 
as ano tnu-me, "that brute of a dog." 


^ 386. In Japanese, as in English, there are numerous special 
words and corruptions of words which are used by young 
children, and also by adults in addressing young children. 
Such are : 

abqyOy " goodbye " (=baby 
English ''ta!"). 

an-yo, from as^t\ "the 
feet," hence "to walk." 

daya, from obasan , " an old 
lady," "granny." 

bebe, "clothes." 
hoichatiy^ "a little boy." 
chatiy from san^ "Mr.," 
"Mrs.," "Miss." 

enko,-\ "to sit." 

nenne^ from neru, "to 

nenneif from ningyo^ **2i. 


^efe, "the hands;" from fe 

umamma^l "food." 

wan-wan, "a dog" (pro- 
perly "bow-wow"). 

Most of these words are also used in addressing pet 
animals. Thus a pet dog's forefeet are teie, its hind feet 
an-yo, its little "tummy " pon-pon, 
^ 387. There are also some few words which are almost 
entirely confined to the fair sex. Such is, for instance, 
hiya, "cold water" (lit." "honourably fresh"), which 
men call mizu, 

* Derived from bosan, " a Buddhist priest," Japanese children resem- 
bling Buddhist priests in having shaven pates. 

t Perhaps from m, " the floor,*' and koto, " thing/' " act." 
I Not to be confounded with the term mamma, " rice," «* food,*' used 
by adults, tfmamma is probably umai, ** good to eat," twice repeated. 



Tf 388. A number of objects and actions receive peculiar 
designations in the mouths of members of the Imperial 
Family, and of those privileged to address them. Although 
ordinary mortals can have no use for this exalted phraseology^ 
a few specimens of it will doubtless not fail to interest the 
student. Some of the Court words are survivals from 
Classical times; some are euphemisms (e.g. ase, "perspira- 
tion," used to signify * ' blood ") ; some, as kachin and kahe, 
belong also to the language of women, while others are of 
uncertain origin : — 

nStlON. «>"'»^ I-ANGUAGE. 

^^^,7^. y» A-v^,' /lit. honourableX 
aruku, ohirot,\^ picking up ) 

chi, ase, (lit. perspiration) 

dango, ishi'ishi, 

derUy nan, 

juhaity hiyo, 

kami, ogushi, (classical) 

kane, takara, (lit. treasure) 

kome, yone, (classical) 

' /lit. honourableX 
' \ becoming / 


** walking." 


"a dumpling." 

"going out." 

"a shirt" 


mizu, .>5.>,(^^r""^^') 

"cold water." 



mochi, kachin, 
neru^ mi koshi, 

sakana. o -a««.gt;^'S?^clSLTfi^t') "^^" (^0^)- 
sake, kukon, ' * rice-beer. " 

/q/u, kahe, ' ' bean-curd. " 

zbri, kongd, ' ' sandals. " 

Notice, too, that the Court, having for many centuries 
resided at Ky6to, retains a preference for Kyoto pronun- 


ciations, e.g. gozarimasu for gozaimaSM, nasare for nasai^ 
kudasare for kudasai, etc. 


^ 389. Conjunctions, can scarcely be said to exist in Japanese 
as an independent part of speech, their place being taken, 
partly by conjugational forms of the verb and adjective, 
partly by postpositions, partly by nouns. With regard to the 
word *'and, " which is in Western languages the most con- 
stantly recurring of all conjunctions, the necessity for it 
between verbs or clauses is almost completely obviated in 
Japanese by the construction with the indefinite form or the 
gerund, explained in ^^278 — 281. Between nouns, ''and" 
is sometimes represented by ni or tOy as explained in ^ 109 
and T 119. But more often the two nouns are simply placed 
s\^Q hy sx^Qy 2iS Kazusa Boshuy ''Kazusa and Boshu" (the 
names of two provinces on the ocean side of Tokyo Bay). 
Occasionally ''and" is represented between verbs — never 
between nouns — by the phrase so shlie (pedantically shtkb 
shite or shika shtle)^ lit. "having done so." But this idiom, 
imitated from the Chinese, must not be used too freely. 

'*But" is sometimes represented by shtkashi ; but neither 
must this Japanese word be repeated nearly as often as 
"but" is in English. 

** Or" is sometimes expressed by means of the word nariy 
as explained in Tf 348. 

" Provided" is represented by such constructions as 

Iki sae sureba, ) . . Provided one goes. " 

Going even if^do, ) 

"While" is sometimes represented by the word «a^ara 
agglutinated to the indefinite verbal form, as aruh nagara, 
"while walking ; " sometimes hyiokoro, as explained n ^f 58. 


The following references to sections of this work, in which 
words or constructions corresponding to the chief English 
conjunctions are treated of, may be found useful : 

''although," see ^ 288. "since," see If 99 & 135. 

''and," „ ,,389. "than," „„I35&2I2. 

''as," „ „99&287. ''that,*^ „ ,,117. 

"because," ,, ,,99. "though," „ ,,288. 

''but," „ „ 288 & 389." when," „ „ 57.58,&287. 

"either... or,",, „ 97 & 348. " whereas," „ „58&93- 

"neither... ) "whereupon,",, 58. 

nor," I " »' ^^^- "whether,",, ,,97. 

"if," „ „ 128 & 287. "while," „ „57,58,&389- 

^ 390. "As," meaning "in the same manner as," is expressed 
by the noun iort] lit "way, " "road," thus : 

JiTono fori no mono.) -Such things as this." 

!J!%ia way ^s thhtgs. ) 

Wa/aJ^ski no iu tori ni nasau ( "Please do as 


of 9ay aoay in deign, \ I tell yoU." 

^391. Details concerning the best manner of translating the 
English conjunctions into Japanese in various contexts be- 
long not so much to grammar as to the dictionary. The 
student is accordingly referred to Messrs. Satow and Ishi- 
bashi's * * English-Japanese Dictionary of the Spoken Lan- 
guage," where the words in question are amply illustrated. 



If 392. No language in the world is more saturated with 
honorific idioms than Japanese. These idioms affect, 
not only the vocabulary, but the very grammar itself. 
Therefore, although scattered references have been made to 
the subject of honorifics in former chapters, it seems advisable 
to gather together under one heading all the leading mani- 
festations of a habit of speech, without a proper mastery of 
which it is impossible to speak Japanese with any approach 
to correctness. 

^ 393. The use of honorifics is guided by four main consi- 
derations, namely : 

i. Honorific forms are used in speaking of the actions 
or possessions of the person addressed, while depreciatory 
or humble forms are used in speaking of oneself. In other 
words, what we should style the first person is self-deprecia- 
tory, and the second person complimentary. 

ii. In speaking of others (what we should call the third 
person), honorifics are used only if the person spoken of is 
superior in rank to the person spoken to, or if he is present 
and, though not a superior, at least an equal, or assumed to 
be such for courtesy's sake. 

iii. There are gradations in the use of honorifics, accord- 
ing to the greater or less respect meant to be paid to the 
person spoken to or of. 


iv. Honorifics have a tendency to lose their original 
signification, and to sink into mere marks of a courteous 
style of speech. Sometimes they become absolutely 

^ 394. It has been asserted by some that the use of honorifics 
in Japanese replaces that of the personal pronouns of 
European languages. This is not strictly correct. The 
expression ^(? ^«, for instance, means ** the august book,'' 
not only etymologically, but also in the mind and intention 
of every Japanese speaker who makes use of it. It is only 
because *' you" are an august person, that the words ^« 
hon come, in many contexts, to correspond pretty closely 
to our more precise phrase " your book." The correspon- 
dence is still only approximate ; for very often go hon may 
mean the book of some other august lady or gentleman 
different from you, i.e., it may mean ** her book "or *' his 
book." In some circumstances it may denote the book 
of the most august of all persons, namely the Emperor, and 
this is indeed the more primitive signification of the Chinese 
character with which the word go is written. Similarly goyb^ 
*' august business," may be either *'your business," "his 
business," or ** Government business." Like considerations 
apply to other honorific phrases. 

T[ 395. Descending from general considerations to particulars, 
the student should remember the following leading facts : — 

In addressing an equal or superior, the word (?, " ho- 
nourable," or go, "august" (conf.. \ 210, p. 143), is 
prefixed to most of the nouns denoting objects belonging 
to or connected with him in any way. Even adjectives 
and adverbs sometimes take one or other of the honorific 
prefixes. 0, being of Japanese origin, is mostly employed 


with native Japanese words, while go^ which is of Chinese 
origin, is mostly employed with words borrowed from 
the Chinese. But usage admits of numerous exceptions to 
this rule. — O and go are applied to the third person, 
subject to the limitations mentioned in \ 393. 

\ 396. Here are a few familiar instances of the use of these 
honorific prefixes : 

okoaomcsku. |^,:2-r, <»>-' »^-' «^-) 

taku, '* Your (or his) house." 

O taku desH ka ? ** Is he at home ?" 

O rusu, " Your (or his) absence." 

O rusu desu. " He is out." 

Go shochu ** Your (or his) consent." 

Go shinrui, ' * Your (or his) relations." 

Go son. \ "Youj(orhis)loss"(in 

(money, eic.). 

kega. ''Your (or his) wound." 

^ , , ( **By your (or his) kind 

^ ^^^' ^'^ linfluence " (/A shade). 

Yohodo kirei desu, ( *' It is very pretty " (e.g. 
Ten§ iiotwuraMy pretty is. \ this garden of yours). 

Danna wa ^ \ 

Master as-for, honourably I <t^y master is busy. " 

isogashtu gozaimasu, [ 

busy is. ' 

Go moiiomo de gozaimasu. j "You are perfectly 

^tisrwse very is. | right. " 

Go iaikutsu de gozaimasKUaro. f ** You must have felt 

A%Mgvtat tedhun probaXaywas, | bored. '' 

Tf 397. Occasionally the word sa;^ia, "Mr.," is added, in 
order to make the expression still more polite, thus : 


Go kurb sama, i * * (Thanks for) your 

A.%tg%»at trouble Mr. 1 trouble. " 

. ** You have had a long 

O machi'db sama. \ time to wait ;" or '* Excuse 

HonounMe waU-iona Mr. "j me for keeping you waiting 

^so long." 

O kinodoku sama. ( **I am sorry for 

HonounOde polstM-of-ihe-spirU Mr. 1 your sake. " 

-A^. B. Regret on one's own account is expressed by the word 
zaftnen, never by kinodoku. 

T[ 398. Examples such as these introduce us to the use of o 
and go in (so to speak) an objeciive way, which at first 
sounds very strange to European ears, tiius : 

^ - . >y ( *' It is cheap. Sir," i.e., 

^ i« yj!^ ^'Z"''''''' -^ -I have the honour ooffei 

Manaurably cHeap is. J :. ^^^,« cheap." 


Go busaia iiashimashtta. j J'^ "T^^ ^^Z^^^\Z 
AuguH remissness il)l^ve-d^.Y'^^^ ^^^"^ ^^^^^"S^ ^-^^ 

Go buret mosht-agemashUa. { '* I was very rude 

Attgttst rudeness (/) said-^Ufted. 1 /^ \/ouJ* 

O jama iiashimashiia. C " Excuse me for 

HonouT€ilble obstacle {I)1iave^done, 1 having interrupted^(?«." 

At a first hearing, the literal import of the individual 
words may cause the student to think that the Japanese 
speaker is applying honorifics to himself. Far from any 
Japanese mind is such a thought. The idea underlying 
these idioms is that the cheapness of my goods, and even 
the remissness, the rudeness, the interruption, and what 
not, of which I have been guilty with regard to you, have 
a sort of reflected glory cast on them by their connection 
with so exalted a personage as yourself. It is as if one 


they should be scattered about pretty freely. The more 
exalted the rank of the person addressed, the more frequently 
must they be introduced. 

^ 403. Another way of making a verb honorific is to replace 
the ordinary conjugation by the corresponding potential 
forms, it sounding more polite to suggest that a person 
is able to do a thing than bluntly to state that he does it. 
Thus we have nohorareru^ for nohoru, '*to go up;" 
naku ttarareruj for naku naruj "to die." This locution 
is specially affected by the lower classes in speaking of their 
betters ; but in some few cases it is adopted by all the 
world, as iraserareru and dserareru (usually corrupted to 
irassharu and ossharUj as explained in the' N. B. near the 
bottom of p. 251). 

^ 404. The use of the verb ageru^ '' to raise," construed with 
the gerund, shows that something is being done by that 
lowly person myself for some one above me. The use o^ 
itadaku shows that some one superior to me is condescending 
enough to do something for me. We have already noticed 
this incidentally under the heading of passive verbs, in ^ 312, 
pp. 203 — 4. Here are a few additional examples : 

Kiite agemasho, ( *'I will go and ask 

Hearing wUt-liftt^. (for you." 

Kit'le itadakito x *< j ^yish you would be ^ 

Hearing wishing-t^^-pu^on-tlie'Iwaa g^ j^jj^^ ^g ^^ ^^^ " /f^^ 

gozamasu» ^^ 

. J ,. . f ''I wish you would be 

Os^ie/e ttadahiau . g^ ^md. as to show me 

Teaching tmsh'to-ptU'&n'the'head. KQ,y " 

O tsuide nit *'I venture to hope 

HonouraJble qpporhmity in,\ that yOU will take that 

misele iiadakiio ^(?«^2/72a5w.] opportunity of letting me 

showing wighing-tO'^reeeive am. ^see it." 




*|f 405. There are, moreover, several constanlly recurring 
ideas, for which separate verbs are employed according 
as the expression is meant to be honorific or humble. 
The chief of these are : 


au, *' to meet :" ainasaru, me nikakaru, 

iku *' to ffo •" [^ ^^^ nasaru,^ ) mairu, agaru, 
' ° ' \irassharUf ) makaru. 

iru ox) ,.. , „ {0 ide nasaru, ) . 
oru, r'tobe; \irassharu, \'ru. oru. 

lUf *'tosay;" ossharu^ mosht-ageru. 

karirUy *' to borrow f kari nasaru, haishaku sum, 

kikuy *' to hear;" okiki nasaru , ukeiamawaru. 

L t<,^ ^ " {0 ide nasaru, imairu, agaru, 

kuru. "to come; j^^,,^^^„^ | ^^i^^«» 

miru, *' to see ;" goran nasaru, haiken suru. 

miseru, *' to show ;" mise nasaru, me nt kakeru. 

ct ^ , », {nasaru, 

sum, "to do; \asobasi. 


taberu, ''f^^^t.'' (^oM.\naPr,. S^icLdaku, chbdai 

ukeru, '' to receive ;" tike nasaru. 

u, '' to eat f {meshi-)ageru, | ' ^^^^^ 

iiiadaku, chodai 
\ suru. 

varu ' * to eive •" [^^^saru, ) ageru, 

^ * 6 ^ [kureru, {less poVite)) sMnjo suru. 

N.jB. The slightly irregular verb irassharu (see If 270, p. 171), 
which is used to express so many shades of meaning, is a corruption 
of iraserareru, the potential of the causative of iru, "to enter." 
OssharUf the honorific equivalent of iu, ** to say," is a corruption of 
oserareru, the potential of the little-used verb osertt, " to say." 

^406. Of course the honorific verbs can only be employed 
in speaking to or of others, while the humble verbs are 

• Or o ide ni naru. Similarly in the instances given below, j^i 


applied only to the speaker himself, or to some one in- 
timately connected witL him, for instance, his own child 
or servant. 
The following are a fe\# examples of their use : 
me ni kakeie mo\ 

Honourable eyes in p ting even,] "May I show it tO 

yd gozaimasu ka P f you ?" 

good ia ? 

O mise nasaimasen ka ?\ 

HonouraHbUy t^ww defgn-not 9 

or Misete kudasaitnasen ka P 

Showing condeacend'Hot f 

Haiken ga dekimasu ka ?\ 
AdoHng'looh {nom,) can 

*' Please won't you 
show it to me ?" 

J^'^j ''May I look at it?" 

Kd iu hanashi wo 

Such story (accus.) honoureiMy 

kiki nasaimashtla ka P 

hear have-deigned ? 

** Have you heard this 
.story {or this piece of 
news) ?" 

Mada uke/amawarmasen, ) <« No, not yet" 

StiU (/) have-not-heard, J 

Sd osshatle kudasau \ *« Please say so." 

So saying condescend, 1 

Uso wo moshi-agemasen, ) *' I am not deceiving 

lAe {accus.) (I)say-lift-not'Up, J you, Sir." 

Doko ye irassharu P \ a Where are you going?" 

Where to deign-to-go ? ' 

Gakko ye mairimasu, ) ** I am going to the 
schoa to go. ) college, " 

O daiji ni asobase, \ " Mind you take care 

Honourable care to be-pleased-to-do.f of yourself." 

^ 407. The treatment of the imperative mood calls for special 
notice. The honorific verbs mentioned in ^ 405 make use 
of their imperatives, thus : 




goran nascd! 

irasskai! or trassAai^ 

ide nasai! 





" be pleased to do ! " 
"deign to look I" 

" deign to go I " {or come, or be.) 

"condescend to give I " 
"deign to eat" {or drink) I 
"deign to do!" 
"deign to say I" 

N, B, O ide nasai is often familiarly abbreviated to o ide ; garan 
nasai to goran, 

^ 408. Bat except occasionally in addressing coolies or one's 
own servants, and in the naval and military words of com- 
mand, the imperative mood of other verbs can scarcely be 
said to be in use (conf. \ 291, p. 189). Such a style of 
address would sound too rude and abrupt. The following 
examples will serve to illustrate the honorific periphrases 
by which the imperative is habitually replaced : 
•^ (0^ kak^ nasat\ lit "honourably* deign* to write*." 

kaki kuddsai, ,, "honourably condescend to 

" writing condescend." 

kaiie kudasai, ,, ,, 

11 0^ 

"please show me.' 

mise nasaz, 
mise kudasai, 
miseie ktsddsai, 

N, B, Defining the difference between nasai and kudasai perhaps 
a little too trenchantly, we might say that the former is essentially a 
command, though so polite as to have its imperative force disguised, 
whereas kudasai is a request. Therefore kudasai should be employed 
when we want a friend to do somethinR for us.— A polite imperative very 
common in the Written Language is obtained by means of the verb 
tamau, "to deign," thus: kaki-tamae, mise-tamae. It is nowadays 
chiefly to be heard from the lips of members of the student class. 


^ 409. The above forms are those generally used in address- 
ing equals or superiors. In speaking to the latter, the 
degree of politeness may be increased by lengthening the 
periphrasis, thus: 0^ kak^ nastt^ kudasai*' (''honourably* 
condescend* deigning' to write*"), mise nasiie kudasai. In 
addressing inferiors one may say kaiiekuret{^^ writing give"), 
tnisete kurei, or kaiie kun nasai (''writing honourably giving 
deign"), miseie kun nasai, and similarly with all other 
verbs. (Kun is a corruption of kure, the indefinite form of 
kurerUj "to give," of which ^«m is the imperative (see p. 
171.) These latter forms are those to be preferred in speak- 
ing to one's own servants, to coolies, and to the servants at 
small inns and tea-houses. They would be too familiar as 
a mode of address to one's friend's servants, or to the servants 
at a first-class hotel. Such must always be treated to a fair 
amount of the honorifics illustrated in the preceding para- 
graphs. The same remark applies ^ fortiori to teachers, 
ofiice-writers, respectable shop-keepers, etc. In fact, from 
the point of view of the proper use of honorifics, the term 
''inferiors" includes few but coolies, peasants, and the 
speaker's own children and servants. Other people may, as 
a matter of fact, be his social inferiors ; but politeness forbids 
his reminding them of this by a rude mode of address. 
Even animals are often treated to honorifics, as when one 
says to a dog ide! instead olkoil "come here I " iachil 
instead oi tote \ "sit up I " But this is semi-jocular. 

^410. It is rather common, in slipshod talk addressed to 
inferiors, to omit the honorific imperative, thus : 

Cha wo irete. \ "Make (lit. put in) some tea." 
Tea {accus.) putHng-in,) {^ot Cha wo ireie o kmt nasai,) 

The sentence thus appears to end in a gerund ; but the 

ellipsis must always be mentally supplied. Observe also the 


phrase.. .i5<? ga ii^ "it will be good to...," **you had 
belter.../' which frequently replaces the imperative, thus : 

Kd shiia ho ga it. ( ''You had better do 
Th%€a did aide (nom.) (is) good. \ it like this." 

JV, B, For ho conf. p 144, foot-note ; for the past shtta in a context 
where the present would l^etter suit European ideas, see If 275, pp. 

T[ 411. Dozo and ddka, which the dictionaries give as equiva- 
lents of our word "please/* are comparatively little used. 
The honorific equivalents of the imperative amply make 
good their absence. Properly speaking, both dozo and doka 
mean, not so much ''please/' as "somehow or other," "if 
possible," "by hook or by crook," "managing to do a 
thing," as in the following example : 

Doka waiakushi no' 

Somehow-OT'oiher I of 

jiron wo hito ga 
contention (accus.) pecfple {110m.) 
sansei shile kurereha ii 
approval doing if-^ve, (is)good, 


"I wish it could be 
managed so that others 
would support my view 
"of the matter." {Bu/ J 
hardly dare hope thai 
they will. ) 

Arigaio, "thank you," is likewise used less profusely 
than its European equivalents. It must never be employed 
to mean "no, thank you." This latter phrase finds polite 
Japanese counterparts in yoroshiu gozaimasu, " ifc is all right 
(without it)," ?in6 yoshimasho, "I think I will desist." 

^412. The use of special honorific and humble words is 
occasionally exemplified in nouns as well as in verbs. Thus, 
whereas the general term for "head" is alama, the polite 
one is isumuri. But the honorific tendency comes into 
peculiar prominence in the case of nouns indicative of the 
degrees of relationship, of which we give the chief : 






** elder brother,'' 

haha, *' mother," 

musuko, *'son," 
musume, "daughter," 


ani sama, 
go shimpu, 
go rojin, 


go shtshoku, 


"younger brother," go shaiei, 
' ' husband," go ieishu, 

(generally pronounced 
gi} teishi) 



\ o/ukuro, 




Iyado, uchi, iaku, 
(all lit. = "house"); 
or else the na cor- 
responding to our 
Christian name 
may be ased. 

isuma, "wife," 


'okamisan (lower class) 

go shinzOt (middle class) 

saikun, ,, 

j)lnisama, * (upper class) 

N, B. The humble words for " husband," ynz^yado, ucM, and taktt, 
generally take de wa instead of the nominatiye particle ga, thus : 

Yado de wa, tabi ye'' 
HfM&cnui OB'-far, jcwmey to 

dete, rusu de gozaimasu, 

haiolna-tfone, absent is. 

" My husband is absent, having 
gone on a journey." 

^[413. The words oioiisan and okkasan well exemplify the 
remark made on p. 245, to the effect that Japanese bono- 
rifics do not replace the pronouns of other languages, 
though they often serve a somewhat analogous purpose. 
Being honorific words, oioiisan and okkasan naturally 

* Okusanta is also used in the closely related sense of " a lady," ** my 
lady." The term comes from oku, " interior," ** recess ; " and sama, 
" Mr." or " Mrs." (referring to the retirement in which Japanese ladies 
formerly spent their lives). 


serve lo indicate '* your father," **your mother," when / am 
speaking to >/(?«. But if I am addressing my own parents, 
they mean respectively '*papa" and '* mamma;" for it is 
natural for a dutiful son to address his parents politely. It 
is only in speaking ^them to an equal or superior that he 
will be led lo substitute the humble expressions qyaji and 
haha. The term fukuro is slighdy vulgar. The other 
words in the column marked '* Honorific" are used only 
of the relatives of the person addressed, those in the column 
marked '* Humble " only of the first and third persons. 

T[ 414. Formal speakers occasionally employ humble terms 
that properly belong to the Written Language only. Such 
are ^tt, "stupid;" hei^ ** broken down;" selsu^ ''awk- 
ward ;" sOy *' rough," " coarse ;" as in 

gU'/Uy lit " the stupid father," i.e., ** my father." 
gu-saty lit. "the stupid wife," i.e., ''my wife." 
hei-sha, lit "the broken-down company," i.e., " our firm." 
seNaku, lit. "the awkward house," i,e., "my house." 
so'han, lit. "coarse rice," i.e., "the poor fare which 
alone I am able to offer you." 

•["415. But generally speaking, explicitly depreciatory nouns 
and indeed explicitly depreciatory words of any class are 
rare. Speakers show their humility chiefly by abstaining from 
applying honorifics to themselves, or to anybody or anything 
connected with themselves. Thus, whereas o kum\ lit. 
" honourable country," serves to designate " your country," 
the simple word kuni is taken to mean "my country." 
Similarly the simple \Gvhs komarmas^a, wakarimashUa, etc., 
naturally in most cases denote the first person, and signify 
respectively " I was troubled," " I understand" (lit. " have 
understood"), whereas Sazo o kotnari nasaimashtiard 


signifies "You must have been greatly troubled;" and O 
wakari ni narimashUa ha ? signifies *' Do you understand ?" 
^416. There are no polite modes of address exactly correspond- 
ing to our "Sir" or "Madam." But the student who has 
perused this chapter with care will be able to judge how amply 
their absence is made good by the use of verbal and other 
honorifics. Of titles, that in commonest use is Sama, as in 

Kami Santa, " a Shinto god or goddess." 

Shaka Sama, "Buddha" {the Buddha, Shaka Muni). 

Tenshi Sama, "the Mikado," lit. Son of Heaven." 

In speaking of ordinary mortals, Sama is mostly abbre- 
viated to Satiy which then corresponds to our " Mr.," thus : 

Watanahe San, "Mr. Watanabe." 
Kbshi^ San, "the Minister" (Plenipotentiary). 
N, B. Compare such French expressions as Monsieur le Minisire, 
Sometimes San is replaced by the Chinese word Kun, 
lit. "Prince;" thus, Watanabe Kun. This expreasion is 
much affected by the young men of the present da\ whose 
slang is apt to be of the grandiloquent order. Members of 
the Diet also habitually refer to each other as so-and-k ) Kun. 
\ 417. There are no words corresponding to our * Mrs." 
and "Miss." These are replaced by such periphrases as 
Watanabe San no okusama,) << jvirs. Watanabe" 

Waian€afe ^r. 'a lady, ) 

Watanabe San no ojosan. | '' Miss Watanabe," 

Watanabe Mr* 'a younff'lady.) 

Pan-ya no okamisan, "The baker's wile." 

{Instead of mentioning her surnafne.) 

JV, B. Such an expression as Watanabe San, though properly 

meaning " Mr. Watanabe," has come, quite of late years, to be sometimes 

* Kdshi, written with different Chinese characters, also means *' Con- 
fucius.' ' But he, as an ancient sage, would he KdsH Sama, not Koshi San, 

MR., MRS., MISS. 259 

employed to signify " Mrs. " or " Miss Watanabe *' in cases where no 
confusion of persons can arise. 

T[ 418. Women's personal names (corresponding to our 
Christian names) are preceded by the honorific 0, and 
followed by the title San ; but the San is omitted in familiar 
intercourse. Such names are mostly borrowed from graceful 
natural objects, less often from other sources, thus : 

O Hana San, (Honourable) ** Blossom" (Miss). 
OHaruSan, ,, ''Spring" 

O Maisu San, , , ' ' Pine-tree " 

O Set San, „ ''Pure" 

O Take San, „ " Bamboo " 

OYoneSan, ,, "Rice" 

Honorific is, however, dropped before such women's 
names as consist of more than two syllables, thus Kiyoshi 
(San), Sonoe {San), not O Kiyoshi (San), O Sonoe (San) ; 
neither is it employed before surnames or men's personal 
names (for these see p. 36). Observe that Japanese usage 
puts the surname first, the personal name last. 

T[ 419. It is not usual in Japan, as it is in England, to drop 
the title of "Mr." between friends. To do so would 
savour, if not exactly of contempt, at least of that excessive 
familiarity by which contempt is said to be bred. Officials, 
however, mostly drop the " Mr." in addressing their 
subordinates when on duty. This is on account of the 
halo which surrounds superiority in official rank. No 
Japanese speaker ever applies the word "Mr." to himself. 
If, therefore, a friend's servant asks what name he is to 
announce, the caller must give his na-me simply as Smith, 
Brown, or whatever it may be. It would sound conceited 
were he to speak of himself as Smi/h San or Brown San, 



T[ 420. The fundamental rule of Japanese construction is 
that qualifying words precede the words they qualify. 
Thus the adjective or genitive precedes the noun which 
it defines, the adverb precedes the verb, and explanatory 
or dependent clauses precede the principal clause. The 
object likewise precedes the verb. The predicative verb or 
adjective of each clause is placed at the end of that 
clause, the predicative verb or adjective of the main clause 
rounding off the entire sentence. 

A^ B, The adverb, instead of immediately preceding the verb which 
it defines, sometimes heads the whole clause. 

^ 421. Postpositions, which are words corresponding for the 
most part to English prepositions and conjunctions, follow 
the word or clause to which they belong. This seems, at 
first sight, an infraction of the fundamental rule of Japanese 
construction as laid down in the preceding paragraph. But 
the history of the language shows that this apparent excep- 
tion is really an exemplification of the rule itself. Some of 
the postpositions were originally verbs, and as such naturally 
follow their object, e.g. kore^ yori*, " than^ this\" *' hence- 
forward," lit. " leaning (yon being from the verb yoru, " to 
lean") on this." Some were nouns, e.g. zva, which meant 
"thing," ''person," so th2ii/une "wa, which now means 
''as for the ship" or simply "the ship," originally 
meant "ship thing." Fama none, "on the mountain," 
means lit. "the top (w) side {^e) of (no) the mountain 


{jama)." In such cases it is, historically speaking, the noun 
which qualifies the postposition, not the postposition the 
noun. Other postpositions again were independent excla- 
mations, each, so to speak, fornriing a clause by itself. Such 
is the accusative postposition wo (see \ 130, p. 92). Al- 
together, in every case where the etymology of a postposition 
is traceable, we find that its position a/ier the noun con- 
stitutes no exception to the main rule of construction set 
forth in T[ 420. 
^422. When the verbs of several clauses are intended to 
express the same tense or mood, it is only the last of these 
verbs that takes the suffix by which such tense or mood is 
indicated. The previous verbs all assume the gerundial (or, 
in the higher style, the indefinite) form. Adjectives assume 
either the gerundial or the indefinite form. Conf. ^^ 278 — 
283 and Tf 180. 

N, B, This rule, which was formerly inviolable, is now occasionally 

^ 423. When the verb has a subject, this usually heads the sen- 
tence. But most verbs are subjectless, and express rather a 
coming-iO'be with reference to some person than an act explicit- 
ly declared to be performed by him. In the absence of a 
subject, the word on which it is desired to lay most stress 
is often placed at the beginning of the sentence, and isolated 
by means of the particle wa. The student should compare 
with this paragraph what has been said o^wa in pp. 85 ei 
seq.y and the further discussion of the subjectlessness of 
Japanese verbs, which will be found in ^^ 427, pp. 266 — 7. 

^ 424. The following examples will serve to illustrate the 
above rules : 

Kuiroi hana. \ " A yellow flower." 

YeUow'Ccloured flower* ' 



Makka na kao. 

Quit^'red being face. 

Kura no kagu 
Godown of key. 

Kirei ni soroite 

FreUXLy being-nfforder 



Mae kara yoku shit- 
Before from, well know- 

leru htlo, 

inffHJun person. 

Ki wo Isukeie kuda'\ 

SpirU{accus.) fixing con- 

Kono isugi no shuku 

HfUs next of posl'town 

made, nan ri hodo 

tiU, what leagues about 

arimashb ? 


Goku goku isugo 

Egctremeiy extremely convenience 

ga warm, 
{nom.) is-had. 

\ " A very red face." 

I ** The key of the godown.' 

''They are all nicely ar- 

*'A person whom I knew 
well beforehand." 

''Please take care." 

"How many miles may it 
be to the next town ? " 

"It is extremely incon- 


Tatso ni Nihon-go 
Greaay JapanAanguage I * ' He Speaks Japanese 
yoku Isujimasu. (beautifully." 

well eommuniciUes. j 

I/su made maite 

When tUl Jiaving^waited 

mo, yubin ga hitolsu mo 
even, post {nom.) one even 
kimasen kara, makoio ni 
comes-not hecmise, truUh in 

shimpai ni narimasu. 

anxiety to {/)become. 

"Wait as 1 may, no letters 
-come, so that 1 am getting 
quite anxious." 



Am hen wa, fuyu\ 

That neigliJbourhood as- for, winter 

ni naru io, shimo-doke de 

to beeomea when, froat-meUing by, 

michi ga waruku/e, aruku koto 

roada {ftom.) bad-being, waXhing act 

ga dekimasen, 
(nomJ) forthcovnes-not. 

" When winter comes, 
the roads in that 
neighbourhood are so 
bad with the thaw, that 
it is impossible to walk." 

lya, mo! okite, le 

Jfo indeed t having-riaen, hands 

wo arau koto mo dekimasen 
{accu$,)wash act even fortheomes'not 

desAHa, Chozu-bachi no mizu 

wa Washing-basin 's waiier 

ga maru de kori-tsuite 

{nom,) altogether freeze-sHeking 

shimatte, do shite mo 

havinff-ftnished, Jiow doing even, 

shiyo ga arimasen deshita. 

doing- way (nom.) is-not was, j 

Sonna koto wo 


\ "No indeed ! when I 
got up, I couldn't wash 
my hands. The basin 
was entirely frozen over, 
and all my efforts to 
^break the ice were in 
vain." {More lit., *'It 
was a fact {deshita) that 
I cannot wash my 
hands . . ; it was a fact that 
my efforts are vain," etc.) 

'* Please do not feel 

Shich things (accus.) deigninynot- 

masezu ni, sekkaku moiie 

to-say, toilsomely Iiavinycarried I cepting it, 

kit(t mon{o) desu kara, dozo (taken the 
luive-cotne tiling {U)is becausCf please 
toUe kudasai, 
taking condescend, j 

Or take the following proverb : 
yoro no makoto to, tamago no 

Courtesan 's tntth and, egg 's 

sht-kaku, areha misoka 

fowr-9kdes,—if {these)are, last-day-of-tlte 

ni tsuki ga deru, 

month on, moon (nom.) wiU'Come-out, 

any such delicacy about 

it, but oblige me by ac- 

as I have 

trouble to 

brfng it." 

{Said to one who hesitates 
to accept a gift,) 

''When you find a 
truthful courtesan or 
a square ^%^, then 
will the moon come 
out on the last night 
of the month." 

iV. B, According to the old Japanese calendar, which went by 
real "moons," not by artificial "months," it would have been a 
miracle for the moon to come out on the last night of the month, i.e., 
on the night before new moon. 



^425. Now for a slightly more formal example, specially illus- 
trating the use of the indefinite form in correlated clauses. 
It is taken from a modern Buddhist sermon : — 

Uma ni mukaite ^ 

Horse to confronting, 

''KUb wo tsukuser 

*' Filita-piely {accus.) exhaust !*' 

bkami ni mukaiie *' Chugi 

wolf to confronHng, "Jioyaltif 

WO isukuseT nado to 
{accus,) exiumst!" eteeteraf that 
iiia tokoro ga^ deJdru 

said place aHJioughf forthcomes 

koto de wa gozaimasen 
fact indeed is-not 

ga, — /ii/o wa 

whereas,— person as-for, 

ze-ht zen-aku wo 

right-njoronff good-evil {acctis.) 

wakatsu chie ga 

discern inteiligence {nom.) 
a/fe, Mini ni chu wo 
being, lord to loyalty {acats.) 

tsukushi, oya ni 

exhausting, jxtrenf to 

ko wo tsukushi, 

ftliid'piety {accus.) exhausting, 

kybdai wa naka 

brethren as-for, intei'cowrse 

yoku, yii/ti wa 

being-good, spoitses as-for, 

mutsumashiku, hbyu ni 

being-harmonious, friends to 

wa shitashiku, makoio 

as-for, being-intiniate, sincerity 

WO moiie mfi^i'wat- 

(accus.) taking, having-inier- 

te /loso, hajimete shin 
course indeed, firstly truth 
no Mio to iwaremasu, 
's person tliat gels-said. ) 

"Supposing you were to 
tell a horse to practise 
filial piety, or a wolf to 
practise loyalty, those 

animals would not be able 
to do what you required of 
them. But man has the 
intelligence wherewith to 
discern right from wrong, 
good from evil ; and he 
can only then first be said 
to be truly man, when he 
practises loyalty towards 
his master and filial piety 
towards his parents, when 
he is affectionate towards 
his brethren, when he lives 
harmoniously with his 
wife, when he is amiable 
towards his friends, and 
acts sincerely in all his 
social intercourse." 



Here ihe two /sukuskfs, yoku, mtdsumashtku^ and 
shtlashiku — five indefinite forms — must all be rendered by 
the gerund, because vmjiwaite the verb of the next clause, 
with which they are all correlated, is a gerund. 

\ 426. Next we give another passage from the same sermon, 
illustrating the use of the gerund in correlated clauses, and 
also, in one instance {sukunaku)^ that of the indefinite form. 
Sukunaku is rendered by the present '* are few," because the 
verb omoimasu at the end of the sentence is in the present 
tense : — 
Kono goro ni itarimashite, 

ThU period at Tutvlnff-wrlved, 

Bukkyo to mosu mono 

Buddiiiam that {they)9ay thing 

wa^ iada katbjimmin no 

us-fWi merely lowdasa-people 's 

shinzuru lokoro to natte, 

hfiieninff place that having-becotne, 

chiltd ijb de wa 

middle'Class thenee-upwards in aa-for, 
sono dbri wo wakimaeteru 
its reason {accus.) diseeming'are 

Mto ga sukunaku; shumon 

2fersons{Mont,) are- few} religion 

io leba, soshiki no ioki 

thai if-one-says, funeral-rile 's time 

bakari ni mochiiru koto no 

only in emjaloy thing 's 

yd ni omoimasu. 

nunnner in {they) think. 

Again take the following : 
fftto ka to omoeba, 

*• At the present day 
Buddhism has sunk into 
being the belief of the 
lower classes only. Few 
persons in the middle 
and upper classes under- 
stand its raison d'etrCy 
most of them fancying 
that religion is a thing 
whicli comes into play 
only at funeral services." 

Person ? that if-one-thinks, 

Mto de mo naku ; yiirei ka 

person also is-not; ghost ? 

to omoeba y yurei de 

that if»one^lhinks, ghost 

mo nai 

also i8'not» 

"One might have taken 
them for human beings ; but 
they were not human beings. 
Or else one might have taken 
them for ghosts ; but neither 
were they ghosts. " 

266 SYNTAX. • 

Here the indefinite form naku has exactly the same sense 
as the final nai ; but it is preferred to nai in the first instance, 
because it merely ends a clause and does not complete a 

For fiirther examples of the correlation of sentences by 
means of the indefinite form and of the gerund, see pp. 
178 — 181, and also the stories and extracts in the Practical 
VdiXi passim, 

^ 427. Of all the peculiarities of Japanese syntax, the most 
puzzling to the foreign student is the already mentioned 
fact that most sentences are subjectless. It is not that 
the subject is dropped but still *' understood," as so fre- 
quently happens in Latin, but that it does not exist at all 
in the mind of the Japanese speaker. The best way of 
getting behind this difficulty is to consider the case of 
passive constructions in our own language. We may say, 
for instance, ** A house in European style has recently 
been built next door to mine." Now by whom has it been 
built? The sentence gives no information on this point. 
The action is affirmed, but no mention is made of any 
agent. In Japanese it is just the same, with this difference, 
that the verb used is an active instead of a passive one. 
English people say "A house has been built {by P). The 
Japanese say '* (/^) has built a house." In strict reason the 
two assertions are identical ; for it is only the grammatical 
clothing of the thought, not the thought itself, that varies. 
Thus the example in question, translated into Japanese, 
would run as follows : 

Konaida waiakushi no ionari ni seiyo-zukuri 

JBecenUly I of next-door in, Xhiropeawconstruction 

no ie wo iaiemashiia^ 

'a hottae {accus.) iMa-UiUt, 


I.e., '* Next door to me, recently (some one) has built 
a European house." 

Again, take such an instance as "I think Til send these 
boots to be mended." We do not in English explicitly 
Stale who is to do the mending. In Japanese the sentence 
will run thus : 

liono kutsu wo naoshi ni yarimashb. 
These boots (acctis,) mend to wiU-prt^HMysend, 

Here the verb naoshiy ** mend," is active, but as usual 
subjectless, so that the wording is, as literally as may be : — 
*' lam going to send the boots {/or some one) to mend." 
The \Qxh yarimasho is subjectless too ; but no ambiguity 
can arise with regard to it. For who, under ordinary 
circumstances, will trouble himself about any boots but 
his own .? The pronoun **I" is so obviously the one to 
be supplied that its omission can cause no ambiguity. 
One specially complicated class of instances, in which two 
different pronouns must be supplied in the same clause, 
has been already treated of from other points of view in 
^312 and ^ 404. Let us again take up the last example 
of ^404, omitting the first unessential words. We thus 
get Miset^ itadakiio* gozaimast^y lit **to-be^ wishing-to- 
receive^ showingV' but employed to signify *' /-am wishing- 
lo-receive your showing," in other words, "I wish you 
would show me." The Japanese go the length of omitting 
personal pronouns in almost all cases. The perpetual 
iteration of '• I "and ''me," ''you," "your," "he," etc., 
which characterises the languages of the West, would seem 
to them no less tiresome than superfluous and absurd. The 
student is referred to almost every page of this Handbook, 
and more particularly to every page of the Practical Part, 
for examples of the omission of personal pronouns and of 

268 SYNTAX. 

the general subjectlessness of verbs. He should also refer 
lo ^ 71 and to ^^ 122 — 125, in which latter the difficult 
particle wa, which has a bearing on this point, is treated of. 

Tf 428. The relative order of the direct and indirect objects 
of the verb depends on circumstances. Whichever of the 
two it is desired to emphasise comes first. In English the 
same end is often attained by using the word *' the " for the 
more impiortant, and* 'some" for the less important of the 
two objects. Thus, 

Hito ni kane wo tstikawasu 

IPeraon to money {a ecus.) to-ffive 

means ** To give the person some money." 

Kane wo Inlo ni isukawasu 
means '* To give the money to somebody." 

^429. Though, properly speaking, every sentence ought to 
terminate in a verb (or adjective used as a verb), the final 
verb is often omitted for brevity's sake, when there can be 
no ambiguity in the meaning, especially in short idiomatic 
sentences, for instance : 

Kore de shimai {desk). \ **This is the last." 
TfUs lyy, end is, ) {The full form is th€ politer,) 

ChoUo haiken (wo 

''Please just let me look 
a minute." 

A-lUtle respectful'Olance {'f^us.) 


(/) beg. 

Watalnisht sansei {ilashimasujA "I beg to second the 
I secondinff do. ( motion." 

I/su go shukkin {ni\ 

When mtfftist office-going to\ "When doeS he gO tO 

narimasti) P joffice ?" 

heoomes? ) 


Makoio ni shibarahl 
TntOh in, aome-Ume 

( me ni kakarimasen 

honour(Me eyes an, (/) hang-noi 


U'haa'^been. ^ 

Taisb ni kirei desu to ' 
Greatly preUy is that 
{Kito ga iimasu. ) 
people {nam.) aay. 

** Really it is quite a time 
,since we last met." 

( This is a set phrase in constant 

** It is said to be extremely 

This omission of final verbs, though the commonest 
form of ellipsis, is not the only one. The fondness of the 
Japanese for long and highly complex sentences (conf. \ 
442) often lands them in the predicament of not knowing 
exactly how to finish. The speaker then perforce breaks 
off either with a gerund (conf. ^ 4 10), or the postposition ga 
(conf. T[ 2g7, p. 186), or a concessive form, somewhat as if 
one should end by *'and. ."01 '* but. .," through absence 
of further definitely expressible deas. Thus we get such 
sentences as 

le ; so bakari mo gozaimasen keredomo . . , 

No; 90 only even ia-not tdthough, 

meaning **That is not the only reason." There is some 
other reason behind ; but the speaker either does not care to 
explain it, or does not exactly know how best to set to work 
to do so. 

T[ 430. As in the case of verbs only the last of a set of cor- 
related verbs takes the suffix denoting the tense or mood 
which is common to them all, so also in the case of nouns 
it is only the last of a set of nouns that takes the postposition 
common to all. Thus : 

Yokohamn^, Kob^, Naga- \ * ' The ports* of* Yokoha- 
saki^ nado* no^ minaio^, ) ma, Kobe, Nagasaki, etc*. " 

270 SYNTAX. 

N. B. The word " etc." might be dropped from the English trans- 
lation, as nado is often absolntely meaningless. 

O - cha to kwashi 

H(m€nirable tea and edkea 

WO moiie kou 

{accus,) having-carHed come. 

''Bring tea and cakes. 

Mo (with any other postposition which may precede it) is, 
however, suffixed to every noun of a set, thus : — 

J^yukyu ni mo, Chosen ni moA ''Both in Luchu and 

lAiehu in aUo, Korea in also. ) in Korea. " 

^431. Inversion of the regular order of words is rare. It 
occurs for the most part only when a word or clause which 
ought to have been inserted in an earlier portion of the sen- 
tence, has been forgotten, and is therefore perforce brought 
in at the end. From such forgetfulness result phrases like 
the following, which not infrequently occur in conversation ; 

Sono okamisaUf jishin to ieba, mas* 

That married-woman, earOujtMke tlutt if-one-aay, perfeeily- 

sao ni naru, — kowagatte. 
green to beeomes,-^bein0-fl^htened. 

It should, properly speaking, run thus : 

Sono okamisan,^ jishin 
to ieha, kowagaiie, massao 
ni nam, 
(more politely narimasu,) 

Mrs. (so-and-so) is so 
frightened of earthquakes, that 
she turns green at the bare men- 
tion of them." 

Again : 

Naka-naha hi nando ni ataicha .iraremasen, — 
PosiUvely] fire etcetera at aa^for-towiMng, {I)canno€'^,— 

goran no ibri, isogi no yd desu kara. 
august-glance 's way, hurry 's business is beeemse, 

* If a lady is meant, then say okusama, not okamisan. Conf. middle 
of p. 256. 


This sentence should, properly speaking, be 

Goran no iorty tsogi no 
yd desu kara, naka-naka 
hi nando ni aiaicha irare- 

"I am, as you see, far too 
busy to be able to sit quiet, 
warming my hands at the fire." 

In familiar conversation, occasional inversion, such as 
is here instanced, may perhaps be thought to add liveliness 
and variety to the expression. But it would hardly be con- 
sidered appropriate in a set speech. In Japan as elsewhere, 
however, usage sanctions a few special locutions which seem 
to run counter to the general rules of the language, for 
instance, the placing of the adverb qfler its verb in phrases 
like Ima kiia hakari, which is more idiomatic than Ima hakart 
kita^ " He has just come." 

\ 432. Negatives destroy each other, as in English, thus : 

Nai koto wa nai, 

Nat'is fact as-for, ia-not. 

Kb shinakereha narimasen, 

37mm if-do-not, is'fwt. 

'* It is not a fact that there 
are none," i.e., ''There are 
some," or ''There are some." 

"It won't do not to do 
thus," ue., ''It must he done 
in this way." 

iV. B, Such mutually destructive negatives are very frequently 
used, the practice having been apparently borrowed from the Chinese. 

Occasionally the Japanese employ a negative where we 
should employ a positive construction, for instance in 
such phrases as Ano KUo no konaimae, lit "Before that 
person's not coming," but signifying simply "Before he 
comes " {or came). The train of thought here seems to be 
that, before a man comes, he of course cannot have come 
yet, and similarly in other cases. 

372 SYNTAX. 

IT 433' Japanese has no negative pronouns, adverbs, or con- 
junctions, such as the English words *' nobody," '* nothing," 
" none," " never," '* nowhere," '* neither. . . . nor," etc. 
Their absence is supplied by the negative voice of the verb 
or adjective, combined with positive pronouns and other 
positive words. Thus, for the English "I know nothing," 
a Japanese will say Na{n)ni^ vio^ shiranaP^ '' (I) know-not' 
anything'**," — more literally (so far as the grammatical 
expression is concerned), **I ignore everything." For 
" There are none to be had anywhere," he will say Doko^ 
nP mo^ goxamasen*, " Everywhere''*'^ {more lit even'' in* 
where') are-non-existent*. The following examples will 

. serve to illustrate the manner in which the various kinds of 
English negative and quasi-negative assertions, and other 
kindred idioms, are expressed in Japanese : — 

Dare mo shiranau (familiar) \ 

Everybody knowa-not. (i,e. ignores) * ' Nobody 

Donaia mo go zonji ga nai, (^polite) ' knows." 

Everybody auffust hnowiedge {nom.) ia-not, 

{''There are some 
persons who know not," 
i,e.f "Every body doesn't 

Shiru hito mo gozaimasu. ) '' Some people know." 
Know persona aUo {there)are, ) 

Shiru hito mo areba, 
Know persona also wh€reas{'tliere)~are, 
shiranai hiio mo gozaimasu. 
ignore persona also {there)are, 

Shiiieru hito wa sukuno\ c.r^x c 1 

^ , ^ ^ I 'There are few who 

fZ^^.T''""^'^^' ^'^ know;" or "Few people 
gozaimasu. \vnQv,!" ^ ^ 

Mattaku zonjimasen. \ » i don't know at all." 

Compietely know-not, ) 

''Some people know, 
and some don't. " 


Kuwashiku wa zonjimasen. \ " I don't quite know." 

Minutely as-for, hnow-not, f 

Maliaku isumi ga nai, f *' He has not committed 

Completely crime (tJom.) is-not. Ithe Smallest Crime." 

Ano Kito wa, ichi-do mo \ 

That jpertKm. as-for, one-time even I * ' He has never OnCC 

ki'ia koio ga gozaimasen. fcome," 

ccrnte act (nom.) is-not. ) 

--.,,. . w ( " There are times when 

ATonat ioki 7no gozaimasu. K^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^,, -^^ 

Comef^-not time also is. [ .,jj^ j^^g^,^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ,, 

ICuru toki mo areha^ \ 

Comes Um^ also whereas-there-isA '' Sometimes he COmes,^ 

konai ioki mo gozaimasu, [and sometimes he doesn't." 

com,eS''not time also is. ) 

Kuru koio wa suknno gozaimasu, \ n jj^ rarely comes." 

CSomes tuO, as-for, few ttre. ) 

„ . , . . ( " There is no such thing 

Konaz koio wo. gozaimasen. \ j^j^ ^^^ coming," i.e, 

Comes-not act as^for, is-^. [« He does COme." 

Sukosht mo konaku narimashiia.i "He has quite left 

A'lUtle even com,in0~not has-becom^, lofT COming," 

Are kara ijirimasen. | *'I have never touched 

That from, {/)meddle-not. Ut since then." 

Doko ye mo ikim^sen, i "I don't go anywhere," 

^or ''I go no 

Everywhere go-not. ^or '* I gO no where." 

Sappari wakarwiasen. 

Quite {/)understand-not. 
Sukoshi vio wakarimxisen. 
A-little even understand-not. 

" I don't understand it 
at all." 

Foku wakarmasen. f ''I don't quite under- 

drew understand-not. ^ Stand it." 

Foku wa wakarimasen. [ "I don't gutie under- 

WeU aa-fovf understand-not. 

I ''I don't quUe 
Utand it" 



Mina miemasen. / ''I can't see any of 


Hoiondo nai kurai desu. 
Almost exisU-wa degree is. 

AU appear-noi. 'them." 

Mtna wa miemasen. ) «i ^an't see them all.' 

AU aa-for, appear-not. J 

N. B, Observe the radical difference of signification eff"ected by th 
limiting power of wa in such instances as the last. 

Tonto kikimasen. \ *' I have heard nothing. 

QuUe (/) hear not. f 

Amari kikimasen. | ''I have not heard 

Too nvweh hear-not. ' much. " 

' *' There is hardly any;" 
or '* There is little if any ;" 
more lit, ' ' It is almost to 
the pitch of there being 

Ano htio to kybdai desu\ 

That person with, brothers are \ " It is impossible that 
kara, shiranai to iu wakeVfi^ shouldn't know about 
because, ignores 'Jhat say »•€««>»[ it, seeing he is the fellow's 
ni wa mairimasen. I brother." 

to goes-not. / 

^ 434. The difficulty of using negative constructions correctly 
will disappear as soon as the learner clearly grasps the fact 
that in Japanese the negative and the verb are not conceived 
of as two separate ideas, as is mosdy the case in European 
languages, but as a single idea. Even in European lan- 
guages, however, there is no lack of parallels to this Japanese 
idiom. Thus " to disapprove," for '* not to approve ;" '* to 
disregard," for " not to regard;" '* impossible," for *' not 
possible," etc., etc. 

N. B. Custom limits the use of the word sukunai (vulg. sukenai)^ 
** few," to predicative constructions, as instanced in two or three of the 
examples in the preceding section. Thus we can only render the phrase 
** Few people know " by SMtteru htio wa sukunai (more politely suktmo 
^ozaimasUX lit. " The knowing people are few," never by Siikunai hito 


7ua shiiteru. The same remark applies to the kindred adjective oi, 
** many." The sole case in which the words sukunai and oi can be used 
attributively is in relative clauses, for instance : 

Nandemot shina no %Tikunai\ 

Anyaiing-whatever, arHcle 's scarce . " Every kmd of article 

toki wa, fu ga take gozaimasTi. ''^ expensive when it is 

time as-for, price (fwm.)dear is. ) ^^^^C^- 

" There was a great 
bustle at the trahi to-day, 
because there were such 
a lot of travellers." 

Kyo wa, kisha vi nori-ie ga 
To-day as-for, train in, riders {nom.) 
oi kara, yohodo konzatsu 

many becattse, plenttftdiy confusion 

It may perhaps be thought that as iokl means " when," and kara 
means " because," the construction is not an attributive one even 
hei*e. It is so, however, from the Japanese point of view, toki being even 
now apprehended as a noun signifying " time," and kara also having 
almost certainly been a noun in the archaic period of the language. 

^ 435. In Japanese almost all quotation, whether of the words 
of others or of the speaker's own thoughts, is direct. The 
manifold shiftings of person, mood, and tense, which are 
brought about in European languages by the use of indirect 
quotation, are consequently unknown. Thus a Japanese, 
when mentioning the plans of an absent friend, does not 
say ''He said he would be back by Sunday;" but he 
repeats his friends exact words, and says : '' He said that : 
'I shall be back by Sunday.'" In Japanese the phrase 
would run as follows : 

* ' Nichiyb made kaeru " io tmashiia. 

"Sunday HU, {I)wiU'reiunn/' that {he) said. 

N. B. The word to, " that," cannot l^e omitted in such contexts. 
Compare also to,^ 11 7, p. 82. 

One alteration does, however, commonly occur in quota- 
tions, — an alteration affecting the honorifics. For instance, 
you say to me O^ id^ nasaP, lit. ''Deign' honourable^ 



exit*," i.e., "Please come." Now, if I am repeating this 
remark of yours lo a third person, my modesty naturally 
prevents me from applying honorifics to myself, even within 
quotation marks. I therefore express the idea ''He asked 
me to come" thus : 

Waiakushi ni '' KoiT lo iimashiiaj or Watakushi ni kuru yd 
ni iimashtia (conf. next ^), employing the corresponding 
non-honorific verb kuru, .**to come," in lieu of the honorific 
ide nasaru. So persistently inherent in the Japanese habit 
of speech is the tendency to give honour to others, and to 
abase self. 

Tf 436. The sole kind of indirect quotation ever employed by 
the Japanese is a locution with the present tense and the 
words ^^>^ /«', lit. '*in* the manner^" thus : 

Kiiio kuru yd ni io 

PosUivelf/ come manner in that, 

SO ittc koi. 

80 having-aaid came. 

Kuru yd ni to iiia 
Come manner in that {/]»aid 

gay — muko de do shiie 

though,— opposUe at, how doing 

mo korarenai io iiniasu. 

'*Go and tell him 
to be sure to come.'' 

(^Said to an inferior in 
speaking of another inferior^ 

''I told him to come; 
but he said it was abso- 
lutely impossible for him 
to do so." 

even, eannot-conie that says, 

A'. B, To may be omitted after yo ni, — Notice the word muko in- 
the last example, and consult p. 48, line 6, for it. 

The phraseology of the above examples is not polite. 
That of tlie next is extremely so : 

Daiji ni nasaru yd \ 
Carefkdly deign-to-do manner 

ni yoku osshaiie kuda-- 

in, well deigning-tO'say con^ 


"Please be so kind as to 
tell him to take great care of 


Somewhat similar in character to the above are such 
phrases as 

Fosaso ni omoimasu, \ " 1 think it looks as if it 


j wc 

Good-appearance in (7) think. j WOuld do. " 

1[ 437« Notwithstanding the example given at the beginning of 
the preceding paragraph {Kiiio kuru yd ni io so Hie koi)y the 
Japanese generally avoid such phrases containing one 
command within another. Thus, rather than say '*Tell O 
Haru to come here," they will mostly prefer the simpler 
expression *'Call O Haru," viz. 

Haru wo yonde koi! 

O'Hatni (accus.) liaving-caUed come! 

or more politely 
O Haru wo yonde kudasai! 

O-Harti {acctis.) caUinff condescend! 

Rather than say ''Tell Jiro to get the jinriBsha ready for 
me at twelve o'clock," they will use the causative and say : 

yu-ni-ji ni deru kara^ yirb ni kuruma no sM- 
Tiodve'O'clock at, go-out because, Jir5 to, JlnrUtiahn 'a pre- 

taku wo sashile oku ga U, 

parations {acctis.) having-cauaed-to-do to-pUxce (nom.) is-good. 

I.e., as literally as may be, "As I am going out at twelve 
o'clock, it will be well to cause Jiro to make preparations 
for the j'inriBsM." — Similarly, "Tell him to wait" becomes 
** Cause him lo wait," Maiasfiiie kudasai. 

In still more complicated cases, the difficulty is often 
turned by omitting one whole clause. Thus, where an 
English servant would say ''My master told me to tell 
you. Sir, thai he particularly wishes to see you," a Japanese 
servant will more briefly say ' ' My master said that he par- 
ticularly wishes to see you." In Japanese the sentence 
would run thus.: 

278 SYNTAX. 

Shujin ga zehi ai-mosKiiai io 

Master (ftom.) poaiiively honourably "(/) tvish-to-nieet'^ tfiat 

N. B. Do not misinterpret the word mdshitai as signifying " wants 
to say." ai'tnoshitai is simply a very polite equivalent for aitai^ the 
desiderative adjective oiau, " to meet." See ^ 402, p. 249. 

On the other hand, Japanese constructions with quota- 
tions are often pleonastic, some such formula as *'he said" 
being used both before and after the words quoted, instead 
of once only, as is the case in English. The following 
example, taken from Dr. Kato's lecture given later on in 
this volume, will show what we mean : 

Doiisu no ieisugakusha Schopen- 

Germany 's philosepher Schopen- 
hauer to lu Kito no iuta kotoha 
hauer that say pei*son 's said words 
niy * ' Shiikyb wa hoiaru no 
in, "Beligion indeed firefly 's \ jjj^g ^ ^^^^ ^X. Can 

yd na mono. Kurai 

fashion being thing (is). Dark 

iokoro de nakereha^ htkaru koto ga 
place if-is-not, shine act (nam.) 

dekinaV* to moshimashita, 

forthcomes-not" that {he) said. 

''The German phi- 
losopher Schopenhauer 
has said : ' Religion is 

shine only in dark 
places' [is what he 

^ 438. Interrogation is not denoted, as in European langua- 
ges, by an inversion of the usual construction. The con- 
struction remains the same, but the interrogative particle 
ka is generally added. (See p. 68.) 

^ 439. Passive constructions are very sparingly used, and when 
used, their grammar is peculiar (see p. 198 et seq; also pp. 
57 — 5^* 204, and 216). The passive is almost always 
replaced by the subjectless active construction explained 
in pp. 266 — 267, or else by an intransitive construction, as 
explained in pp. 204 — 5 and pp. 190 — i. Thus, to give 


one or two additional examples, a Japanese will not say 
"As has already been explained.'' He will say "As (I) 
have already explained," 

Sude ni tokt-akashimashtia ibru 

Already (/) have-eae^^ilai'Kied way. 

He will not say *' It has been notified by the Department," 
but ''A notification has issued from the Department," 

YaJmsho kara iasshi ga demashiia. 
Office . from, noHfieixtion {nom.) has-came-out. 

^ 440. Inanimate objects are rarely, if ever, personified. Not 
only does Japanese idiom eschew all such fanciful anthro- 
pomorphic expressions as *' the hand of Time," "old Father 
Christmas," "the spoilt child of Fortune," "Nature's 
abhorrence of a vacuum," etc., etc. ; but it goes so far as 
almost to prohibit the use of the name of any inanimate thing 
as the subject of a transitive verb. For instance, a Japanese 
will not say "The rain delayed me," thus appearing to 
attribute an action to those inanimate things, the drops of 
rain ; but he will turn the phrase intransitively, thus : 

Ame no tame ni oi ni osoku narimashiia. 
Main 'a aak^ in, greatty late (/) Imve-^become, 

I.e., "1 am very late on account of the rain." 

Similarly it will not come into his head to employ such a 
phrase as "His diligence surprises me." He will say: 
Ano hito no benkyo ni wa kanshin shimasu. 

That peraon 'a diligence at, admiring-astonishment (/) do. 

I.e., " I feel astonishment at his diligence." 

f 441. Thus no language lends itself less to the imaginative 
and mythopoeic faculty than does Japanese. When, for 
instance, a European speaks of "the strife between Re- 
ligion and Science," he very likely spells these names with 

28o SYNTAX. 

a capital R and a capital S, and unconsciously slides into 
regarding them as being, in some sort, actual things, even 
individualities capable of aspirations, aims, and conquests, 
of teaching and sustaining their devotees, of revenging 
themselves on those who slight them, etc., etc. Such 
mythology (for mythology it is, albeit those who have been 
reared under the exclusive influence of European modes of 
expression may not at first recognise it as such) is utterly alien 
to the matter-of-fact Far-Eastern mind. During the last few 
years, the study of English, and the translation into Japanese 
of great numbers of English and other European books, 
have indeed resulted in the occasional adoption by public 
speakers of such expressions as ReBshi ga watakushi-domo ni 

wo oshieru, a literal rendering of our phrase " History 

teaches us that " But such *' Europeanisms" are 

quite unidioniatic, and would scarcely be comprehended by 
any Japanese save those who have themselves at least a 
tincture of Western learning. 
^ 442. Languages differ greatly in the degree of integration 
of their sentences. For instance, Chinese and Pidjin- 
English simply put assertions side by side, like stones 
without cement, as ^^ He bad man. My no like he" Our 
more synthetic English would generally subordinate one 
assertion to the other, coupling them thus : '^ I don't like 
him, BECA USE he is a bad man" Now one of the most 
essential characteristics of the Japanese language is the 
extreme degree to which it pushes the synthetic tendency 
in the structure of sentences. Japanese always tries to 
incorporate the whole of a statement, however complex it 
may be' and however numerous its parts, within the limits 
of a single sentence, whose members are all mutually 
inter-dependent. In fact the normal Japanese sentence is 



a paragraph, or (so to say) an organism, as much more 
complicated than the typical English sentence just quoted, 
as the English sentence is more complicated than the 
Chinese or the Pidjin-English. As an illustration, let us 
take the following anecdote, the first paragraph of which 
forms but one sentence in Japanese, though it may be 
conveniently broken up into four or five in English : — 


Art^ hito 
A.-'Certain person 

no mae wo 
of front {1CCUS.) 


ga naga-ya^ \ 
{nom.) Hoeh-of'-hotMes 
ibrimasu ioki, ishi 
passes time, stone 

ni isumazukimasMiareha^ y naga-ya 

on wlien'Jie-had'StumHedt mock-of-houses 

no tichi no hito ga baka ni 
of inside of person{nom.) fool to 

shW, ''AUatar' io koe 

maMng, ** JUi!~how-painfkd !" that voice 

WO kakemashita kara, isumazuUa 

{accus.) placed because, {ihe)stumJbled 

JvUo way ima-imashii io 

person as-fw, disagreeable that 

omoimasKiia ga, waza io 

{he) thougJit thmtgh, purposely 

ofonas/iiku' , ^^lyal go men 

sedately "Nay!" attffust excuse 

nasaimashil Kemashiia no wa, 

deign I JKicTccd thing as- for, 

ishi ka^ to omoimashUara, anaia 
stone ? tJuxt whereat' fI')thought, you 
no hana no saki deshiia ka r'" 

of nose of tip was ? " 

io iimashiia. 
that {he)said. j 


''A certain man, 
passing one day in 
front of a block of 
houses, tripped against 
a stone. Thereupon, 
some one inside the 
block of houses made 
fun of him, and cried 
out: ''Oh how I 
have hurt myself r' So 
he who had tripped 
constrained himself to 
be quiet (although he 
felt disgusted), and 
said : * ' Oh I pray 
excuse me, I thought 
that what I had kicked 
was a stone. But was 
it the tip of your 
nose ?" 

I Hempo is a Chinese expression meaning '* requital ;" gaeshi is 
the mgorV ed iorvci oikaeski, the indefinite form of kagsu, " to return " 
(trans.). — 2 Aru, ** to be," sometimes has the sense of " a certain." — 
3 Naga-ya, lit. ** long house," is an expression denoting the quarters 

282 SYNTAX. 

Naga-ya no KUo no kokoro-mochi t * ' I wonder how the 

BloeJcof-houses of person *s feelings man inside the block 
zua, donna deshiiard ? ' of houses felt on re- 

aa-fior, what-like probaibty-tDere? Iceiving ihis snub." 

^ 444. The integration of sentences, as illustrated in the 
foregoing example, is secured by the application of the rule 
of syntax which was set forth in Tf 422, p. 261, and illustrated 
in pp. 264 — 6, and which is here exemplified in the word 
sAi/e ; furthermore by the incorporation of quotations, and 
by the use of such particles as ^ara (''because") and ^<2: 
(" whereas ") and of the conditional and concessive moods 
of verbs and adjectives. In translating a Japanese sentence 
into idiomatic English it is generally necessary to break it 
at each of these hinges, as they may perhaps be termed. 

formerly attached to the mansions {yasktki) of the daitnyos, as 
residences for their retainers. Such nagoya as remain are now mostly 
let ont in sets of two or three rooms to poor families. — ^4 TswnaxuH- 
mashiiara "would be the more strictly Colloquial form of this word; 
but see p. 184. — 5 Htto wo baka ni sum means " to make a fool of a 
person ;" but here of course htto ga is the subject of the verb, and the 
object is left unexpressed. — 6 Aitata ! is the same as aita / at the top 
of p. 237. — 7 Oionashiku^ more lit. like a grown-up person." It qualifies 
the verb iimashtia at the end of the sentence. — 8 Ishi ka, " perhaps 
a stone." Taken more literally still, the words ishi ka are a direct 
quotation of the speaker's thoughts : " Is it a stone ?" i.e., " May it not 
perhaps be a stone ?" 




Ir^-ixJ-Mji " AoJ- WiA^ cU'u<^' 




1. Amari mita koto ga 
TkM-^mwih liawe'seen fact (wm.) 



2. Anata mazu do iu 

ToUf weU, w7tat-8G»H-of 

^ .^ * g{f ry&ken de gozaimasu /^ 

jH^^^y'* (H^tfjxist opinion is ? 

3. Arigato gozaimasu, — Do 
Tharikfiil (/) a/ni.— How 

iiashimashiie I 

having-done ? 

4. Aie ni 

Beliance to 

S.^'^fo ^ kara 

ivo mbshimasho. 

{acctis.) tviU'Say. 

6. Ch'/o kake ') 

A-Uttle honourably to-plaee 



beconies-not. • 





I have hardly ever 
seen any. 

Well, what is your 
opinion on the subject ? 

Thank you. — Oh ! 
pray don't mention it. 

■^ X' 

He is not to be 
i^epended upon. 

I will send my answer 


Pray sit down a 

I. Amari, conf. f 219, p. 148. — ^3. I.e., " You are grateful to me for 
having done what?" It is still more polite to substitute Do isuka- 
matsurimashtte iot Do iiaskimashite.'^^. Observe the avoidance of the 
passive, and conf. p. 205. — 7. After chito supply koshi woy "tlie 





A'lUae y 
'0 f 

Chitto haiken. 




adwing-lodk (lei me do). 



. (polite) 

Yes, but. 







ho ga 

, Qiom.) 


14. Bo^a (ymsm^ashjiO' '■- ^ 


. Go^ 



16. Go 






I will 
about it. 



m is, 


ConmUting (!) wiU-see. 

Bo shimasho ? 

Sow ahaU-probalbHy'do ? 
Do shiia 

Bow did . side 

yokarb P y^^- 

-ill-pycXHaHy-'he ahod ? ^^ 

^(^jfnra -ye irasshaimasu ^ ^A^Where 

tOig deign-tO'^0 ?[ 

, ^_ ka P 
Sotnehofv ^'^^tbe-deianed 


It doesn't 



matter a 

just let" me 




speak to him ^ 
What shall we do ? 


What do you 
we had best do ? 


are you going ? 

Have you hurt your- 
self? or Is anything the 
matter with you ? 

I have been very rude 
in not coming to see 
you for so long. 




[Said chiefly to inferiors,^ 

8. Conf. p. 268.— 9. Properly speaking, this phrase should come in the 
middle of a sentence ; but in familiar conversation it often begins one. 
For ga = «* but," see p. 67. The n of desu is pronounced before ga, for 
which reason we print it in this context without the mark of short 
quantity.— 10. For miru auxiliary, see p. 193.— 11 and 12. The Japan- 
ese habitually use "how^" for "what?" in such phrases as these. 
For ho seep. 144.— 13. For irasshaimasu, substitute iHmasu in speaking 
to an inferior. — 14. For nasaitnashtta substitute shimashlta, or still 
less politely shtta, in speaking to an inferior.— 15. See p. 247.— 16. 
See p. 247. — 19. Yukkuri is a sort of noun, which the addition of to 
turns into an adverbial phrase ; conf. f 377, p. 236. 




1 ^^u^- ^i. 


3 ' ■■■■■ 

^ .'/ 


17. (rO 

18. G^' 

masu ga. . . 

19. Go'' 

deign-to-be. , 

20. G<? 







mottomo de 






yukkuri to 




prdbabiy-is ttUhough. . . . 

21. Go zonji no 

August "kiMwledge 's 




Hakkiri to 

de mo 



• ^Cleetrly ^utj^vstan^-not. 1 

"-Nora- gh ^ik^H (fe.miiar)'^ 
Belly (nom.) {/s) painful. 

Hayaku ! hayakii ! 

QuieJdy ! quickly I 

Httotsu ikura P 
One lM>iv-m.uch ? 

Hoka de mo 

Other-thing even 

tiUhough. . 




Please excuse me, 
or I beg your pardon. 

What you say is 
very true ; still . . . . 

Go slowly. (A polite 
phrase frequently addressed 
to one starting off on a walk.) 

You probably 


As you know, 

clearly un- 

a stomach- 

I don^t 


• .-^ - < . 

I've got 

Hurry up ! hurry up ! 

How much for one ? 

What I want to say is 
is simply this : — . . . . 
, 7 

20 and 21. *Zonji is the indefinite f6rm, used substantively, of zonjirtt, 
"to know." Ga has here but little meaning. Similarly in No. 26. 
For tori, see p. 243. — 22. For to see p. 82. — 23. The predicative adjec- 
tive includes the meaning of the verb ** to be." But if it is desired 
to make the phrase polite, itai must be changed to itd gozaimasu 
conf. p. 140, f 204, — 24. Supply the imperative koi / "come," or 
hashire ! "run." — 25. More grammatically Httotsu iva ikura de gozai- 
tnasii ? The numeral httotsu will vary according to the article alluded 
to : — if a fan, substitute ip-pon ; if a mirror, substitnte ichi-tnen^ etc.; 
see ^ 157 et seq., especially pp. 108 — 1 10. 




Ichi-nichi rusu desu. 

OnC'day aUbaent is. 

Ikenai koto shimasJnta. 
Can'i-go thing have-done. 

Ikura mo gozatmasen. 

Hota-mueh even is-not. 

lisu no koto deshtia ? 

When 'a fact ivas? 

31. Jya . desu J yo! 
IHaagreeable (it^s, oil! 

^2. Kagen ga waru gozai- 

HodUy^alate (ftom.) bad is, 


33. J^are kore iarimashb. 

That, this, will-probahly-auffice. 

34. UTaze wo Jiikimaslnia, 

Wind (accus.) (/) have-dratvn. 

35. Kazoete mireha . . . 

Countinff w1ien{I)ace. 

He is (or will be) 
away all day. 

Fve gone and done 
a stupid thing. 

There is scarcely any 

When did it happen ? 

No, I won't; or Get 
along with you ! or None 
of your impudence ! 

I feel poorly. 


I think it 
about enough. 

will be 

I have caught cold. 

On counting them 
over, I found that. . . . 

27. Ichi-nichi means indifferently " one day " or " all day ;" see N. B. 
to \ 152, p. 103. — 28. Ikenai is lit. "cannot go" = "nogo," "won't do;" 
conf. 1(317. — 29. This idiom may be explained thus: " There is not even 
enough to make it worth asking how. much there is." — 30. For the 
construction itsu no, conf. p. 232. — 31. A phrase used chiefly by women 
of the lower class. — 32. Kageti is originally one of the " syntheses of 
contradictories " noticed on p. 34, ka meaning " increase " (of bodily 
well-being), and gen " decrease." — 33. Kare kore is an idiom expressive 
of approxijnation, like our "more or less," "pretty well," — 34. The 
English word " a cold " cannot be translated more literally into Japanese. 
— ^35. MirUy " to see," here has rather its proper signification, than 
the auxiliary use explained on p. 193, Moreover the conditional here 
has the sense of " when... ;" see p. 184. 



36. Kiite kuru 

Having-heard iO'Come 
it's) good. 


You had better go 
and ask. {fami/iar) 

37. Kikashiie kudasaL 

Please tell me. ' 

38. Kimi ga waruu 

FeeKnga (nom.) (are) had. 

It quite makes me 
shudder, {famiiiar) 

39. Kochira ye ibri ^ 


Please come in here. 
( The formula used to invite 
a guest in.) 

40. Kokoromochi ga warm. 

Bodily-feelings {nom.) [are] had. 

I feel unwell. ^ 

41. Komaita koto desu 


It is a nuisance. 

42. Komhan wai 
This-night as~for i 

Good evening. 

43. Kondate wo misete 

BUl-of-fare (accus.) shmving 


44. Konnichi wa ! 

Thia-day as^for! 

Please show me the 
bill of fare. 

Good day ! or How do 
you do? 


36. Tou, which is the proper word for " to ask," is almost always 
thus replaced in the mouths of Tokyo speakers by kiku^ properly 
"to hear." For kuru as an auxiliary, see p. 193. — 37. Kikashtte 
should, strictly speaking, Idc kikasete, but see N. B. to p. 214. — 
38. Observe how Japanese prefers the intransitive to the transitive 
construction, of which "it" is the subject in English, and conf. p. 
279 for this marked feature of the language. — 41. The use of the past, 
where the present would seem to us more natural, is idiomatic here. 
42. Some polite phrase must be mentally supplied ; but it is never ex- 
pressed, unless it be some such hackneyed remark about the wea- 
ther as {Komban wa) suzushiu gozaimasu^ " What a pleasantly cool 
evening it is I" etc. — 44. Same remark as that concerning No. 42. 



45. Kore de iaJmsan, 

TIOs by plenty {is). 

46. Kore de yoroshii ja naika? 

This hy, good. isn't ? 

47. Kore zva, nan de 

This as-fcvj what by 

dehie orimasu P 

eventuating is 9 

48. Kore wa nam ni 

This aS'for, what to 

isukaimasu ka P 

{do j^opig) use {t'n ? 




TMs aS'foTi 


jama wo ttashimashiia. 

hnpediment {accus.) have-done. 

50. Kore wa, shikkeif 

TMs aS'for, rttdeness. 

51. Kore wa, yoku 

This as-for, weU hon&urable 

dekt ni narimasMta. 

eventuoHon to has-^eome. 

52. Mada yohodo aida ga 

8tiU plenty interval {nom.) 



53. Mae ni mo Uta ibri. 

Hefore in also said way, 

54. Maido go yakkai 
Eaclt^time august assUtatice 

(sama) desu, 

{Mr,) is. 

This is quite enough. 

Won't this do ? '" 

What is this made 

What is this used 

Oh ! excuse me for 
having inconvenienced 

{Used as a polite phrase on 
concluding a visit.) 

Oh ! pray excuse me 
for being so rude. 

You have done this 

There is still plenty 
of time. 

As I have already 

I am much obliged to 
you for your constant 

45. Supply de gozaimasu at the end.~46. Voxja see p. 64.-47. For 
the intransitive dekiru, corresponding to our passive "is made,*' see 
f 310, p. 202.— 50. Supply itashifnashtia?it the end.— 54. Conf. p. 247. 



55. Makoio ni mbshi-wake 

Trnai in, excuse 

ga gozaimasen. 

{nom,) (there) ia-wot, 

56. Makoio ni shibaraku. 

Truly aome-time (t's). 

57. Mappira go men 

QuUe-^flaily august pardon 



58. Maru de beisu nan desu. 

Completely different indeed is. 

59. Ma/a irasshai. 
Again deign-iO'eome. 

60. Ma/a hayaku 

Again Fumourably quickly, 

kaeri nasaimashi. 

1wnour€My to-relttm deign. 

61. Mazu sore-kkiri de 

WeU, that onii/ 

{it) is. 

62. Memboku ga nai. 

Ckntntenanee (nom.) isn't. 
(More politely gozaimasen.) 

63. Michi wo oshieie 

jRoad (accHs.) teacliing 


64. Afzna 


weU {say). 




Really I know not 
what excuse to offer. 

It 18 quite a long time 
since we last met. 

I humbly beg your 
pardon ; or Please be so 
good as to excuse me. 

It is a 
ferent one. 

totally dif- 

Please come again. 

Please come back soon 

Well, that is about 


I feel ashamed. 


tell me the 

Please remember me 
kindly to all your people. 

56. See top of p. 269.-58. For the difficult particle nan contained 
in this example and tentatively rendered by " indeed," see the footnote 
to pp. 135 — 6.— 61. For kkiri, see p. 230—62. Compare our phrase 
** to be put out of countenance." — 64. At the end supply itfe kudasai y 
»* please say." 






66. Mo 


















68. Mo nan-ji ni 

Already wJiai-Jwur to 

narimasu ka P 

becomes ? 

69. 3fd shimai. 
Already endit's). 

70. Mo talmsan. 

Already ^plenty (is). 

71. Afo yaku ni 
Any-more, usefulness to 



72. 3fd yoroshii, (familiar) 
Already {is) good. 

Mo yoroshiu gozaimasu. (polite) 

73. Mbshi'kaneie orimasu. 

To'say'unahle ami. 


not to 


It is all done ; or 
There are none left. 

I must be off now. 

What o'clock is it ? 

I have finished ; or 
They are all done. 

That is plenty \ or \ u' 
don't want any more. 

It is no longer of any l 

That will do ; or I 
don't want any more. 

I can hardly bring v/ 
myself to say the words. 
(Said in asking for some- 

66. We may explain this phrase thus : " It has come to this, that 
all are gone." — 67. This phrase is used only when the necessity is 
genuine^and jstrong ; conf. N. B. at top of p. 175.— 68. More literally, 
••What o'clock*is it^^already becoming?" — 69 and 70. Supply desii. 
72. A highly elliptical phrase, somewhat as if one were to say " Tt is 
all right without it" — 73. For kaneru see T 31 1, p. 203. 








honourably to-c7ieapen 

75. Nat 



koto wa nai 
fact aa-for, isn't 


Naka-naka shochi shimasen. 

Positively consent doea-not. 

77. Nan de mo yoroshii. 

What by aven, [is) good. 
(More politely yoroshiu gozaimasu.) 



desu (ka) P 
is[ii) ? 

79. Nan io osshaimasu P 

What that deign-to-aay 9 

80. Nanzo omoshiroi 

Something -or 'Other amtising 

hanashi ga gozaimasen ka P 

tdUc (nam.) in-not ? 

81. Nodo ga kawakimasMta. 

Throat {nom.) haa-dried» 

82. O hayb {gozaimasu). 
HonmtraJbly early is. 

83. itoma mbshimashb. 
Honoiwable leave wiU-prufbably'aay, 

84. O kage sama de. . . 

Sonattraible shade Mr* by. 

Please go down a 
little more in your price. 

There is some ; or L- - 

There is some. 


He won't hear of it. '^ 
Anything will do. ' 

What is it.? or What /, 
is the matter ? or What 
did you say ? 

What do you say ? 

Can't you tell us some- > 
thing amusing ? 

I feel ihirsty. 


Good morninff. 


1 think I must be 

By your kind in- 

74. Makeru is literally " to lose " (a battle or a game), hence " to come 
down in price." —75. For the syntax of double negatives, see p. 271. — 
77. Nan de mo, though representing the Knglish word " anything," is 
not the subject of the sentence. The sentence is subjectless, and nan 
demo is an indirect object corresponding to the Latin ablative denoting 
causation ^'or instrumentality. — 82. It is of course absurd to use this 
phrase, as foreigners sometimes do, in the afternoon. 



85. O kage sama^ sukkari 
Honourable 8i*ade Mr., qaite 

naorimasfnte gozatmasu. 

recovered am, 

86. O kangae no ue, ina 

Honourable reflection 's top, nay 

ya no go henio wo ukagai- 
? '8 august reply (acci^s.) (/)tolU- 


87. o 


de gozaimasu. 



88. O machi'dd sama. 
Honourably long-waiting Mr. 

89. O nialase-iiioshi- 
Honourably Jiavlng-eaused-tO' 

?nasM/e, makoio ni ai'Sumi- 

wait, irwUi in, muttiaUy' 



90. O naka ga suki- 

Honourable inside (novi.) has- 


hecome-empty. (familiar) 

91. tomo itashi- 
Honottrable companion wiU- 



92. O Ibshi vibse. 

Honourably let-through say. 

I am quite well again, 
llianks for your kind 

/ More lit. "ThanJcs toyour\ 
\injluence. " ) 

Kindly think the 
mailer over, and let 
me have an answer one 
way or the other. 

I am sorry for it on 
your account. 

Ex'cuse me for keeping 
you wailing so long. 

Really I know not 
what excuse to offer 
for having kept you 
wailing so long. 

I feel hungry. 

I should like to go 
with you. 

Show the guest in. 

85. After sama one may insert the word di% " by," which strict logic 
and grammar woukl require. Naorimashtte gozaimasu is more polite 
than simple naorimashUa would Ije. — 86. •* Reflection's top " is, after 
all, not so very different from our phrase " on reflection." Instead 
of saying "an answer yes or no," the Japanese phrase mentions the 
negative only. — 89. Still more polite than the preceding number. For 
mosu as a humble auxiliary, see p. 249. — 90. For naka, see p. 248. 



93. O isuide no seisu. 

Hofwtirable occasion 's opportunUf/, 

94. O yasumi nasai 
HotwuTObly to-rest deign, 


95. Okashtkule tamaranai. 

Being'-funny, {Hendure-noi. 

96 Oki ni sewa sama 
GreaUy honourable help Mr. 

ni narimasKiicu 

to (/)have-b€COfne. 

97. Oki ni osoku nariniasKUa, 
GreaUy UUe Itave-become, 

98. O'Sawagi deshiia. 

Great-uproar {if)was. 

99. Oshii koto desu, ne ! 

Regrettable tJUng is, eii? 

100. Osor oshii domo micki 
Frightful. reaUy road 

ga warui, (familiar) 

(nom.) {is)tmd. 

1 01. Osor oshii iahai mon da, 

Frightfka dear thing is, 


102. 0-warai shimashiia. 

Great-laughter (we)did. 

Whenever it happensf 
to suit your convenience. 
Good night. 

It is really too funny. 


I am much indebted / 
to you for your kind ^ 

Excuse me for being L 
so late. 

All was bustle and L- 

Oh 1 what a pity I ^ 

How frightfully bad 
the road is ! 

It is frightfully dear. ^ 

We had a good laugh 
over it. 

92. The use of mosg here shows that a person who is your in- 
ferior is to do something for one politely considered your superior. — 
93. I.e., " Don't take trouble about it ; but, should the occasion offer... 
etc."— 94. It is optional to omit the termui&tion masht in all such cases. — 
95. Conf. ^ 218.— 96. As if one should say, " I have come in for a great 
deal of your help." Cki ni means " greatly ;" dkiku means " big(ly).** 
— 100. In strict grammar we should Xwlvq osor osktku, not osor oshii ; 
but see first N. B. on p. 124. As shown by this example and the last, 
the Japanese turn in quite a different manner our exclamatory phrases 
beginning with " what " and « how." — loi. Mon' is familiar for tnono. 



103. Sakuhan wa, yoppiie 

ZtiSt'niffhi fM-'for, aU-nigJU 

neraremasen deshiia, 

cannot'Sleep (itywuis. 

104. Sayo de gozaimasu, (polite) 
So desu or So da. (familiar) 

105. SenjUsu wa^ arigaid 
Fomier-day as-for, lhankfid 


106. SMkata ga ««/. '\(more 
Doing-Hide {fiom.)i8n't. I politely 

Shiyd ga nau \gozaima- 

Doing-tvay [nom.) isn't, yen.) 

107. Shiisurei iiashimashita. 
Rudeness have-done. 







ka P 

So ka mo shiremasen. 

80 9 even is-tmknowdble. 

1 10. So ka to 

So ? tJiat 

kaeiie. . . . 



contrariwise — 

111. So shicha ikenai. 

So aS'for-doing, cannot-go. 

(moro politely ikemasen.) 

112. Si) ja gozaimasen. (polite) 

So is-not. 

1 couldn't sleep all 
last night. 

That is SO ; or Yes. 

Many thanks for your 
kind entertainment the 
other day. 

(Always sard on first again meet-\ 
in g the giver of a recent party.) 

There is nothing to 
be done ; or It can't 
be helped. 

Excuse my rudeness. 

Is that so } or 0\i\ 

Possibly it may be so. 

One is tempted to 
think sOj and yet on the 
other hand .... 

You mustn't do that. 

That is not so ; or 
Oh ! no. 

103. Deshtta might be omitted without mutilating either the 
sense or the grammar ; but the Japanese like thus to]^round ;oflf,{the 
sentence with an auxiliary verb, if possible ; conf. p. 197. — 104. Conf. 
pp. 234-5. — 109, More literally "One cannot know whether it is so." 
In vulgar parlance the phrase often runs thus: So ka shir a (for 
Shiran.) — no. See bottom of p. 265 for a similar construction. — ill. 
More lit. " It won't do, if you do that." — 112. Or So de gozaimasen. 


That is just about it. 
Well then, don't do 

113. Sonna niori desu. 

Such thin is, 

114. SonnarUy yo- 

If-UuU-is-sOf IwnmircMy tO'dC' 
shi nasai. 
8ist deign, 

115. Sono go, hisashiku 
That after, lengthily 

me ni kakarwiasen. 

honourable eyes in {/)Ftang-not. 

lisu mo go sbken de. . .'. 

Always augustly robust being.... 

116. Sono ho wa 
That side as-for, numerous 


1 1 7. Sore wa so de gozai- 

TluU as'for, so is. 


118. Sore tva so desu ga. . . . 

That (xs- for, so is whereas..., 

1 1 9. Sude ni moshi-agemashtia 
Already tell-lifted-up 


120. Sukoshi mate, (familiar) 
A-little wait. 

121. Sukoshi machi 
A-little Jionoftrahly to-tvait 

nasai, (polite) 

122. 2aigai wakarimash ita . 
Mostly have-understood. 


It is some time since 
we last rnet. I am 
delighted to see you 
looking so well. 

There are more of 
that kind than of the 

That is so ; or Yes, 
no doubt. 

Yes, but. . . . 

As I have already 
had the honour to in- 
form you. 

Wait a minute. 

Please be so kind as to 
wait a minute. 

I understand most of 


115. Supply at the end some such phrase as ^ medeto gozaimasu, 
•'it is a subject for congratulation." — 116. See p. 144. — 122. The 
past tense here Idiomatically replaces the present ; conf. f 274, p. 176. 



123. Taisb nigiyaka de go- It was very lively. 

Very lively 

zaimashita. \ 

was. \ 

124. Te wo araiie 

Hands (accus.) having-washed, 

125. To mo kaku mo, go- 
That even, tJius even, attfftiat- 

ran nasai. 

glance deign. 

126. Totemo ikemasen. 

Anyhow cannot-go. 

127. Wake no wakaranai 
Beaton of understand-not 



128. Wasure-mono , wa fiai 
JForget'tfiing aS'for, isn't 


129. Watakushi ni kwankei 

^e to, connection 

ga nai. 

{nom.) isn't. 

130. Fo gozaimasu to mo! 

Good is tiMU even I 

131. Yohodo it kiryb desu. 

Very good coutUenance is* 


Foi ambai ni. , . 

Good condition in 

I think ril go and 
wash my hands. 

At any rate please 
just look at it. 

It won't do at all. 

Something I can't at 
all make out. 

Are you sure you 
have forgotten nothing? 

It has nothing to do 
with me. {familiar) 

Of course it will do 
quite well. 

She is very pretty in- 

It is fortunate that. . . 

125. To mo kaku mo is an idiom meaning "at any rate,*' "in any 
case." — 127. A good example of the ambiguous relative phrases 
discussed in \ 82, p. 58. It is not the thing that does not under- 
stand, but I who cannot understand the thing. — 130. To mo final = 
" of course;" conf. p. 85. 



133. Yoi mi-harashi desu, ne I 

CU)od view is,— eh? 

134. Yoi mono wo 

€rood thing (accus.) honot^rably 
?7iotome nasaimashiia. 
tO'SeeJcotit liave-deigned. 

135. Yoi ienki de gozaimasu. 
€rood-tve€UJier is. 



Yoku kega 
Well tvmmd 



{it) waa 


137. Yoppodo dbmo 

Very indeed 

hanashi de gozaimasu, 

story (it) is. 



Yoroshiil gozaimasu ka ? 

Good is ? 





139. Yosaso ni 

Ttikely-to-he-good to 












141. Zosa ga nai. 

Difficidty (now.) isn't. 

What a beautiful view ! 

What a beautiful thing 
that is which you have 
bought ! 

It is fine weather. 
{A phrase used on accosting 
any one in fine weather.) 

It is lucky he didn't 
hurt himself. 

It is really a most 
amusing story. 

Is it all right ? — Yes. 

I should 
would do. 

think it 

I think it will be best 
to give up the idea. 

There is no difficulty 
about iL {famliiar) 

136. Tin's sentence illustrates a large number of cases containing 
the idea "it is fortunate that..." The ^w^Xdeshtta may l^e omitted at 
will. — 139. Japanese idiom requires ni in such phrases, when the ad- 
jective of probability {.. .so na) is turned into an adverb by the fact of a 
verb following. — 140. Past tense used idiomatically for the present ; 
conf. p. 176. — 141. More politely, Zosa gozaimasen. 


1. Ano fiito no iu koto wa, 
mina uso desu, 

2. Ano HUo no na wa^ nan to 
iimasu P 

3. Ashtia wa yd ga gozaimasu 
kara^ keiko wo yasumimasho. 

4. Ghilto wa hanashi no iane ni 

5. Daibu kata-kage ni natte 
kimashiia kara, soro-soro de- 

6. Daibu niwa no sakura ga 
saki'kakemashiia kara^ isugi no 
Nichiyo atari ni wa, Mukojima ga 
chodo yoroshiU gozaimashb. 

Every word that fel- 
low says is a lie. 

What is his name ? 
(piore lit. What do people 
say that his name is ?) 

I shall be too busy to 
study to-morrow. 

It will be something 
to talk about. 

There is a good deal 
of shade in many places ; 
so I shall begin to think 
of going out. 

A good many ciierry- 
blossoms have begun to 
come out in the garden ; 
so I suppose Muk6jima 
will just be at its best 
about next Sunday. 

I . For a good example of a similar construction with no, see p. 76, 
end of If ixo.— 2 For to iu, see p. 58 and p. 82.-4. Lit* " talk's seed."— 

5. The auxiliary kimashtta makes the phrase paint or photograph, as 
it were, the gradual oncoming of the shade. Simple natta would be 
a very flat substitute for compound natte kiniashita ; conf. p 197. 

6. For kakerti see p. 219. Mukdjinia is a part of Tokyo celebrated 
for its avenue of cherry-trees. Observe the manner in which the two 
clauses are connected by kara^ — lit, ** because the cherry-trees have 
partially blossomed, etc." 



7. Do ka kb kaj isugo ga deki- 

8. Doka Yokohama made no 
jbtb ^ku-gippti wo ichi-mai 

9. Dbmo I ha ni sasareie, neie 
mo ne-isukarenai. 

10. Fur ISO desu kara, yoshi- 

1 1 . Hidoifuri ni naiie kimashiia, 
Shtkashif yudachi desu kara, jiki 

12. Hitori de bon-yari shtte 
orimashita kara, nemuku nari- 

13. Ti no ga nakereha, maru 
dc yoskmasho. 

14. li'isukeia tbri ni shinai 
no wa, do shita mon' da P 

We shall be able to 
manage it somehow or 

Please give me a first- 
class return ticket to 

I have lain down, but 
I can't get to sleep, — I 
am so terribly bothered 
by the mosquitoes. 

It looks like rain ; so I 
think I will give up (the 
idea of the excursion, 

It has come on to rain 
hard. Still, as it is only 
a thunder-shower, I sup- 
pose the sky will soon 
clear up again. 

I was so dull all by 
myself, that I got quite 

If there are no good 
ones, I won't take any 
of any kind. 

Why didn't you do as 
T ordered vou ? 

7. Do ka ko ka is an idiom meaning "somehow or other," "by 
hook or hy crook." If for deUmasu were substituted dekimashd^ the 
phrase would signify " I think we shall be able," etc.— 8. KippUy " a 
ticket," takes the auxiliary numeral mai^ because a ticket is a flat 
thing; see p. X09. — 11. For akarimasho, many prefer to say agari- 
niashd, "it will probably lift." — 13. For no ga, conf. ^[112 and 
T 137.— 14. Do shtta man* da? here translated "why?" would l)c 
more literally rendered by " what sort of conduct is (this) ?" 



15. Iki-nari sonna koto wo 
to, do shite mo wakarimasen. 


16. Ikura kake-atte mo, shbchi 

\*]. Ima-doJd sono yd na koto 
wa sukuTiai, Yoshi! atta to 
shita tokoro ga, toft no ron ni 
wa aimasen. 

1 8. yikjb'gara de^ 
suzushiku narimashita. 

asa-ban wa 

19. Kana wa sukoshi wakari- 
masu gay —ji wayomemasen. 

That couldn't possibly 
be understood without 
some previous reference 
to the subject. 

All my talking hasn't 
succeeded in getting him 
to consent. 

Very little of that 
sort of thing goes on 
nowadays ; and even 
supposing there to be 
instances of its occur- 
rence, it doesn't suit the 
spirit of the age. 

We are getting on in 
the season, and so the 
mornings and evenings 
have become cool. 

I understand the Kana 
a little, but I can't 
read the Chinese cha- 

15. IkUnariy "abruptly," "disconnectedly." — 17. Sukunai, is al- 
ways predicative, as here ; see pp. 274-5. But it is generally convenient 
to reverse, as has here been done, the order of the ideas, when trans- 
lating a clause Containing sukunai into English. Yoshi, the conclusive 
form (see pp. 121 -2) of the adjective ^0/, "good," is here used as an 
exclamation, but forms from the grammatical point of view a sentence 
by itself. To sBta tokoro ga is an idiom meaning "granting 
that...." — 18. Gar a, suflfixed to a noun, indicates "kind," "nature," 
here " cause," very much like the postposition kara, " because,'* 
of which it is probably but a nigorVed form.— 19. Kana, see p. 9. 
Notice the force of the two wat's, acting like Greek fxh^ and 
S^ : " As for the Kana, I understand it a little ; but as for the 
Chinese ideographs, I can't read them at all." A European's instinct 
would probably lead him to use the accusative particle ivo in this place, 



20. Kake-ne wo iwanai de, 
hontb no nedan wo itte ku- 

21. Keiko wo sum ni^ do iu 
amhai ni hajimeiara yokarb P 

22. Keichaku no tokoro wa, 
ikura made makarimasu ka P 

23. Kiga ye iku michi wa, 
dochira de gozaimasu^P 

24. Kilto kuru yd ni so Hie 

25. Komhan wa iaisb hie- 
masu kara, yagu wo mashite 

26. Komhan wa iaisb ka ga 
deie kiia kara, kaya wo isuiie 

27. Komhan wa yakwai ni 
manekareia kara, reifuku no 
shiiaku wo sum ga iu 

28. Konfia 
de kaemasu P 

iansu wa, doko 

Don't ask fancy prices. 
Tell me the true price, 

What is the best way 
to begin studying ? 

What is the very lowest 
price you will go down 

Which is the road to 

Go and tell him to be 
sure to come. 

It is very chilly to- 
night ; so please put on 
some more blankets. 

There are lots ofmos- 
quitoes to-night ; so 
please put up the mos- 

You must put out my 
dress-clothes, as I am in- 
vited out to a party this 
evening. . 

Where can one buy 
such cabinets as these ? 

instead of wa. Notice how the Japanese construction omits both 
the nominative " I " and the accusatives " it" and " them." — 21. Lit., 
" in doing practice, it will probably be good if one had begun in what 
sort of manner ?"— 22. Lit., " as for the place of decision, etc."— 24. 
For the important subject of the rendering of indirect quotations, see p. 
275 et seq.j and especially If 436 for the idiom in this phrase. — 28. For 
such intransitives as kaeru, " to be buyable," see p. 205 ei seq. 



29. .Kono mukb no isuki- 
atari wa, doko desu P 

30. Kore kara saki no michi 
way do desu P 

31. Kore kara undo ni de- 

32. Mada moite kmasen ga, 
— aru ni wa arimasu. 

^'^, Mazu konnichi wa, kore 
made ni itashiie okimashb. 

34. Mijikai no mo areba, 
nagai no mo gozaimasu, 

35. Moshi! koko wa nan io 
iu tokoro deshb ? 

36. Nan io mo ii-yb ga 

37. Nani ka futsugb ga 
shbjimashtia io mieie 

38. Nan-nen hakari keiko 
shiiara, hanashi ga dekiru yb 
ni narimashb ka P 

Where does this lead 

How is the road ahead ? 

I am going out now to 
take some exercise. 

Although they haven't 
brougiit them yet, there is 
no doubt about the things 
being there. 

Well, we will leave off 
here to-day. 

Some are short, and 
some are long. 

Excuse me, what may be 
ihQ name of this place ? 

It is quite indescribable. 

It would seem that diffi- 
culties have arisen, and 

How many years' study 
do you think would enable 
one to talk ? 

29. More lit. "As for the abutment-place opposite to this, where 
is it?"— 32. Aru ni wa arimasuy *' as for their existing^, they exist," 
is an emphatic construction ; see p. 88. Any verb may be so used 
for emphasis' sake.~33. Oku is auxiliary ; conf. p. 194. — 34. Conf. p. 
196 for this peculiar construction with the conditional. — 35. Instead 
of moshi^ one may say go men nasai, "deign to pardon me," or 
chotto ukagainiasuy " I just enquire." — 36. More lit. " there is no 
way of calling it even what ?" — 37. Our phrase *• it would seem that," 
or the adverb "apparently," is generally thus rendered by the 
gerundial construction io, viieie^ the sentence being reversed, and 
another clause being necessary to clinch it. — 38. Lit. "If I did 
about how many years' study, will it probably become to the forth- 
coming of talking ?" 



39. Naisu io chigaitey fuyu 
wa ryukb'hyb ga Jiakuie, yoro- 
shiu gozaimasu. 

40. kaeri nasaimasKi I 
Sazo soto wa samu gozai- 

41. 0/ kuiabtreia, Omoi- 
gakenaku kyb wa aruita kara, 
gakkari shiia. (familiar) 

42. Oil nesan ! Biiru ip-pon 
viotie kite kure. Tsuide ni 
kanjb no kaki-isuke ivo. 

43. Omoie-muki de naku, 
nai-nai de kiite kudasai. 

44.V Sakki made wa de-kakeru 
isumori daila gay—ybki no sei 
ka, kibun ga waruku natla 
kara, deru no wa yoshimashb. 
Kuruma-ya wo koiowatle kuda- 

45. Senseif kore wa do iu 
imi de gozaimashb P 

46. Sensei ni choito ide 
nasaruyb ni so itte koi. 

47. So iwarete wa, dbmo 
damaiie iraremasen. 

We are better oflf in 
winter than in summer ; 
for we have no epidemic 
diseases in winter. 

Welcome back ! You 
must indeed have found it 
cold out-of-doors. 

0\i\l am tired. 1. walk- 
ed to-day much further 
than I had meant to do, and 
I am quite played out. 

I ?ay, waitress ! Bring 
a bottle of beer, please. And 
let us have the bill at the 
same time. 

Don't ask officially, ask 
privately please. 

Until just now I had in- 
tended to go out. But 
whether it is from the effect 
of the weather or from some- 
thing else, I feel quite un- 
well now, and so shall give 
up the idea of going out. 
Please tell the jinriktsha- 
man that he is not wanted. 

Teacher ! what may be 
the meaning of this } 

Just go and ask my 
teacher to come here. 

It is impossible to hold 
one's tongue on being 
spoken lo in that way. 

40. A phrase used by any of a household to their master, or by 
hotel people to a guest. — 41. Gakkari is a sort of onomatope for ex- 
haustion. — 42. At the end supply tnoite kite ktire, *' please bring." — 
44. Deru no wa might be replaced by deru no wo, — 46. See p. 276. 



48. Soko no dole ye agaru 
to, junsa ni to gamer aremasu. 

49. Sono koto ga shireru io^ 
oM nifntsugb de gozaimasu, 

50. Taisb ase ni natla kara^ 
kimono wo sukkari ki-kae- 

51. Taiso kumoiie viairima- 
shiia. Soko-hie no sum toko 
wo mimasu tOj komhan atari 
wa yuki ga furii ka mo shire- 

52. Tsugi no shuku 
nan ri gozaimasu P 


53. Tsumaranai 
ii'kakeraretey bki 

koto wo 
ni koma- 

54. Watakushi wa achira 
no ho ye ichi-do mo itta koto 
ga nai kara, annai wo httori 
yatotte kudasai. . 

55. Fuki wa kirei desu ga, 
— ato no michi ni komari- 

The police will find fault 
with you, if you walk on 
that embankment. 

It will never do for that 
to get known. 

I have got into such a 
perspiration, that I think I 
will change all my clothes. 

The sky has all clouded 
over. I feel thoroughly 
chilled, which makes me 
think that perhaps it may 
snow to-night. 

How many miles is it lo 
the next town .? 

I felt much annoyed at 
being addressed in that 

As I have never been 
in that direction before, 
please engage a guide for 

Snow is pretty to look at, 
but it puts the roads in a 
frightful state afterwards. 

48. Lit. " the embankment of there." — 51. Toko is for iokoro, " place," 
hence*' fact." Mimasu to, " when I see," " when I consider " (the fact 
that there is, i.e. that I am feeling, an under-chill). For suru in the 
sense of " to he," see \ 356, p. 227. Furu ka mo shiremasen, lit. " one 
cannot know whether it will snow." — 54. Itta koto, conf. ^ 277, p. 178. 
55. More lit. "one is troubled by the after- roads." 




1 . Mada ma 7ii airnasho ka ? 
— Mo via ni aimasen. 

2. Mb ma fit ai??iastimat ka P 
Mada ma ni aimasu. 

3. Omoshirb gozaimashita ka P 
— le ; amari omoshiroku wa 

4. Go hydki wa ikaga de 
gozamasu ka P — Arigaib go- 
zaimasu. Oki ni kqkoro-yohi 

5. Do kangae nasaru ka P 
Kangae ga istlkimasen. 

6. Waiakushi-domo ni mo mi- 
rafemasho ka P — Mirarenai 
koto wa arumai. 

7. Anaia wa^ 
ga gozaimasu 
waiakushi wa 


ka P — le ; 

dokushiii de 

Shall I still be in time ? 
— No, you won't. 

Don't you think I shall 
still be in time ? — Yes, you 

Was it amusing ? — No, 
not very. 

How do you feel to-day ? 
— Much better, thank you. 

What do you think about 

it? — I can't arrive at any 

Can I too be allowed to 
see it, do you think ? — I 
don't think there is any rea- 
son why you should not. 

Have you any children ? 
— No, I am a bachelor. 

3. For amari, see p. 148. For the iva after omoshiroku^ conf. p. 
88. Such elJiptical sentences as " No, not very " in the Kngh'sh version 
of this example and the answer in the next example, are not admis- 
sible in Japanese.— 5 The answer is lit. " consideration sticks not." — 
6. Conf, ^309, pp. 201-2, and 1[ 432» P- 271. — 7. More lit. ** As for 
you, are there honourable children ?" 



8. Ryokb menjo wo o mochi 
de gozaimasu ka ? — He I shoji 
itashtte orimasu. 

9. Embi-fuku de irasshaimasu 
ka ? — Sore de naku mo, 
furohhu-hbio de yoroshii. 

10. meshi-mono wo 
ki'kae nasaimasu ka P — lya ! 
kono mama de^ uwagi dake 
yoi ho to kaeyo. 

11. Senjilsu wa, kekkb na 
shina wo arigatb zonji- 

Db itashmashite ! Makoto ni 
somatsu na mono de, shiisurei 
de gozaiviashiia. 

Have you got a passport ? 
— Yes, I have. 

Are you going in even- 
ing clothes, Sir ? — No, my 
frock-coat will do well 

Are you going to change 
your clothes, Sir ? — No, I 
shall remain as I am, ex- 
cept that I will put on a 
better coat. 

Many thanks for the 
beautiful present you made 
me the other day. 

Oh ! pray don't mention 
it. It was really such 
rubbish, that it was quite 
rude of me to offer it to you. 

8. Ryoko may be omitted. The answer to this question is rather 
high-flown. In simpler parlance it would be He! tnotie orimasu, — 
9. In Chinese ^« = " swallow," /^^' = "tail," /«/&« = " clothes." Sore 
de naku mo, "even without that." Ftirokku-koto is the nearest 
approach to " frock-coat," of which Japanese organs are capable. — 10. 
Meshi-mono is a very polite term for clothes, used chiefly by servants 
in addressing their masters. Yoi ^^="the good one," or ** a better 
one," **my best one." Observe the simple non-honorific kaeyo, used 
by the master in addressing his servant. Between friends it would be 
kaemasho ; and the servant in the question uses the still more honori- 
fic periphrasis ki-kae nasaimasu. — ii. (Answer.) It is the rule to 
use some such depreciatory phrase as this in speaking of a present 
made by oneself to another. The self-depreciation does not sound at 
all excessive to Japanese ears. For the de in somatsu na mono de, see 
p. 138, ^ 2CO et seq. This method of correlating sentences must be 
carefully studied.— 12. When there is no bell, as in all old-fashioned 
Japaneses houses, the visitor cries out O iano* mdshimasu as in No. 14. 
The servant here says simply taku, rather than o taku, in order to 
avoid applying honorifics to any one connected with the family he 
himself belongs to, even though it be the lady of the house herself. 



12. (Visitor rings the bell, 
and servant appears. ) 

Irasshaimashi / 

Okusama way uchi de 
gozaimasu ka ? 

He I iaku de gozaimasu, 

13. Rusu-chu ni donaia mo 
ide wa nakaita ha ? 

He ! senkoku kono tefuda no 
kaia ga irasshaimashiley kaeri 
ni nattara, '^ Voroshiku" to 

(This last clause is a polite phrase in^N 
constant use, J 

14. O tano{nii) moshimasu I 


Go shujin wa, iaku de 
gozaimasu ka P 

Tadaima rusu de gozai- 

So desu ka ? Sore de wa, 
kaeri ni narimashitara, 
''Smith ga mairimashite, 
* Yoroshiku ' moshimashiia " to 
itte kudasai. 

Welcome ! 

Is Mrs. * * * at home ? 

Yes, Sir. 

Did any one call while I 
was out ? 

Yes, Sir, a gentleman 
called and left this card ; 
and he desired his com- 
pliments to you when you 
came home. 

(This is the forviula used zvhen\ 
there is no house-bell. ) 

I beg to ask ! 

This is the formu 
\there is no house-bell. 

Welcome I 

Is your master at home ? 

No, Sir, he has gone out. 

Indeed ? Then please 
tell him, when he comes 
home, that Mr. Smith called 
and desired his compli- 
ments to him. 

13. More lit. " Did no one call ?" the Japanese usually preferring 
to turn such questions negatively. The potential mdsaremashtla at 
the end is more polite than plain tnosu would be ; see ^f 403, p. 250. — 
14. The mi of ianomi is often dropped for brevity's sake. Persons 
who are not scrupulous about politeness cry out simply " Tanomuy 
These little dialogues instance the use of so many honorific idioms, 
that it might be well to read through the Chapter on Honorifics, p. 
244 et seq., in connection with them. 

IF 448. 



1. Ame fiiUe, 

After rain the ground gels 

Rain havhtff-fuUen, 


ji kataniaru. 

("Good comes out of evil,") 

earOi. tiardens. 

2. Awase-7?iono 


Tliat which has been 



artificially joined together is 


easily separated. 


/ Said of a husband and wife who \ 
Vdisagree. ) 

3. Bo hodo 


lilttdgeon amount 


To aak for a bludgeon's 

te, hari 


worth, and to get a needle's 

requested, needle 





4. Dor obi) 7ii 


Spending money on the 

Thief to, 


pursuit of a thief. 


/ " Throwing good money afier\ 
Vbad." ; 

5. Go ni 


When you enter a district. 

nistrict into 


conform to its customs. 

way go ni 


/ •• When you are in Rome, do as\ 
VRome does." / 

entered, district to 



6. Haki-dame ni 


A Stork on a dust-heap. 

Sweep-mound on, 


(" A jewel in a dunghill.") 

2. Supply da, " is," after hanare^mono,—^. Supply too tsuiyafu at 
the end.— 5. Tlua itte is the gerund oiiru, « to enter,'* 



7. Hari hodo no kolo 

Needle amount 'a thing 
WO bo hodo ni 

{accus.) bltidgeon amatint to 

to -Ml?/. 

8. in/o no uwasa mo^ 

l^eople 'a rununtr even^ 

seventy ft vo'daya {f's). 

9. Hz/o wo noroeba, 

l*er907i (actus.) if-one-curaes, 

ana fiiiaisu. 

holea two (ez>cntuitfe). 

10. Htza to 


dan - 

Kncea with 




StUlatlOH (rio). 

1 1 . Hoiokc no 


mo y 

Buddfia 'a 





12. I no tichi 

no kawazii. 

WeU '8 inside 'a 


X3. Ic/ii 700 kiite. 

One {(ucus.) luiving 'heard, 
ju tvo shiru. 
ten (accns.) to-know, 

14. Inu ni naiie mo, 
J>og to becoming even, 

O'doko no inu ni nare ! 
large-iHace 'a dog to become! 

To talk of a thing as small 
as a needle as if it were as 
big as a bludgeon. 


To make 

mountains out 


Gossip only lasts seventy- 
five days. 


The scandal will blow over like\ 
' a nine clays' wonder." / 

Curse a man, and there 
will be two graves. 

(A curse strikes not only him against 
whom it is pronounced, but also him 
who pronounces it.) * 

Consult any one, even if 
it be only your own knees. 

(" In multitude of counsellors\ 
there is safety." / 

Even a Euddlia's face can 
only be tickled thrice. 

(" The crushed worm will turn.") 

Like a frog in a well. 

(Knowing nothing of the world.) 

To know all by hearing 
a part. 

(Said of mental acute ness.) 

If you become a dog, at 
least be the dog of a great 

(" Do nothing by halves.**) 

8. Supply da, •* is." — 9. Supply ga dekiru, — lo. Supply shiro ! — 1 1. 
Supply some such words as shlka ^naderarenai^, " cannot-stroke» but' 
(three-times.)" — 12. The complete saying is I no uchi no kawazu daikai^ 
tw* t/iiraMU* (** knows-noia the oceani"). Shirazu here and in No. 30 
Is a relic of the Book Language, the " conclusive pegatiye present," 



15. Iri-mame ni hana, 
JParcfied'peas on, Hoaaoma. 

16. Jigoku 710 sata 

BeU 'a decisions 

mo, kane shidai. 
tUsOf tnoney aceordinainre). 

17. Kat-inu ni ie 

Keepinff'doff by, Iiand 

WO kamareru. 

(accus.) to-get'biften. 

18. Kawai ko ni wa 

Jhiav child to 

(abi wo sase / 

Journey {accus.) causctO'do I 

1 9. Kowashi, inOashi, 
{Is)afraid f wants-fo-see. 

20. Kybdai wa ta- 
Brethren aa-for, otfier' 

niii no hajimari. 
iieople of beginning {arc). 

I . Mekura 






sons, eyc'open 


pet'sons {are). 

12, Miisu-go no iamashii 

Tliree-chiWs soul 

hyaku made, 

Inindred tiU {changes not). 

Blossoms on parched peas. 

(" Grapes on thorns and figs on\ 
thistles." ) 

Even hell's judgments 
may be swayed by money. 

(" Money is the key that opens'^ 
all doors." 

To get one's hand bitten 
by one's own pet dog. 

(" Nursing a viper in one's bosom.") 

A pet child should be 
made to travel. 

("Spare the rod, and spoil the\ 
child." ; 

Afraid, and yet itching to 

— Brotherhood is the first 
step towards estrangement. 

(The exact reverse of our " Blood\ 
in thicker than water." / 

For every thousand blind 
there are a thousand who 
can see. 

(The world's opinion is so evenly 
balanced, that there is little use in 
striving after unusual and often 
unappreciated excellence.) 

A three-year-old child's 
soul will remain the same 
till he is a hundred. 

("The boy is father to the man.") 

16. Supply da. — 18. Sa^ ! ^^sasero ! imperative, second conj. — 
19. A good example of the survival of the conclusive form of adjectives, 
each word jjeing here grammatically a complete sentence ; see pp. 121-2. 
— ?o. Supply da.— 21, Supply ant.-'22. Supply kawaranai. 



23. Natna-hybho 


o-ktzii no 

great'wound 'a 



origin {are). 

24. Neko ni koban. 

Cat to, gold'coin. 

25. NiMo 


uchi way 

within aa^for, 

to iu-na ! 

t/uU saynot. 

WO minai 

(accus.) see-not 


** fnagnificent ' 






27. Odawara 


tail {accus.) 




day {is). 




Crude tactics cause grave 

/ "A little learning is a dangerous\ 

Vihing." ; 

Gold coins to a cat. 

(" Casting pearls before swine.") 

Do not use the word 
" magnificent " until you 
have seen Nikko. 

To add tail to tail. 

(To exaggerate and amplify.) 

Like the Odawara confer- 

(Endless talk resulting in nothing.) 

The best day to execute a 
resolve is the day on which 
you form it. 

(" Procrastination is the thief of 


2^, Supply da. — 24. Koban is a specific name, not a general one ; but 
the oval gold coin which it denotes is no longer current. — 25 . Nikko 
is famed both for its mountain scenery, and for the splendour of its 
tombs and temples dedicated to the first and third Shdguns of the 
Tokugawa dynasty.— 27. In the year 1590, when the castle of Oda- 
wara, l^elonging to the Hojo family, was besieged by the Taiko Hide- 
yoshi, the generals commanding the besieged force could not come 
to an agreement as to whether it were best to await the onslaught of 
the enemy, or to sally forth themselves and offer battle While they 
were still discussing this question, Hideyoshi made a sudden onslaught, 
and captured the castle by a coup de ntain, — 28. Supply da. 




Oni fio 

Demon 's 


waahing {to do). 




30. ' * ' Kongo " 

** Analects 

3 1 . San-nin 

yomt no 

reading 's 




da, Monju no ckie. 

together, Mot\fu *8 eievemeaa. 





^^, Shinda ko no toshi 
Died cfiild's yeiors 

WO kazoeni, 

{accus.) tO'COunt, 

34. Sumeda, 



city {it is). 



Doing the washing when 
the demons are absent. 

(" When the cat's away, the mice\ 
will play,** / 

To have read the " Ana- 
lects," and not to know 

(" If ye know these things, happy\ 
are ye if ye do them." / 

Wlien three people con- 
sult together, there results 
wisdom worthy of Monju. 

(" Two heads are better than one." 

Preaching to Buddha. 

(" Teaching your grandmother to\ 
suck eggs." / 

To reckon up a dead 
child's age. 

(" Crying over spilt milk.") 

If you live in a place, it 
becomes the capital so far 
as you are concerned. 


(One can make one's home any- 

29. Supply 700 suru, SeiUaku is believed to be a corruption of 
tentakti, "changing house." If so, the original meaning of the 
proverb was " To change house when the demons are not by to see."— 
30. The Confucian ** Analects " are one of the most venerated of 
the Chinese Classics, and a committal of them to. memory was 
formerly an essential part of every Japanese gentleman's education. 
The proverb applies to the failure to put principles into practice, 
not, as might iDe supposed, to the non-comprehension of texts. Yomi, 
the indefinite form of yotnUf " to read," is here equivalent to yomu hito. 
For shirazu^^ p. 311, note to No. 12. — 31. Monju (Sanskrit Manjusri) 
is the personification of wisdom in the Buddhist mythology. — 32. 
Supply wo suru. — 34, Supply da. This proverb mc.ins that a man 
can accustom himself to any circumstances. 



35. Todai, ntoio kura- 

CandlesHck, bottom {is) 


36. Tokoro 








n, Uma 









prayer'tO'Btiddiia {io 


38. Ushi wa ushi-zurej 
Cow OjS'fov, eoweompanion; 

uma wa uma-zure, 

horse as'for, horaccotnpanion. 

39. Uwasa wo sureha, 

Gossip {ticcus.) if'One-does, 

kage ga sasu. 

sJiadow biom . ) strik/fs* 


otii wa 
demon as-for. 



4 1 . Wazawai wa 

CidamUff as-for, 

from (arises). 



Just below the candle- 
stick is the darkest place of 

/ " One has to go abroad to get\ 
\news of home." / 

So many places, so many 

Pouring prayers into a 
horse's ears. 

(Taking useless trouble.) 

Cows consort with cows, 
and horses with horses. 

(" Birds of a feather flock together.") 

If you talk of a man, his 
shadow will fall on you. 

/ " Talk of the Devil, and he'll ap-\ 
Vpear." ) 

Cross the whole world, 
and you will find no 

(There is kindness to be found \ 
everywhere. / 


come from 

(It is not enough to flatter the great. 
iTou must ingratiate your 
mderlings ; for the powej 
rests chit fly with them.) 

You must ingratiate yourself with the 
underlings ; for the power to hurt you 

35. Kurashi, conclusive form of kuraij "dark;" conf, pp. 121 — 2. 
-37. Supply 7V0 iu. — 41. Supply okoru. 




1. The Post. — J^esa, yubin wa kimasen ka ? 
He ! mairimasen. 

Haie-na I Kind no asa Hama ye dashila henji ga mo kuru 
wake da ga 

2. An Exhibition. — Tonen mo Ueno ni hakurankvoai ga 
arimasho ka ? 

Ikaga deshb ka ? Tonlo uwasa wo Jdkimasen^ 

3. A Request. — Dekiru nara, kyo-ju ni kore wo ulsushile 

Domo I so wa ikimasen. 

4. Engaging a Teacher. — Dozo yoi shisho wo sagashtie 

Mi-aiari shidaiy tsurete mairimasho, 

5. What Salary? — Hilo-tsuki no sharei wa^ dono kurai 
yatiara yokarb ? 

Ma I ju-shi-go-en dejubun de gozaimasho, 

I. For "yes," where "no" would seem more natural, see If 376, 
pp. 235.6. Hama is a familiar abbreviation for Yokohama. The last 
line of the Japanese text is extremely concise : — Hama ye dashila henji 
may be best construed by expanding it to Hama ye dashila legami no 




1. The Post. — Have no letters come this morning ? 
No, none have come. 

I can't make it out ! Why, there ought to be an answer 
to the letter I sent to Yokohama yesterday morning. 

2. An Exhibition. — Is there to be an exhibition at Ueno 
this year also ? 

I don't know. I have not heard the slightest rumour on 
the subject. 

3. A Request. — If you can manage it, do please copy 
this by to-night. 

O ! really, that is quite impossible. 

4. Engaging a Teacher. — Please look out for a good 
teacher for me. 

As soon as I find one, I will bring him to you. 

5. Salary. — How much salary should I give a month 
(e,g, , io a teacher or clerk)} 

Well, I should say that $14 or I15 would be ample. 

henji. The sentence is incomplete ; but such incomplete sentences 
ending in ga are of frequent occurrence, the speaker not knowing ex- 
actly what to add ; conf. p. 186.— 2. Ikaga desho ka is more or less 
equivalent to *• I don't know ; " see \ 375, p. 235. 


6. Meal Hours. — Kochira de tm, gozen no jikoku wa, 
nan-ji to nan-ji desu ka ? 

He I hint wa ju-ni-n han dt\ oyashoku ga shichi-ji han 
de gozaimasii. 

Sore de wa^ asa-han wa ? 

He I asa way Mmari ga gozaimasen. Anala no go isugo 

7. An Enquiry. — Moshi! uke-isuke wa, kochira desu 

Hei! koko zvo massugu ?tt ide ni nam io, sugii soko desu. 

8. Anothe Enquiry. — Koko kara Fuji ga inieru to wa, 
honio desu ka ? 

Ma I mieru to mosu koto de gozaimasu, 

9. Talking to a Child. — Sa, boichan! koko ye kake 
nasai. O oionashii koto I O ikutsu desu ka P 


Taiso okii koto I Gakko ye kayoi desu ka P 
He f mainichi ikimasu ga, — kyb wa^ doybhi desu kara, 
/n'ru'giri desKita, 

10. Talking to a Father. — Kono ko wa, anata no go 
shisoku de gozaimasu ka P 

He I ivaiakushi no sbryb de gozaimasu. 
Sore iva, iaisb rippa na go shisoku wo o mochi nasai- 
inashile, sazo ianoshimi de gozaimashb. 
le ! dbmo, wampaku de komarimasXi» 

6. JiMii-ji han de : notice how de, used predicatively, correlates 
this clause with the next ; conf. ^ 200, p. 138, and the fourth and fifth 
examples on p. 139. After asa-han wa, supply i/sti de gozaimasu? 
After s/iidai, supply de gozaimasu. — 7. For I'oko ivo, conf. p. 232.— 
3. To wa stands for to iu koto wa, " the assertion that Fuji can," etc.— 


'6. Meal Hours. — What are the hours for meals 
here ? 

Luncheon is at half-past twelve, and dinner at half- 
past seven. 

Then what about breakfast ? 

Breakfast ? There is no fixed time for it, Sir. You can 
have it whenever convenient to yourself. 

7. An Enquiry. — Please, is this the enquiry office ? 

No ; but you will come to it in a minute, if you go 
straight on. ^ 

8. Another Enquiry. — Is it true that Fuji can be seen 
from here ? 

Well, it is supposed to be. 

9. Talking to a Child. — Here, my little man ! sit 
down here. What a good boy you are ! How old are you ? 


How big you are for your age ! Do you go to school ? 
Yes, I go there every day. But to-day we only had 
lessons till noon, because it is Saturday. 

10. Talking to a Father. — Is this little boy your 
son ? 

Yes, he is my eldest 

Indeed, you have a fine fellow for an eldest son. What a 
a source of happiness he must be to you ! 

Oh ! no indeed. He is so naughty, I don't know what 
to do. 

9, For botchan^ see p. 240. Koto in taiso dkii koto I is used excla- 
matorily ; see p. 39. The o oi o kiru-giri is meaningless ; see p. 248.— 
10. Such complimentary and Belf-depreciatory speeches ai^ customary, 
quite irrespective of facts, and must not be understood too literally. 


11. The Telegraph. — Kokoe-ra wa, hempi da kara, 
denshin ga nakuie^/ujiyu desUy ne ! 

Sayb de gozaimasuru. Oi-oi dekimasu de gozaimasho. 

12. Speaking Japanese Well. — Anaia wa, yoku 
Nihon-go ga o wakari ni narimasii, 

Tonda koio osshaimasu. Do sKile I Naka-naka soso de 

lya I do Hashtmashiie I Honib ni rippa de gozamasu, 

13. No Thoroughfare. — Ana hashi wa fiishin-chu de, 
brai-dome dasb da. 

Dbri de, koko ni kari-bashi ga kakaite imasu. 

14. Compliments on meeting a Friend. — Konaida wa 
tochu de hanahada shikkei. 

Je ! do itashimashtie I watakushi koso, Shikashi, are kara 
dochira ye irasshaimasMia ? . 

15. A Message. — Sakki no isukai iva, mada kaetie konai 
ka ? Nani wo shile ini ka P Taisb tenia ga toreru. 

Okaia saki sama ga rusu de, maiie de mo orimasu n de 

12. Lit. "As for you, Japan language becomes well to honourable 
understanding." — 13. De, see ^f 200. Daso is the " adjective of pro- 
bability " of day ** to be." Don de=^' lieing reasonable," here " that is 
why." — 14. These and similar complimentary speeches are in constant 
use, and do not sound absurd in Japanese, though the faults npologised 
for on both sides are generally quite imaginary. After shikkei supply 
itashimashlta. After koso supply de gozaimashUa. Apropos the sentence 


11. The Telegraph. — It is inconvenient — isn't it.? — 
there being no telegraph in this part of the country, on 
account of its being so out-of-the-way. 

Yes. But I suppose we shall have it in time. 

12. Speaking Japanese Well. — You speak Japanese 

Nonsense ! How can you say such a thing ? My Japa- 
nese is very poor indeed. 

Not a bit of it. How can you say so ? You really speak 

13. No Thoroughfare. — It seems that the thorough- 
fare is closed, because the bridge over there is undergoing 

Ah yes ! That is why they have put up a temporary 
bridge here. 

14. Compliments on Meeting a Friend. — I beg your 
pardon for having been so rude to you in the street the other 

Oh ! no, not at all ! It was I who was rude. Where did 
you go after we parted ? 

15. A Message. — Hasn't the messenger whom I sent 
some time ago, come back yet ? What is he doing ? He 
is a tremendous time about it. 

Probably it is because the gentleman you sent him to is 
out, so that the messenger is kept waiting. 

beginning Shlkashiy notice that such questions as to where one has been 
or is about to go are not considered indiscreet by the Japanese, but are, 
on the contrary, used in the best society. — 15. Sakki is emphatic for 
saki; conf. ^ 25, p. 18. Toreru is the intransitive corresponding to 
the transitive verb torn, "to take;*' conf. p. 206. SaH soma "the 
gentleman in front," i.e. " the gentleman over there." For ti see 
bottom of p. 79. 


1 6. Feeling Unwell. — Kyb no shukwai ni wa, tras- 
shaimasen deshiia ka P 

He! J^o wa, nan da ka^ kokoro-mochi ga zvarukii/e ikemasen 
kara, koiowariwo Hie yarimasKUa. 

17. On Board Ship. — Kyb wa, yoi nagi de gozaimasu^ 

So de gozamasu. Go doyo ni shi-awase de gozaimasu, 
Anaia way Kobe ye tde de gozamasu ka P 
le, Nagasaki made mairimasu, 

Ikaga de gozaimasu P Kitsuenjb de ip-pukii itashimashb 

Sal iomo itashimashb, 

18. A Picnic. — Kyb wa, ii hiyori da kara^ undo kala- 
gaia Ojigoku wo mite kimasu kara, nani ka mi-isukurotte, 
bentb zvo san-nin-mae isoide koshiraeie kudasai. 

He f shbchi itashimashita. Go shu wa, nani-nani wo 
motasemashb P 

Sake wa, hiiru ip-pon to, fusuke ip-pon ni, sbda-mizu ni-hon 

He! kashikomarimashtta* 

19. A Visitor. — Ima mieia kyaku wa, mada gozen-mae 
dasb da kara, nan de mo ari-awase-mono de gohan zvo dashtte 

He I shbchi itashimashita, 

16. Warukute ikemasen, fairly lit. " being so bad, that it is no go ; " 
more simply "it is too bad." Similarly idkuie ikemasen, "it is 
too far;" kutabireie ikemasen, "I am too tired," etc.; conf. f 2i8, 
pp. 147-8. — 17. For the objective honorifics in go ddyd and iomo, see 
p. 247. — 18. Ojigoku (" Big Hell ") is the name of a valley near Mi- 
yanoshXta containing] some boiling sulphur-sprmgs. It is also called 


16. Feeling Unwell. — Didn't you go to the meeting 
to-day ? 

No. I don't know what it is, but I feel unwell ; so I sent 
an excuse. 

1 7. On Board Ship. — It is beautifully calm to-day, isn't 

Yes, indeed. It is lucky for all of us. 
Are you going to Kobe ? 
No. I am going on to Nagasaki. 

What do you say to our going and having a pipe in the 
smoking-room ? 
All right, come along ! 

1 8. A Picnic — ^As it is fine weather to-day, we are going 
to Ojigoku for the sake of a little exercise. So please make 
haste, and put up something or other as luncheon for 

All right. Sir. What liquors shall I send ? 
Liquors ? — A bottle of beer, a bottle of whisky, and two 
bottles of soda-water, will be enough. 
All right. Sir. 

19. A Visitor. — It would seem that the visitor who has 
just arrived has not dined yet. So please give him some- 
thing to eat. Anything that happens to be ready will do. 

All right. Sir. 

Owaki'danif i.e., " the Valley of the Great Boiling." Undo kaiagaia, 
more lit. " at the same time as exercise." Mite kintasu : conf. kuru, 
p. 193. Go shu is Chinese for the Japanese sake, and sounds more 
polite. Ftisuke is the nearest approach most Japanese can make to the 
pronunciation of our word " whisky.'* Kashikomarimashtta, or shochi 
itashimasJnta^ as immediately above, is the usual term by which an 
inferior expresses that he has understood the orders of a superior. 


20. Asking the Way. — Moshil Hahuhuisukwan wa^ 
dono hen desu ka P 

Sayb de gozaimasu. Sore wa, koko wo massugu ni iku to, 
migi no ho ga junsa no kohansho de, hidari no ho ga Haku- 
buisukwan desu. Mon ni '* Hakuhuisukwan " to kaita gaku ga 
ageie artmasu kara^ jiki shiremasu. 

Kore wa, dbmo ! arigaib zonjimasu. 

21. Compliments on first Meeting. — Hajimeniashiie 
{p me ni kakarimasu), Waiakushi wa Tanaka Tsunemasa to 
moshimastu Nanibun yoroshiku negainiasu. 

Sayb de gozaimasu ka ? Kaneie sommei wa ukeiamawatle 

orimashita ga Waiakushi wa Smith to mbsu mono de^ 

igo kokoro-yasU 

22. Taking Leave of a Friend. — Taisb chbza wo iiashi- 
mashiia. Ko?inichi wa mo itoma (ni) itashimashb. 

Ma ! Yoi de wa gozaimasen ka P Mb shbshb hanashi 
nasite irasshaimashu 

Arigaib gozaimasu ga, — konnichi wa chiio lori-isogimasu 
kara, izure mata sono uchi ukagaimasu, 

Sayb de gozaimasu ka P Kore wa taisb shitsurei bakari 
mbshi-agemashita. Sonnara, mata chikai uchi ni zehi iachi- 
yori wo 

20. For the active past tense kaita^ "wrote," where English idiom 
requires the passive past participle "written," see ^ 293, pp. 190- 1. 
Similarly in the case of gaku ga agete arimasu, lit. "a tablet is 
raising." — 21. The complimentary phrases in this and the next tliree 
numbers should be carefully committed to memory, as they are in 
constant requisition, however queer and stilted the English transla- 


20. Asking the Way. — Please, Sir ! would you tell me 
the way to the Museum ? 

Let me see ! Yes ! If you go straight on, you will find 
a police-station to your right, and the building on the left 
is the Museum. You will know it at once, for there is a 
tablet over the gate, with the word *' Museum" written 
on it 

Oh ! very many thanks. Sir. 

21. Compliments on First Meeting. — This is the first 
time I have had the honour to meet you, Sir. My name 
is Tanaka Tsunemasa. I beg for your kind friend- 

Oh ! indeed ? I have had the honour to hear of you 
before, although (we have never met). My name is Smith. 
Henceforward I hope you will honour me with your 

22. Taking Leave of a Friend. — I have paid you an 
unconscionably long visit, and must now be taking my 

Oh ! Why hurry so ? Do please chat a little longer. 

Many thanks, but I am rather pressed for time to-day. 
I will call again soon. 

Must you really go ? Well, pray excuse the shortcomings 
of my imperfect hospitality, and remember that I count upon 
your visiting me again very soon. 

tions may sound. After uketammvaite orimashtta ga^ must be 
supplied some clause such as has here been rendered in English by " we 
have never met." After o kokoro yasu supply fiegaintasii. — 22. Yd 
would be more strictly grammatical than yol de iva^ but the latter is 
often used ; conf. N. B. to p. 125. For the tori of tori-isogimasu^ see 
p. 219. At the end supply negaitnasu. 


23. Thanks for Assistance Received. — Saie dan-dan 
kono iahi zva go shusen kudasaimashite^ arigato gozai- 

le! iki-iodokimasen de^ makoio ni ShVtashi mazu 

medeid gozamasu, 

24. New Year Congratulations. — Mazu akemashtie, 
medeto goeaimasu, 

medeid gozaimasu, Kyuid wa iro-iro sewa sama ni 
narimashiie, arigaib zonjimasii. Nao ionen vio ai-kawarazu 

25. An Earthquake. — Anata saki-hodo jishin ga gozai- 
jtiasKUa no wo go zonji desu ka P 

le I sukoshi mo zonjimasen deshiia. 

He-he! Yohodo hidb gozaimasJiUe, ano tokonoma no 
hana-ike ga yureie, sunde-no-koio ni iaoresb ni nam hodo 

Sore wa, naka-naka bki na jishin de gozaimasJnta^ ne! 
Nan-ji goro desKUa ? 

Sono toki, iokei wo mimashUaraj ichi-ji ni-jip-piin sug 

Naruhodo ! ha-ha I Sore de wa, shiranai wake desu, 
Waiakushi wa, ichi-ji ni Tsukiji wo demashtie, kuruma 
de mairimasJnia kara, bkala sono iochu de gozaimasht- 

23. 6'a/<? = " well !" Dan-dan J " gradually," which serves to show 
how long-contiimed your favours have been, is a word constantly thus 
used in polite speeches. After makoio ni must be supplied some 
such clause as that which we have translated by " I am ashamed of 
myself." " Result " is not actually in the original expression ; but the 
idea is more or less pointed at. — 24. Akemashite refers to the " open- 


23. Thanks for Assistance Rfceived. — I am very much 
indebted to you for all your kind assistance on this occasion. 

Not at all ! I am really ashamed of myself for having 
done so little. Anyhow, I congratulate you on the result. 

24, New Year Congratulations. — I beg to offer you 
my congratulations on the New Year. 

The same to you. I trust that you will continue to me 
throughout the present year those favours by which I have 
profited in so many ways during the year that has just 

25. An Earthquake. — Did you feel the earthquake a 
few hours ago ? 

No, I didn't feel it at all. 

Indeed ? It was very violent. It was such that the 
flower-vase there in the alcove shook so that it seemed likely 
to fall. 

Then it must indeed have been a severe earthquake. 
About what o'clock did it take place ? 

I looked at my watch at the time, and it was twenty 
minutes past one. 

Ah, I see. In that case I was bound not to feel 
it. As I left Tsukiji at one o'clock, and went in a 
nnrikisha^ it doubtless took place while I was on the 

ing " of the New Year. Kyuto is lit. " old winter " in Chinese, hence 
" last year,"— 25. Sunde no koto m=.** just about to.'* Shiranai wake, 
not *• a reason which does not know," but *'a reason why /should not 
know ;" conf. p. 58. Tsukiji is the name of the foreign " concession " 
(quarter) in Tokyd. For sono^^^ of that," sec p. 54, 


26. Hiring a JinrikTsha. — Kyaku, — Oif kuruma-ya 
Ueno no Hakuhuisukwan ye itie^ nef — sore kara Asakusa 
no kbenchi wo kemhutsu shUe^ kaeri ni Ginza de kai-mono 
shtlej mata kono station made kaeru 'n da ga, — t'kura de 
iku ka ? 

Shafu, — He I hidoku terjia ga ioremashb ka P 

Kyaku, — lyal so tenia wa toremaiy—yukaia made ni kaeru 
tsumori da kara. 

Shafu, — He ! Sore de wa, danna ! shtchi-ju-go-sen negai- 
to gozaimasti. 

Kyaku. — Hm ! sukoshi takaku wa nai ka ? 

Shafu, — le I Yohodo michi-nori 7no gozaimasu kara, kes- 
shite takai koto wa moshi-agemasen. 

Kyaku. — Sonnara, sore dake yarn kara, kaeri ni Teikoku 
Hoteru ye choito yotte kiirei, — iazuneru hito ga aru kara. 
Shikashi, kore wa tenia wa torenai 

Shafu. — He ! Yoroshiti gozaimasu. meshi nasai- 

27. Letters for the Mail. — Moshi! O Haru San! 
Dare ka ni kono tegami wo yubin-kyoku ye motasete, — Nihon-ji 
de kaite aru ho wa, kaki-tome ni sasete, uke-tori wo torana- 
kereba naran ga, — yoko-moji no ho wa, gwaikoku-yuki da kara, 

jis-sen no kitte wo hatte, tada sasM-ire-guchi ye irete kureba 

He ! kashikomarimashita. 

26. Ueno and Asakusa are districts in Tokyo, the Ginza is a street, 
and the " Imperial " a large hotel in European style. Notice the 
correlation of clauses in the first sentence by means of the gerund 
repeated several times. The clause tazuneru hito ga aru kara is 
inverted ; it should properly precede the words kaeri ni immediately 
above. — 27. Learn this example thoroughly by heart, parse it, and 


26. Hiring a Jinrikisha. — Fare. I say, jinrila-m^xs. ! 
I want to go to the Museum at Ueno, you know, — from 
there on to see the Public Garden at Asakusa, then 
to make some purchases in the Ginza on the way back, 
and to return again here to the station. How much will 
you go for ? 

JinriJusha-man. Shall you be long about it, Sir .? 

Fare. No, probably not; for I intend to be back by 

Jinrikisha-nian, Well then, Sir, I must ask seventy-five 

Fare. H'm. Isn't that rather dear ? 

JinriBsha-man. No, Sir ; I haven't named at all a high 
price, for the distance is very great. 

Fare. All right, then ; I will give you that much. So 
just look in at the Imperial Hotel on the way back, as 
I have some one to call on there. But that won't take 

JinriBsha-man. All right. Sir. Please step in. 

27. Letters for the Mail. — I say 0-Haru ! tell 
some one to carry these letters to the post-office. The 
messenger must have the one which is addressed in 
Japanese characters registered, and must get a receipt 
for it ; but in the case of those written in Roman letters, 
it will be enough if he sticks a ten cent stamp on each, 
and just drops them into the post-box, as they are to go 

All right. Sir. 


I analyse it, and you will have laid the foundations of a practical mastery 

of that most difficult portion of Japanese grammar the integration of 
sentences, which is treated of at the end of the Chapter on Syntax, 
i pp. 280-2. Shira is a familiar abbreviation of shiran. 


28. Nearing Yokohoma. — Am oki ni daibu shima ga 
miemasu ga, — are wa^ nan to iu shima de goziimasu? 

Are ga Izu no Shtchi-io de gozaimasu, Mae no ga shima 
to iimasU, 

He I are de mo, hilo ga sunde imasu ka shira. 

E I Sunde iru dokoro de wa arimasen, Koko kara miru 

iOy chiisb gozaimasu ga, — Oshima nazo ni iva, mannaka ni 

funkwazan ga aite, sono mawari ni mura-kazu ga rok-ka-son 

mo ar imasu. Aio no shima-jima ni mo taigai — moiiomo 

munin-ib mo arimasu keredo, — hUo ga sunde imasu. 

He ! Sayb de gozaimasU ka ? 

29. A Christian Church. — Kono shuku niwa, Vaso-shU 
no shinja ga bi to iu koio desu, ne. 

He I so de gozaimasu. Kono hen wa, moppara Yaso wo 
shinkb iiashimasu, 

Kwaidb ga tatie orimasu ka P 

He! Kore made wa, kochb san no beilaku wo karini kwaidb 
nimochiiie orimashita ga, — tezema ni tsuite^ kondo shinki ni 
wakiye iatie orimasu. 

Kybshi wa, Seiyb-ji?i desu ka ? 

So de gozaimasu. Nichiyb-goio ni shusseki sht/e, sekkyo 
itasaremasu. Kono goro de wa, senrei wo ukeia Mto ga 
yohodo fueviasMia so desu. 

So desu ka ? Sore wa, naka-naka na koio desu, ne ! 

28. For dokoro see p. 43. Nazo, properly "etcetera," usually tones 
down a little the force of the preceding word. We have tried to re- 
present this by the term *'for instance" in the English version. Mura, 
(" village") has for its auxiliary numeral the word son^ which is but the 
Chinese synonym of the word mura; hence rok-ka'ion = ^*sbi villages." 
For the sense of taishita, and its exclusively attributive use, see p. 141 


28. Nearing Yokohama. — I see quite a number of 
islands out there. What islands are they ? 

They are the Seven Isles of Izu. The one in front 
is called Oshima ('' Vries Island"). 

Indeed! I wonder whether there are any people living 
on it? 

People living on it ? 1 should just think there were ! 
Why ! Small as it looks from here, Vries Island has 
a volcano in the middle, round the base of which cluster 
no less than six villages. The other islands too, though 
doubtless some are uninhabited, mostly have people 
living on them. 

Dear me ! You don't say so ! 

29. A Christian Church. — There is said to be a 
large number of (Protestant) Christians in this town, — 
isn't there.? 

Yes. Most of the people in this neighbourhood are 

Is there a church ? 

Well, hitherto the mayor's villa has done duty as a 
church. But it is too small, and so they are erecting a 
new building on another site. 

Is the pastor a foreigner ? 

Yes ; he comes and preaches every Sunday. It is 
said that great numbers of people have been baptised 

Indeed ! Then Christianity is in a very fair way here. 

and top of p. 142. — 29. Were Roman Catholics intended, the term 
Tenshukyo would be used instead of Yaso-shUf and Tenshu-do for 
kioaido. The zema in tezeitta is the stem form of the adjective semai^ 
"narrow." "Going to official business" is shukkin ; to any other, 
shutchd or shusseki, Naka-naka na koto^ " a considerable thing." 


30. A Fire. — Oya! kwaji to miete^ hanshb wo uilem 
ga : — shirase bakari da kara, daijobu da ga, — hbgaku wa^ 
dochira ni atiate iru ka mite kudasai. 

He ! tadaima soio kara viaiiia mono no moshimasii ni way 
sappari miemasen so desu. Tdbtm kinzai de gozaimasho. 

31. The ^ws.kTYiiL.—Chikagoro Kdbuki-za ga aila so 
desu ga, — gedaiwa, nan de gozaimasu ka? 

He! Kino waki de kikimashiiara, kondo wa " Chhshin- 
gura " no toshi dasb de, de-kaia mo daibu kao-zoroi daso 

So desu kap Sore m, kybgen gait kara, kith ataru 

32. Early to Bed. — Hanahada shitsurei de gozaimasu 
ga, — waiakushi wa, go men kbmurimashiie, /userimasii, — 
mybchb wa, yohodo hayaku shutlaisu suru fsumori desu kara, 

Dbzo waiakushi- domo ni kamai naku yasiuni nasaimasht, 
Komban wa, zehi kono kaki-mono wo shi-agete shimaimasen- 
kereba narimasen yue, yo ga fukemashb to omoimasu kara, 
mybchb wa, shikkei nagara, me ni kakarimasen ka mo 
shiremasen ga, zuibun to go kigenyb, 

30. The •'intimation" {shirase) of a distant fire, that is, of one not 
in the same district of the city/^consists of two strokes of the fire-bell. 
Mdshitnasu ni 7e;d! = "he says." The words sappari miemasen ajre a 
quotation from the other man, and so desu nearly = " he says," — the 
Japanese construction thus being pleonastic, as it contains the equivalent 
of " he says " both before and after the words quoted ; conf. latter part 
of ^ 437, p. 278. — 31. Kabuki'Za is the name of the 'chief theatre Jn 
Tokyo. Gedai, " title," is said to be a corruption oigcidai, lit. " list of 


30. A Fire. — Halloo I there would seem to be a fire; 
they are ringing the fire-bell. However, as it is only the 
''notice-bell," it is all right. Still, please go and see in 
what direction the fire is. 

Well, Sir ! a man who came in a minute ago says 
there is nothing to be seen. Probably it is in one of the 

31. The Theatre. — I hear that the Kabuki-za Theatre 
has recently re-opened. What is being acted there ? 

On enquiring yesterday at a fi*iend's house, I learnt 
that it was The Forty- Seven RbninSy — the entire play, — and 
that most of the best actors are taking part in it. 

Indeed ? That is a good piece. Doubtless it will be 
a great success. 

32. Early to Bed. — ^Although it is very rude of me 
to do so, I must ask you to excuse me if I go to bed, as 
I intend to start very early to-morrow morning. 

Oh ! pray retire without paying attention to me. I 
must positively finish this writing to-night So probably 
I shall not get to bed till late, and therefore please excuse 
me if I wish you a prosperous journey now, as I don't 
know whether I shall have the honour to see you in the 

accomplishments." For the story of the Forty-seven Rdnins^ a little 
epic of loyalty and revenge, see Mitford's "Tales of Old Japan." 
Its Japanese title, — Chu^sMn-gura^ — well describes it; for the tale is 
indeed a "store" of the feelings and deeds of "loyal retainers."— 
32. The first sentence is inverted ; the clause beginning with myochd 
wa should, properly speaking, come first. The last sentence lacks some 
such final verb as ide nasaimas/it. The phrase go kigen yd is often 
thus used where we should say " goodbye." 


33. Difficulty of the Japanese Language. — Domo! 
Nikon no kotoha wa, taihen ni iri-kunda mono de, — domo ! 
kosht no magaru made manande mo, shosen oboe-isukusemasu- 

le I masaka sono yd na muzukashii mono de mo gozatmasen. 
Keiko sae sureda, nan de mo nai koto desti. 

34. Asking the Way. — Choiio michi wo ukagaimasXi, 
Kore kara san-cko saki no tokoro ni hidari ye magaru 

yoko-cko ga aru ga, — soko ye haitte, sore kara mala migi 
ye magaiie, massugu ni iku n' desu, 

Sonnara, kono ion to narande orimasu^ ne ! 

35. The Way to the British Legation. — Choilo mono 
wo iazune moshimasu. Igirisu koshikwan ye wa, do mairi- 
mashliara yoroshiu gozaimasu kaP 

He! Sore wa, kono Shimhashi-demae no yoko-dori wo 
hidari yc massugu ni ide ni narimasu io, goku hazure no 
migi-iie ni Tora-no-mon to in miisMe ga arimasu. Sore wo 
hairi ni narimashtie, doko made mo ide ni narimasH to, 
Sakurada-miisuke to iu mon no mae ye isuki-aiarimasu, 
Kondo nakaye hairazu ni, hori ni isuiie, hidari ye doko made 
mo irasshaimasiu to, mukb ni Eikoku koshikwan no hata ga 
miemasu kara, jiki shiremasu, 

Domo, arigatb zonjimasu. Ojama wo itashimashita, 

36. A Toast. — Aruji, shampan wo tsuida koppu wo 
mochi-nagara, za wo tatte : 

KakU'Shinshi wa, yoku komban wa ide kudastte, makoto ni 
watakushi wa kinki ni taemasen, Nao ai-kawarazu shimmitsu 
naru tsuki-ai wo negaimasu. 

35. Shimbashi is the name of the quarter of T5ky6 in which the chief 
railway terminus is situated. Konda is a contraction of koyido wa. — 
36. This example is in the stiff style, bordering on the Written Lan- 
guage, which is usual on such occasions. Shampan wo tsuida koppu. 


$$. Difficulty of the Japanese Language. — Really, 
Japanese is a terribly complicated language. Even if one 
were to study till one's back became bent with age, one 
could not learn it thoroughly. 

Oh ! no ; it is hardly as difficult a thing £ts that. It is 
a mere nothing if only you set yourself to it. 

34. Asking the Way. — Please tell me the way. 

About three hundred and sixty yards further on, there 
is a turning to the left. You must turn down it, and then 
turn again to the right, after which you go straight on. 

Then it is parallel with this street, isn't it ? 

35. The Way to the British Legation. — Excuse 
my asking you ; but would you kindly tell me the way 
to the British Legation ? 

Certainly. Look here ! If you follow straight along 
this street branching off to the left in front of Shimbashi, 
you will come to a gate called Tora-no-mon on the right 
hand side at the very end. Go through it, and walk on 
and on, till you come to a gate called the Sakurada gate. 
Don't go through that, but turn to the left along the moat, 
and go straight on, and you will at once know which is 
the British Legation by seeing the flag ahead. 

Very many thanks, Excuse me for having trespassed 
on your valuable time. 

36. A Toast. — TAe hosl, taking a glass of champagne in 
his handt ^^ses and says : 

Gentlemen ! I am really overwhelmed by your kindness 

in coming here to-night, and I trust that you will ever 

continue to favour me with your friendship. 

lit. ** a glass (into which some one) has poured champagne." Kakushitt' 
sMf lit. = each gentleman." Kinki ni taemasen lit. = " (I) cannot endure 
the delight." Nao ai-kcvwarazu^ etc., lit. = *'I request intimate intercourse 
still mutually changing not." Nani is bookish for na ; conf. f 197. 


37. Keeping a Visitor Waiting. — Hanahada shikkei 
deshiia, Shi-kaketa yd ga aiie, maiase moshimashiia. 

Do iiashimasKUe I JUsu wa, sensei ni negai ga aiie deia 
n desu ga, — isogashii iokoro zvo, — hanahada sumimasen, 

Kyaku. Konnichi wa! O iaku desu kaP 
Aruji, Dare ka kiia, Deie mi-na ! 
Nyohb. Hail oya I ma ! kochiraye, 
Kyaku. Kyo wa mo dokoye ka ide desu kaP 
Nyohb. le, orimasu. Ma / ibri asobase . . Anaia! 

Nakayoshi San ga irasshaimashiia yo ! 
Aruji. So ka? . . Sa I kochiraye. 
Kyaku. Sensei uchi daiia^ ne ! 
Aruji. Yoku hayaku de-kake deshtia, 
Kyaku, Hayaku mo nai. Mb ku-ji sugi da. 
Aruji. Naruhodo ! 

Kyaku. Kyb wa Sunday da kara, mb rusu ka to 

Aruji. Sunday demo, heisudan aie-hameia yb ga nai shi, 
stikoshi kibun ga warui kara, dokoye mo demasen 

37. Near the end, viz. after iokoro wo^ a sentence is left unfinished. 
Hanahada s umima s en = ** it is very improper" (for me to have in- 
truded on you). — 38. This example and the next are taken from the 
'^ Fude Shashiny Observe how in Japan it is the husband who 
orders his wife about, and not vice versa. The word nyobd is non- 
honorific. For the na of dete mi-na, see p. 167, N. B. — Male speakers 
should avoid such strings of exclamations as Hai ! oya ! ma ! and also 
the anaia used as an interjection^ and the yo ! in the good lady's next 



37. Keeping a Visitor Waiting. — ^Kindly excuse my 
rudeness in keeping you waiting ; but I was occupied with 
something which I could not leave half-finished. 

Oh ! pray don't mention it ! To tell the truth, \vhat 
I have come for is to ask you a favour. But I must 
apologise for intruding on you when you are so busy. 


Visitor, (at the door) Good day ! Are you at home ? 
Host. {to his wife) Somebody has come. Go and 

see who it is. 
Wife, All right— {To the visitor) Oh! is it you? 

Please come in. 
Visitor, Has your husband already gone out to-day ? 
Wtfe, No, he is at home. Please come in. — {To her 

husband). Here is Mr. Nakayoshi. 
Host. Indeed ! — {To the visitor) Oh ! please come in. 
Visitor, And so you are at home, I see ! 
Host, You are on the move very early. 
Visitor, Not at all. It's past nine o'clock. 
Host. You don't say so. 
Visitor, To-day being Sunday, I thought you might 

have gone out. 
Host. True, it's Sunday. But I had no special reason 

for going out, besides which I am feeling rather 

unwell. So I was stopping at home. 

remarks. After kochira ye supply o tori ttasai. The English word 
"Sunday" is paraded by the speakers to show their erudition. 
Japanese nichiydbi wculd do just as well. Betsudan aU-kameia yo^ 
lit " specially allotted (but active, not passive verb) business." For shi 
see p. 81. Observe the scantiness of honorifics in this little collcquy, 
arising from the intimacy of the two men. 



yochu, Jrasshaimashi ! Makoto ni atsu gozaimasu, 
Kyaku. Zuihun aism\ ne ! Molio suzushii tohoro wa 

arimasen ha? 
yochu. Mina san ga so osshaimasu ga^ — kono tori fu- 

sagaiie onmasfiHey makoto ni kinodoku sama desu. 

Sana uchi yoi tokoro ga akimasYi kara, doka koko 

ni negaimasii, 
Kyaku, Soka? ShUata ga nai, 

40. A Meeting Dispersed. — Kono aida chotto taku ye 
ukagaimashitara, anata wa go fuzai de gozaimashlte, okusan 
no osshaimashila ni zva, Ibumura-Ro ye enzetsu wo kiki ni 
o ide no yd ni uketamawarimashita ga, — ?tani ka mezuraskU 
enzetsu de mo gozaimashita ka? 

01 Sono setsu wa, chbdo orimasen de, shitsurei itashi- 
mashita, Ano hiiva, ai-niku deshite, ne ! — motiomo chiio osoku 
de-kakemashlta ga, — Ibumura-Ro no mae made iki?nasu to, 
doya-doya hito ga dete kimasTc kara, naze ka to omotte 
kikimashitara, ni-ham-me no enzetsu-chu nani kasukoshi jbrei 
nifureta koto ga atta to ka de, keisatsu-kwan ga chushi wo 
meijiia tame, sude ni kaisan ni natta toko deshite, jitsu ni 
zannen deshita. 

Sore wa, oshii koto wo nas.iiniasKUa, 

39 Observe how the waitress uses hoAorifics to the guest, but 
not the guest to the waitress. There would, liow.ver, be no Iiarm 
in his doing so. Kono tori, "this way," is often equivalent to 
our phrase *' as you see." The words " I cannot accommodate 
you with one yet " , have to be added in the English version, to 
complete the sense. Sono uchi, lit. " meanwhile," hence •• soon." — 
40. Go fuzai is a highly cultivated expression. The common people 
prefer o rusu. The Ibuinura-Ro {rdz^'^ upper storey ") was a tea-house 
in Tokyo, where meetings were held and sets of lectures delivered. 



Waitress, Welcome ! It is very hot to-day, Sir. 

Guest, Very hot, isn't it? Haven't you any cooler 

Waitress, All our guests ask for cooler rooms. But 
we are, as you see, so full that I am sorry 
to say I cannot accommodate you with one 
yet. Please sit down here. Sir, until a better 
room becomes vacant 

Guest, Oh ! then there's no help for it. 

40. A Meeting Dispersed. — When I looked in at 
your house the other day, you were absent, and your wife 
said that you had gone to listen to a set of lectures at 
the Ibumura Hall. Were the lectures at all interesting? 

Oh ! it was very rude of me to happen to be out just 
then. On that day it was unfortunate, you know. To 
begin with, I was rather late in starting ; and then, 
when I got as far as the Hall, I found the people all 
pouring out in confusion. And on enquiring the reason 
of this, I was told that in the second lecture there had 
occurred some remarks which slightly infringed the go- 
vernment regulations, or something of that kind, and that 
the police had ordered the proceedings to be stopped. So 
when I arrived, the meeting had already broken up, which 
was a pity. 

Oh ! I am sorry for your disappointment 

it being the Japanese custom to ** make a day of it," and to have one 
lejt-rc ile'.ivered after another for hours at a time^ sometimes on the 
same subject, but very often on different subjects. The Kinki-kwan 
. has now replaced the Ibumura-ro as a favourite place for such meetings. 
O ide no yd ni is an example of indirect quotation. The direct would 
be xde da to ; conf. p[>. 275 5. Toko near the end is for tohfra. 


41. Shopping at Miyanoshita. — Kyaku. — Go men nasatf 

Akindo, — He I irasshail Chito kahe nasaimashl I Nam 
ka goran kudasaimase ! Mada hoka ni iro-iro gozaimasu. 

Kyaku, — Omocha ivo sMoshi miseie kudasau 

Akindo, — He/ kashtkomarimashtta, Kono te^ no mono de 
wa ikaga de gozaimasuP 

Kyaku, — Naruhodo ! kono uchi kara, iru dake no mono ivo 

Akindo, — Danna / kore wa ikaga de gozaimasuP Tahi- 
makura to moshimasMte, — naka kara, kono idn\ andon ga 
demasu, Koko ga saisu-ire, Htkt-dashi ga futaisu arimasu. 
Sorobany yoji-ire, kagami, iro-iro sM-konde arimasu. Mada 
koko ni kb iu miisu-ire^ko no benio ga arimasu, Kore ga 
/ude-sashij kore wa labako-ire, Mina daijobu nidekiie orimasu. 

Kyaku. — Mazu sonna viono wayoroshii^ Oku wa, kodomo 
no miyage ni suru n da kara, koko ye yori-dashtia omocha 
ga kore dake io, undihdama ga miisu^ mukb ni mieru shiian-iro 
no bon ga ni-mai to, kono shashin-basami ga futaisu, Kore 
dake de, ikura ninarimasho? 

Akindo, — He! arigaid zonjimasu. Atari-mae wa, ni-en 
roku-jiingO'Sen ni negaimasu\ ga, — ni-en go-jis-sen ni o 
make-rndshtie okimasho. 

* The meanings of ie, properly " hand," are almost endless. Here it 
signifies "sort," "kind." 

t For sonna mono wa yoroshii, conf. p. 292, No. 72, and footnote. 


41. Shopping at MiyanoshTta. — Cusiomer, — Excuse 

Dealer, — Oh ! pray come in, Sir. Please sit down a 
moment. Please inspect my wares. I have others besides, 
of various descriptions. 

Cusiomer, — Please show me some toys. 

Dealer. — All right. Sir ! How would this kind of article 
suit you ? 

Ctisiomer, — Let me see ! I will set aside from among 
these the ones that I want 

Dealer. — Sir ! how would this suit you ? It is called 
a travelling pillow. A lamp comes out of it, like this ; 
also this purse for paper-money. It has two drawers. 
There are all sorts of other things inside it, — an abacus, 
a toothpick-holder, and a looking-glass. Here again is a 
luncheon-box in three parts, which all fit into one. This 
is a pen-stand, this is a tobacco-pouch. They are all quite 
solidly made. 

Cusiomer. — Well, I don't want that sort of thing. 
Most of the things I want are intended as presents 
to take home to the children. Here they are : — the toys 
which I have set aside here, besides three cups-and-balls, 
two of those sandal-wood-coloured trays over there, 
and these two photograph-frames. How much may the 
whole lot come to? 

Dealer, — Oh ! many thanks, Sir. The usual price 
would be two dollars sixty-five cents ; but I will let you 
have them for two fifty. 

X NegaUf " to beg," is often used by the lower classes when address- 
ing their superiors, to signify " to say," " to do," even " to sell." 


Kyaku,^—Sore wa iaiso takai. Sonna ni kakene wo iicha 
ikenai. Zuito o make nasai. 

Akindo. — le ! do iiashmashite ! Kesshtic o iakai koio wa 
mbshi-agemasen. Dono kurai made 7iara, negawarcmasho^ 

Kyaku. — So sal ne ! Ichi-en go-'Jis-sen nara^ kaimashb, 

Akindo. — Sore de zva, danna ! go muri de gozaimasu. 
Sonna ni kake-ne wa mbshimasen. Dbzo go j'bdan osshai- 
masen de, mo sMoshi o kai kudasai.'\ 

Kyaku — Sore de wa, ni-en made ni kaimashb. 

Akifido. — Sayb de gozaimasu kaP O yasu gozaimasu 
ga, — maia negawankerehd^ narimascn kara, o make-mbshtie 
ob'masu, Zehi o ume-awasc wo. J 

* See footnote to preceding page, and also ^ 403, p. 250. 
I " Deign to buy (it) a little more (dearly\" i c, " Please give me a 
little more for it." 


Customer, — That is awfully dear. You mustn't put 
on such fancy prices as that. You must go down a 
great deal. 

Dealer, — Really Sir, how could you expect me to? 
The things are not at all dear. What would be your 
idea as to the price, Sir ? 

Customer, — Well, let me see ! I'll take them, if you 
will let me have them for one dollar fifty. 

Dealer, — Oh ! Sir, that is unreasonable. 1 don't put 
on such fancy prices as you seem to suppose. Please 
don't joke in this way, Sir, but give me a little more for 
the things. 

Customer, — Well, then, I'll give you two dollars. 

Dealer, — Only two dollars ? That is cheap, Sir. How- 
ever, as I hope for your custom, I will go down to that 
price. But do, please. Sir, give me the chance of recoup- 
ing this alarming sacrifice by buying of me again. 

X Supply some such final verb as negaimasu. We li.ive expanded 
the idea of this phrase in the English translation. Ume-awasertt is lit. 
"to fill in " (a hole with earth). 




Kencho-goro* no koto de^ Kamakuni* Shikken ni 

Kenchd-perlod 's fact being, KatHfikura Regent ta 

isukaeia Aoto Saemon Fujiisuna to lu yakunin ga, 

served A.aU> Saemon JB^tJUmma tJuU say official [nom.), 

aru yo Nameri-gawa wo wataru ioki ni, kerai 

uncertain night Kameri^lver {accus.) crosses tinie in, retainer 

ga ayamatte zeni ju-mon wo kawa ye otoshimashtia no 

{nom,) erring, coin ten^eash {accus.) river to dropped(trans.) act 

wo*, — FujUsuTta wa, kyu ni htto wo yaioi,^ 
whereas,— Ff/^iUsuna as^fitr, suddenly people {accus,) having-hiredf 

iaimaisu wo ts^keie, kotogotoku hirowasele 

torehes (accus.) having'Ughted, completely having •'caused-to^ 

kaeraremasKiia. * 
^yicJcup, deigned'tO'-retum. 

Kono koto wo, aru hilo ga waraile, ' 

This €tct {accus.) certain people {no?ir.) laughing-^Uf 

** Wazuka ju-mon no zeni wo oshinde, taimaisu wo 

** Trifle ten'Casli 's coin {accus.) grttdgittg, torches {accus.) 

I. Students curious of comparing the Colloquial with the Written 
Language will find this same story told in easy written style, in 
the present writer's " Romanized Japanese Reader," Vol. i, p. 34. 
2. For the use of nengo or *' year-names," see p. 116. The best book 
of reference on the subject of Japanese chronology is Bramsen's 
"" Japanese Chronological Tables." — 3. Kamakttra^ two days* journey 
by road from the site of the modern city of Yedo or Tokyo, was, 
during the Middle Ages, the capital of the feudal rulers of Japan. The 
Hojo family of Shikken, or " Regents," occupied this position during 
the thirteenth and a portion of the fourteenth centuries, and Aoto 
Fujitsuna held high judicial office under the fifth ruler of their line. 
Aoto is the surname, Fujitsuna the personal (equivalent to oor 



The following incident happened about the period styled 
Kencho (A.D. 1249 — 1256). When Aoto Saemon Fuji- 
tsuna, an official in the service of the Regent of Kamakura, 
was crossing the River Named one night, a retainer of 
his let ten cash fall by mistake into the river, where- 
upon Fujitsuna hastily hired some men, and made 
them light torches and pick all the money out of the 

Some one is reported to have laughed at this, and 
to have said: ''Through grudging the ten cash, 

" Christian ") name, and Saemon a kind of title, "which has, however, 
almost come to form part of the actual name itself. The Nameri- 
gawa is a small stream near Kamakara. — 4, The whole sentence 
down to here forms a sort of accusative to the following clause relating 
Fujitsuna's action upon what had happened. "Thereupon" or 
"whereas" is the nearest approach to a literal English rendering. — 
5. The indefinite form }'a/oi is here equivalent to a gerund, because 
correlated with the gerund tsukete immediately below: conf. p. 178, 
If 278, and p. 264. — 6. Observe how the sentence is rounded off by 
kaeraremashtta (honorific potential for kaerimashtta ; conf. \ 403, 
p. 250. Further examples of such honorific potentials are ofiered 
below by kikaremasJiita, iwaremasfnta, and mosaremashitd). Hiro- 
waseta alone would sound bald to Japanese ears, which generally 
expect to have the whole action related down to its very end ; conf. 
^ 302, p. 197. 


kaiiariy Kito wo yatottari shiie, nyuhi ga 
notv-buying, people (accus.) now-fiiring doing, expense (tiam.) 

taiso kakallaro. Kore koso Ichi-mon oshimi 

great-deal hai-prdb€tbly-c08t. 27ii« indeed oiie'cas/t grudging 
no hyaku shirazu' da" to iiia so desu, 
'8 hundred ignores is'' iluU said appearance is. 

Sore WO Fujitsuna ga hikaremashVe, ' ' So 

Tliat {accus.) Fujitsuna [nom.) having-deigned-io-Iiear, *' 80 

omoii mono mo arb gay — isuiyashlta zeni wa, 

thinh persons also may-he although,— spent coin as-for, 

isuyo shiie iru kara, muyb ni wa naran 
eircuUtHon doing is hec€Mse, ttselessness to as-for beeo%nes-not 

gaj — kawa no soko ye shizunda ju-mon wa, ima 

wfiereaSf—river *s bottom to sa/nk ten-c<nsh as-for, now 

hirowaneha, tenka no iakara wo ushinau kara 
if-do-not-pick-up, taorld 's treasui^e {accus.) lose because 

da " to iwaremashita, 

is " that deigned-to-say, 

Kore-ra ga, makoto no sekken to iu mono desu, 

8u€h-as-this {no7n.), truth 's eoonomy that say thing is, 

Oku wa tori'Chigaete, sekken wo 

Mostly as-for, taking-and-mistahingf economy {accus.) 

okonau tame ni ri?ishoku ni naru mono mo arimasu 

practise sake far, parsimony to become personM also are 
ga, — sore-ra no Kito to dojitsu no 7- on ni 

'U)hereas,—such like 's people tvith, same-day 's discussion in 
iva narimascn. 

as-for, becomes-not, 

Shikashiy tdji no kcizai-gakusha no setsu ni 

Nevertheless, present-time 's political-economists of opinion to 

itasHitara, ikaga mbsaremasho ka .^ 

if-one-made, hmv %i'Ul-ihey-probably-deign-to-say ? 

7. In this proverb oshivii^oshimu htto^ "a grudging person." Shi- 
razu is not the negative gerund of shiruy but its Classical " conclusive 


Fujitsuna must have been put to great expense, what with 
buying torches and hiring men. This indeed is to be 
''Penny wise and pound foolish," 

Fujitsuna, hearing of this, said: '* There may be 
some ;folks who think so. But the money spent is 
not wasted, because it remains in circulation, whereas 
the ten cash that sank to the bottom of the river would^ 
if not picked up, have been treasure lost to the world. 
That is why I acted as I did. ' 

Actions of this kind are examples of true economy. 

Most people, mistaking one for the other, fall into 
parsimony while endeavouring to practise economy. But 
though there are such, Fujitsuna is not to be mentioned 
on the same day as they. 

Still, if one were to ask the opinion of the political 
economists of the present day, what would they say? 

negative present," which is equivalent to the Colloquial shiranai, — 8 
I. e., " I do this because, if I did not pick it up," etc. 




Mukashi ** Artgata no KichtbeV to azana wo 

Anciently ** TtMnk^d 'b KichibH" fhat nUkname {accus.) 

istikeraretert^ ojiisan ga arimasKUe, donna 

iS'having'-got-affiaied dld-genOettian (nom.) {there) being, what 

koto demo ^^ Arigaiai! arigalaif" to yorokonde^ 

tliif^ soever " (F am) thank ftd ! (I am) thanJkfUl I " that ndolelng, 

kurashUe iru htto deshUe^ — natsu hiio ga kiie, 

pasalng-the-titne is person being, —mimmer, person {nam.) coming, 

*' Kyo zva, hidoi alsusa de gozaimasu*' to timasu 

** To-day a»-for, violent Iteat is" that says 

to, kono ojiisan no henid ni, " A/sui j'isetsu zva, 
when, this cUd-ffenOeman 's answer in: ** Hot season as'for, 

atsui ho ga arigatai.^ Samui jibun wa, samui no 
hot side (nom.) {is) thanltftd, Coid season as-for, cTltl fact 

ga arigaiai" to yorokond^ orirnasn. 

{nam.) {is)thankfid" that rejoicing is. 

Mata htto ga Kichibei no bimbo wo sasshlie^ 

Again people {nom.) Kidiibei 's poverty {accus.) guessing, 

'* Nani ka to go fujiyu desho" to 

** Something-'or-other that augttst inconvenience must-be " Ukat 

iimasYi to, — "/^/ watashi wa sai-shi no shimpai 
say when,— ''No! me as-for, wife-child 's anxiety 

mo naku, umai mono mo tabemasezu ; sono sei ka, naga-iki 

also is-not, tasty things idso eat-not; fhat cause ?, Uyng-life 

WO shite imasu kara, arigatai'' to^, — tada 

{acctis.) doing am becatise, {I am) thanJeftd " that,—^ner^y 

nan de mo '^ Arigatai" to itte imasu, 

everything ** Thank ftd" titat saying is, 

I. Arigatai would be more strictly grammatical ; but the stem form 
arigata with no is more idiomatic ; conf. p. 125 — 2. For tsukerarete 



Once upon a time there was an old man who 
had got nicknamed ''Thankful Kichibei," and who led 
a happy existence, always thankful for everything, 
whatever it might be. When any one came to see 
him in summer and complained of the excessive heat, 
the old man would reply ; ' * In the hot season we 
must be thankful for the heat. In the cold time ot 
year we must be thankful for the cold.'' — If again any 
friend should sympathise with his poverty, and remark 
how inconvenient it must be in every way, he would 
say : * ' Oh ! no ! I am troubled neither with wife 
nor child, nor do I eat savoury food. Perhaps it is 
for this reason that I am long-lived, and I am thank- 
ful for it" Thus did he use the word ''thankful" 
about everything. 

iru see bottom of p. 192. — 3. To yorokonde^to itte yorokonde^ i.e., 
" rejoicing, saying thaf." — 4. Arigatai here has a sort of objective 
sense, i.e., it means not exactly "thankfcil," but "worthy of being 
thankful for.*' — 5. After to supply iife^ "saying." 



Aru iokiy yoso no 

A'-certain time, elsewiiere 's 
gake ni omote no hashira 
while in, front 's post 

huilsukeniashita ga^ — yahari 
hit whereas^ —cUso 

to kuchi no uchi de Ute imasu kara^ 
that tnoiuOi 's interior in sajfinff ia because. 

uchi ye iiie, kaeri- 

Fiowse to havinff'ffone, rettirninff^ 

de aiama zvo kotsun to* 

by, head {accus.) bumpingltf 

' * A rigaiai I arigatai I " 

'* Thanlifia thankful I '* 

soha ni iru 

alo¥^y»ide in is 

Kiio ga : " Kichibei San I anaia wa^ nan de mo 

person {nom.) " JSiichibei Mr ! ffou Wi-for, everi/thing 

ka de md^ 'Arigatai! arigatai!' to ii-nasaru ga, — 
whatever, * Uiahkful / Thankful / ' tJioA sat/ -deign whereas,-— 

hashira de atama wo utte, sazo ilakarb 

post €U heo/d {accus.) having-hit, indeed tnttst-be-painftU 
ga, — sore de nani ga arigatai «' desu ? " to kiki- 
whereas,— that by, what (nom.) thankful fact is?'' that tt^ken 
mashitara, — **JIe! kono itai no ga arigatai no 
hchad-heard,— " Yes I this painftd fact («.»;«.) thankful fact 



* ' Naze to iimasu to^, inia huttsuketa toh\ aijma ga 
** Why ? that says when, now h'i, time, head (nom.) 

kudakete, shinde shimaimxshita nara, itai koto 

having-broken (intrans.), dying had-finisJied if, painful foci 

mo nani mo wakarimasen ga, — inochi mo atama mo, 

also anything understand-not wiiereas,—li/e also, head, aUsOf 

kage sama de!" buji d^shtla kara, 

honourable influence Mr, by, accidenUess has-^jeen because, 

itai no ga shiremasu, 

painfull fact (nam.) is-knowable. 

'* Sore desu kara, makoto ni arigatai" to kotaema- 

*' That is because, truth idi (am) tlian'cful * tihxt answered.. 


6. Kotsttn to is an onomatoi^e for the sound of bumping or thump- 
ing. — 7. An idiom, which is also pronounced nan dc mo, kan de mOm 


One day, when, having gone to a friend's house, 
he was returning home again, he struck his head a 
tremendous blow against a post at the entrance. But 
even then, one who was near him heard him muttering his 
thanks, and exclaimed: *'Mr. Kichibei, you say 'thank 
you ' to everything. But what can there to be thankful 
for in hurting yourself by striking your head against 
a post.?" — ''Why I" replied Kichibei, "the pain is 
exacdy what I am thankful for. Don't you see that 
if, when I struck against the post just now, my skull 
had been fractured and I had died, I should have 
felt neither pain nor anything else, whereas I now 
feel the pain because, thanks to your kind influence, 
my life and my head are both safe? That is why 
I am truly thankful." 

This ka or katt is probably the root of kare, " that."— 8. Naze to iu to is an 
idiom meaning " for this reason," more lit. *• if you ask why, (then it 
is as follows.) "—9. The words kage sama^ "thanks to your kind 
influence," are an empty compliment, indeed almost an expletive ; cent 
p. 294, No. 85. 


Sum io,^^ kono koto wo saki-hodo kara koko no 

Thereupon, tttU thing {accus.) prevUnm-perlod since, here '» 

jnkyo^^ ga kiUe orimashUe^ ^^ Naruhodo !'* 

retired'cHd-^nan {nam.) Ustening having-heen, ** Oh I 'indeed f 
to^^ kanshin shiie, ** Aa I arigatai, arigaiai ! Wa- 
that ftdniiriUlon doing, " Ah / (/ am) thankful, thankful ! 
tiikushi mo, ima zva saiori wo hirakimashita, 

I also, ntHo cM-foTt eniUghiennient {acctts.) have^opened. 

** IrO'iro nam' ka no sewa ga yakeiari,^^ 

** SeveraUkinds samething-ovother '» earea (nojn.) eometimes- 

sama-zama no tsurai koto ni labi-iabi 

iMfvning, various-aort «' dlnagreeaMe things to often 

attar i shite, * Aa f kurushii, kurushii ! 

sometinies'meeting doing, * Ah / [H is) dlsit*e9sing, distrensing ! 

Jitsu ni kono yo ga iya ni natia ' to 

Ttntth in, this world {nom.) objectionable to has-beconie* that 

omou koto mo arimasJiUa ga, — kore to iu no ?fio^* 

think fact also Jtas-been whereas,— this that say fact also, 

inochi ga aru kara no koto desit. 

life {nom.) is becatise 's fact is, 

'* Shite miru to,^^ ima Kichihei San ga iu tori, 

** And'Hierefore, now Kichibel Mr* (nom.) says tcay, 

naruhodo I watakushi mo banji ga arigaiai, 

t/es-indeedt I also, niyriad'tiiings {ftom.) (are) thankjfkd, 


thankfid I 

lo. Suru to (short for so suru io) is an idiom which is often used, as 
here, at the beginning of a sentence, in order to resume, as it were, 
what has gone before. — ii. The term i/tkyo denotes a person who has 
retired from active life, and has handed over his business and the greater 
part of his property to his successor. — 1 2. After to supply itte, " saying," 
or omotie, " thinking." 


Hereupon the old father of the master of the house, 
who had been listening to the conversation from the 
beginning, was struck with admiration, and said : 
"Yes, indeed. Thankful, thankful must we be. This 
has taught me a lesson. Often, when worried by 
divers cares and confronted by various misfortunes, 
I have said to myself how wretched, wretched it all 
is, — and what an odious place the world has become 
to me. But even all these things exist only because 
life itself exists* A careful consideration therefore 
shows that, as Mr. Kichibei has just said, I too have 
everything, everything to be thankful for." 

13, Sewagayakeru (iiitrans.)="to be busy and anxious." Sewa 
wff yaku {trans,) ^** to take great trouble." — 14. J^ore to iu no mo- 
**thi3 also," moTc lit "also that (which people) say (is) this." — 15. 
More lit. "when, having done so, one looks." Conf. suru to at top of 
page. — 16. The words watakushi mo are, as it were, hung in the air 
without reference to any verb, while banji is the subject of arigaiai, 
here taken in its objective sense (conf. p. 349, note 4). 




Mukashiy miyako no machi ni Unazuki Baba 

AneienUy, eaplua 'b fnercantUe^qaarter in, IfoddUng Grannjf 

to lu ktichi'benkd no it mono ga arimasKUe^ 

that say vnouth-glibness *» good person {nom.') {there) Ifeing, 

itsu mo yome ya muko no sewa wo sMiey yo wo 

alwftya bride or bridegroom 'a help (nccus.) doing, life{nccM.) 
okuiie orimashtta ga^ — aru ioki san-ju-go ni 

passing was whereas,— a-eerUtin time, thirty-five to 

naru^ oioko no ioshi wo kakushiiCy ju-go no musume 

becomes fnan 's years {accus.) having-hidden, fifteen 's girl 

to engumi wo iori-mochiy yuinb made oku'^ 

with, tnarriage (accusS) had-arranged, betrothal-gifts even had" 

rasemashUa ga, — sono nochi muko no ioshi no 
eattsed-to-send whereas,— (heU, after, bridegrootn 's years of 
fuketert^ — koto wo musume no oya ga kiki-isukete, 
mdvaneed'are fact (accus.) girl 's parent (nam,') havlng-heard, 
'^ Hoka ni nani 7no moshi-bun wa nai ga, — mu- 
*' Elsewhere in, anything objection aS'for, isn't but,—bride~ 

ko to musume to ioshi ga 7ii-jU mo chigatte wa, 
groom, and datighter and, years (nom.) twenty even differing as- for, 
ikani shite mo yome ni wa yarenai" to in, 
• how doing even, bride to as-for, eannot-send'' that says. 

Oioko no ho de wa, " Yuino made sumashita 

Man 's side on, ** BetrothaH-gifts even have-eoneiuded 

kara wa, shinrui ye taishiie mo, sonna futsugb na 

since as-for, kinsmen to confronting even, such inconvenient 

koto wa kikasarenai kara, zehi mora'- 

tiling as-for, cannot-cause-io-hear because, positively if' 
wanker eha shbchi shinai" to iu kara, nakodo mo 
receive-not, consent do-not" that says because, m4iteh-maJcer also 

hidoku meiwaku shiie, tsui ni kono koto zvo 

violently quandary doing, last at, this affair [accus,) 

kami ye uiiaemashtia, 

honourable superiors to appealed. 



Once upon a time, in the mercantile quarter of the 
metropolis, there lived a glib-tongued old woman called 
Granny Nod, who gained her livelihood by negotiating 
marriages. Well, she once- arranged a match be- 
tween a man of five-and-thirty, whose age she concealed, 
and a girl of fifteen, and had gone so far as to make 
them exchange the gifts customary on betrothal. But 
afterwards the girl's father, having heard how for 
advanced the bridegroom was in years, said to the 
old woman: "I have indeed no other complaint to 
make about him ; but really I cannot think of giving 
my daughter to one whose ag^e differs from hers by 
twenty years." — On the bridegroom's side, however, it 
was urged that he could not consent to forego her, 
as it was impossible, even vis-^-vis his relations, to 
mention such a difficulty after the ceremony of ex- 
changing gifts had once been concluded. Thus the 
match-maker was placed in a terrible quandary, and 
at last she brought the matter before the judge. 

I. I.e., "years which will agree if one waits." — 2, Naru^ftaita, 
i.e., "had already become (thirty-five years old.)" — 3. Yox fukeie 
iru conf. bottom of p. 192.— 4. Q kami de tt;« = "the jadge," mqre 
lit "at the superiors," i.e., "the Govemment." For de thus 
used, conf. \ 90, p. 65. Thfe words immediately following mean 

35^ ANECDOTES. "^ 

O kami de zva*, so-ho o 

Honourable superiiira at, both'SideB honourably 

yohi-dasM ni narimashtiey mus&me no oya ni " Sono-ho 
caUinQ'/brih to httvtntfbecome, gM '0 parent to, " Tou 
wa, iiian yakusoku wo skiie, ima-sara nan no- 
as-'for, onee agreement {accus.) having^niade, nowagain what 's 
kado wo motte hadan itasU^?*' to tazune 

point {accus.) taMng, n y f w r g tnaleef that hOfneuroMie engtuiry 
ni nan'masu /o, — He/ kono gt way nakodo na 
to heeome9 when,— "Ah t thU affdir aa-for, mateh-maker 's 

mono amari Usuwari wo moskimasfr^e, san-ju-go no 
person tootnueh lie (accus.) haring-told, thirty-five ^» 

muko ni ju-go no yome de wa^ ioshi ga m-ju 
bridegroom, to, fifteen 'e bride bu ae^ar, years {n<mt.) twenty 
chigaimasu. Sore yue /ushbchi wo moshimashUa, 

differ. That otving'to, dissent [accus.) {/)said. 

Semeie ioshi hambun-chigai nara^ musume wo 
At-most years hdlf-differenee if-were, girl {accus.)- 



Kono ioki yakunin no mbshi-waiasaremasu ni wa ^ 

This time, offieial 's deigns-tO'Spedk-aeross in twforr 

*' Sonnara, sono-ho no nozomi^dori ni shite isukawasu* 

** If-He-thUS, you of wieh'-way in, doing {/)wiU'^w 

karay ima yori go^nen iaiie musume wo 

because, note from, fire-years ha/ving^Hapsed, daughter {accus.) 

okure. Muko no ho mo, sore made wa kanarazu 

give. Bridegroom *s side also, that Utt as-fin; positively 

maianakereba naran. Sono Ioshi ni nareba, otoko 

if'waits^not, is^not, Ifua year to when-beeomes,, mtm 

wa shi'juy onna wa halachi, Chodo hambun- 

as-f&r, f»rty} tvoman as^for, twenty-years. Just hcdf- 

ckigai no toki ni naru" to moshi-waiasaremashUa 

difference 's time to becomes'* that deigned-'to-speaJe-acfose 

kara, so-ho osore-itie sagarimashtta, 

becattse, both'sides foaring^enterlng descended. 

yHsu ni omoshiroi sabaki desu. 

Truth in, amusing hojaowral^ jttdgment is. 


The judge, having sent for both parties, asked the 
girFs father what was his reason for breaking oif an 
engagement to which he had once agreed. The father 
replied: ''You see, my lord, the matter stands thus. 
The match-maker told too outrageous a falsehood, 
there being a difference of no less than twenty years 
between a bridegroom of five-and-thirty and a bride of 
fifteen. That is why I said I could not consent I 
would give him my daughter, if their ages differed at 
most by half." 

Then the judge gave judgment as follows : *' As that 
is how matters stand, I will decide in accordance with 
your desire. Do you give him your daughter five years 
hence. The bridegroom, on his side also, must faithfully 
wait till then. By that time he will be forty, and the 
girl twenty. It will be the time when their ages will 
differ exactly by half." — Thus was judgment given, and 
both parties lefl the judgment-hall with deep respect. 

Truly it was a witty decision. 

HteraUy "it having come to calling forth both sides."— 5. Observe 
the total absence of honorifics in the judge^s address to the litigant 
parties, who are of course immeasurably his inferiors. — 6. Lit "in 
his deigning (honorific potential) to give jadgment," the verb becoming 
a sort of noon capaUe of taking postpositions after it— 7. Tsukawasu 
(the final u becoming short before kara, as in the case of ifasu a few 
Hnes higher up) is here a sort of auxiliary, s=^<ir«/ see p, 196. 



"/;;« no hoeru ioM, tora io iu ji wo te ni katie nigttie 
orebuy hoen *' to omae ni kitie, tonda me ni atia, 

Hoho ! do shite ? 

Yube, yo fuheie kara kaeru io, kame ga tmn-zmn /a 
hoe-kakaru yue, nigiiia ie wo dashilara, kore! konna ni 

Fii! Sore wa, mada Nihon no ji wo shiran kame 

3|C 3|C ?|C 9|C 3|C 9|Q 

Nihon-moji wo dashiie yometi* mono wa, kame hakari 
de mo arumai. 

1[ 454. SAKE NO YUME. 

Sake-zuki ga aru hi /uisuka-yoi de zuisit ga shimasu^ 
kara, hachi-maki wo shi-nagara neie iru to, yume ni 
sake wo hiio-taru hiroite, o-yorokohi de, noman^ saki kara 
shiia-uchi sJnie^ *^Kanro/ kanro I koiisu hiroi-mono waf* 

Notes to ^ 453.-1. This and the four following anecdotes are takeil, 
with slight alterations to make the phraseology more colloquial, from 
the ^^Jogaku Soshi" or "Ladies* Journal of Education." For kanie^ 
see p. 26. The idea at the bottom of this story as to the magic power of 
the Chinese character J^, " tiger," is one commonly held by the lower 
classes. — 2. Different nominatives must be supplied to the two verbs 
dashiie zxvlyomen; for it is one person who is supposed to show (lit. 
put forth) the character, and another who cannot read it when so shown. 



You told me that when a dog barked at one, he would 
leave off doing- so if one wrote the Chinese character for 
"tiger" on the palm of one's hand, and kept one's fist 
clenched. Well ! I have had a rough time of it for having 
listened to you. • 

Indeed ! How so ? 

A European dog began barking and flying at me 
as I was coming home late last night. So I stuck my 
clenched fist out towards him, and just look how I got 
bitten ! 

Oh ! Then probably it was a dog who had not yet 
learnt Japanese writing. 

Dogs are doubtless not the only creatures incapable of 
reading Japanese writing when shown it. 


Once upon a time a toper, feeling headachy on the day 
after a spree, had fallen asleep with a towel wrapped 
round his head*. Then he dreamt that he had found a 
cask of liquor, which caused him so much joy that he 
licked his chops before tasting it, and said : "How deli- 

NoTES TO f 454.— I. See f 357, p. 227.-2. To help to cure the 
headache. — 3. For the negative noman^ instead of the positive, see 
bottom of p. 271. — 4. Lit. "as for this fellow, the pick-up-thing," 
freely rendered by " Here's a find !" the tva being exclamatory in this 
case ; see ^ 123, p. 87. — 5. Lit. ** as for having come as liquor," meant to 


Ketsaisu-sho ye iodokeru no ga aiarimae da ga, — sake to 
kite wa^^ mi-nogasenai. Mazu ip-pai yarahaso ka P — 
lya I onajikuMy han wo shtie nomu ho ga iV* to Uie^ kan 
wo tsukeyo to suru iokiy ju-ni-ji no don no oio ni odoroile, 
vie ga sameniashita kara, zannen-gaite : '* Aa / hayaku 
hiya de nomeha yokaita / " 

U 455. HAYARI WO OU'. 

Wakai oioko ga ftitari Fukiya-cho no Eri-zen^ no 
mise-saki de iki-aimashila iokoro ga, KUori wa awaia- 
dashiku ie wo fuUe, * * Kimi ni wa iro-iro hanashi mo 
arimasu ga, — ima kyuyo^ ga dekile, kitaku suru Iokoro 
desu^ kara, izure kinjiisu tazune moshimashb" to iu to, — 
domo sono yosu ga hen da kara, hitori wa odoroUe^ 
'^ Kyuyb to wa,^ go hybnin de mo aru n'* desu ka P" to 
kikimashitara, — hitori zva, warai-nagara : ^^ Ie ! kanai ni 
tanomareta hayari no han-eri wo ima kono mise de kai- 
mashita ga, — ' tochu de temadotte iru uchi ni ryuko-okure 
ni naru to, taihen desu kara, iachi-banashi mo kotowari 
moshimashita no saf" 

convey the meaning of " a windfall of liquor," this Japanese idiom being 
used of unexpected events. — 6. Lit. " if it is the same {i.e, all the same), 
it is good to drink it having made heating." Japanese sake tastes 
best hot, and is generally taken so, it being heated by placing the bottle 
in hot water. — 7. Midday is signalised, in modern Tokyo, by the firing 
of a gun, which gives the time to the townspeople. 

Notes to \ 455. — i. Lit. "to pursue fashion." — 2, We have 
rendered Eri-zen by "a haberdasher's." The name is, however, 
really a proper noun, compounded of eri for han-eri (see vocabulary), 
aud zen for Zembei or some such " personal name," of the owner of 
the shop. — 3. Observe how the young man, true to the habits of the 
student class at the present day, interlards his ordinairy conversation 
with such high-sounding Chinese terms as kyu-yd, " urgent business ; " 
ki-taku, " returning home ; " Hn-jitsu, lit. " near days," i.e., " in a few 
days,"— 4. Kitaku suru iokoro desu^^\ am just on my way home ; " 


cious ! how delicious ! Here's a find ! It ought to be 
reported to the police-office. But a windfall like this 
liquor ! — no ! I cannot let it escape me. Well ! shall I 
take a glass ? — No, no ! There will be nothing lost by 
waiting till I warm it'' So he was just going to set it 
to warm, when the midday gun' wakened him with a 
start, whereupon he ruefully exclaimed : * ' Oh ! what a 
pity it was that I did not make haste to drink it cold !" 


Two young men having come across each other in 
front of a haberdasher's shop in Fiikiya Street, one of 
them waved his hand hurriedly, and cried out : ''I have a 
lot to say to you ; but as urgent business calls me home 
at present, I must put off the conversation for a few days, 
when I will come and see you at your house." The 
other, astonished at his friend's strange excitement, asked 
him what this urgent business might be, — whether he 
meant to say, for instance, that any of his family had 
been taken ill. *'0h! no," replied the first young man 
with a laugh ; ** I have just been getting at this shop a 
kind of kerchief which my wife commissioned me to 
buy for her. The reason why I said I couldn't stop 
and talk to you now, is that it would be an awful thing 
for her to fell behind the fashion while I was loitering 
on the way." 

conf. p. 42, — $. Lit. "as for (your saying) that (there is) urgent busi- 
ness *' — 6. iV, see p. 79. — 7. From here to the end is lit " because (it) 
is terrible if (she) becomes to £ashion-]ateness, while (I) am time- 
taking in the road-middle, (I) refused (honor.) even standing talk." 
No is here emphatic (conf. ^ 113, p. 79); sa is emphatic and 


If 456. DAIKON.' 

Mommo na b-hyakushJo ga daikon wo tsukuraseru nf, 
nt'San-nen omou yd ni dekinai^ kara^ *' Okaia oioko-domo 
no sewa no warm no daro" io^y jibun de haiake ye deie, 
isuchi wo hotie iru iokoro y^y — kosaku-nin ga iori-kakaiie, 
^* Kore wa, kore wa! Danna Sama! Qloko-shu ni sase 
nasaranai d^, go jishin de nasaru to wd', hahakari de 
gozarimasu" to eshaku^ wo sum to, — danna wa hara wo 
tatete, ** Ore ga daikon wo tsukuru ni, ha bakari to wa^ 
fu'todoki da" to^^ okoru tokoro ye, mata hitori kt-kakatte, 
^^ Kore wa! Danna Sama no go rippuku wa go mottomo. 
Shtkashi-nagara, kare wa nan no fumhetsu mo nashi ni 
moshita no d^^y ne mo ha mo nai koto de gozaimasu, " 

AtO'Saki no kangae no nai mono wa, haji no ue ni haji 

wo kaku mono da,^^ 

Notes to \ 456. — i. This story and the next may serve as 
specimens of the jeux-de-mots in which the Japanese sometimes in- 
dulge. Here the play is on the word habakariy and on the phrase ne 
mo ha mo «<at/, "insignificant," but more lit. "without either root or 
leaf/' as fully explained in the portions of the English translation 
l^etween square brackets. — 2. More lit. "having radishes grown," 
" tsukuraseru being the causative of tsukuru^' " to make," hence " to 
grow" (trans.). — 3. Lit. "do not forthcome according to (his) way of 
thinking." — 4. Supply <7W<?//^. — 5. For /^^<?r^ ^^, here rendered by " in 
this situation," see p. 42. — 6. O de, lit. "not deigning honoura- 
bly to cause to do.*' — 7, This clause is lit. "as for (the fact) that 
(you) deign (to do so) by (your) august self." — 8. We have very freely 
rendered eshaku wo suru by the word " politely." It properly signifies 



An ignorant farmer had been growing radishes* for two 
or three years with indifferent success. So, attributing the 
failure to his men having scamped their work, he went 
out into the field himself and began digging. In this 
situation he was seen by a labourer who happened to pass 
by. '' Oh Sir ! Oh Sir ! " cried the labourer politely, '' it 
is dreadful to find you working like this yourself, instead of 
letting your men work for you." [(9r, ^^ Jf you work like 
this yourself i instead of letting your men work for you, you 
will get leaves only y'' ha bakari meaning ^'leaves only,'* while 
habakari is a polite phrase here rendered by ^^it is dreadful,"'] 
The farmer, angered by this remark, exclaimed: '*You 
are an insolent fellow for daring to tell me that, when I grow 
radishes, I shall get nothing but leaves." Just at that 
moment another labourer happened to come up, and said : 
''No doubt, Sir, you are quite right to be angry. Still he 
did not mean what he said, and so it is not worth taking 
any notice of it." [Or, ** It is a thing having neither roots nor 
leaves/* This second outsider's and would-be peacemaker's 
remark, thus interpreted, is more sweeping even than the first 
man's ; for it denies the production, not only of radish roots 
(ne), but even of the leaves (ha).] 

The thoughtless have to suffer perpetual humiliations. 

" to apologise,'* •* lo make excuses."— 9. To ivasito iu no wa, " the fact 
of your saying that." — 10, After to, supply itte, "having said.'' — 
II. The sentence, down to here, is lit. " Neverthless, as for him, 
it being the fact that he spoke without any discrimination." — 12. Lit. 
" As for people without consideration of after and before, they are people 
who get shame on the top of shame.* 


^ 457. ATAMA NI ME.' 

O /era no osho san ga aru ioki go-zuki no kyaku too 
yondCy ichi-men* uchi-hajtmemasu io, '' suJti koso mono 
no jdzu nare^" de, kyaku iva sumi-jimen mo doko mo 
koiogotoku iori-kakomimasHUa kara, osho san ga kuyashu' 
gatiey semete ip-po dake de mo tkasd* /o, shtkiri ni me wo 
koshiraeru koto ni k&fu wo shtie orimasu io^ — aiama no 
ue ye hat ga iakaiia kara, urusagaiie, go-ishi wo molia 
ie de aiama wo kaki-nagara, ** Kono hen ni hiioisu me ga 
dekiiara, okaia ikiru de arb, " 

Atama no ue ni maia htioisu me ga dekiiara, '^ milsu- 
me nyudb^ " desu. 

Notes to ^ 457. — i. To appreciate the point of this story, one 
should know the game of go (" checkers " or ** go-hang," the latter 
word being a corruption of the Japanese goban^ ** a checker-board '*). 
In one variety of this game the chief object is, by establishing 
"eyes," i.e., spaces surrounded by not less than four of one's own 
counters, to stop the spread of the opponent's counters over the 
board. Remember, too, that me means both "eye" and "open 
space." At the end of the story a ludicrous effect is produced by 
the alternative idea suggested of an open space, or of an eye, on 
the top of the priest's head, the suggestion being equally funny 



Once upon a time, the priest of a Buddhist temple 
invited a friend who was fond of playing checkers, and 
the two sat down to a game. But, as the proverb 
says, ''fondness gives skill," So it came about that the 
friend blocked every single comer of the board, to the 
priest's great mortification. ''If only," said the latter, 
"I could but get one side free!" And with these 
words, he made constant efforts to open up some spaces 
[jw yupanese, *'eyes"]. Just then some flies collected 
on the top of his head, causing him annoyance. So he 
scratched his head with the hand that held one of the 
pieces, saying: "If I could get an open space [tn 
Japanese, ''an eye"] here, probably the comer would be 

Another eye on the top of his head would have turned 
him into {fke sort of hobgoblin known as] a "three-eyed 

whichever way you take it. — 2. Lit. **one saifaoe," i.e., "one game^' 
■ (on the flat snrface of the board).— 3. Lit. "(a) ftrnd (person) in- 
deed is skilful of (the) thing (he likes)." This pxx>verb is in the 
Written Language, where the emphatic particle koso causes the 
verb f<^lowing it to take the termination e. This peculiarity 
has died out of the Colloquial. — ^4. Ikaso is the probable future of 
ikasu^ the transitive corresponding to the intransitive f/Sirw, *'tolive.'^ 
Thus it means •* shall perhaps make alive,'* hence "in order to free.^ 
— ^5. Or mitstt-me koid** the " three-eyed acolyte,'* one of the super- 
natural terrors of Japanese youth. 

366 botan-d6r6, chap. i. 

^ 458. BOTAN-DORO.' 


Kwampb^ san-nen no shi-givatsu ju'ichi-nichi^ niada 

Tokyo wo Edo io moshimashiia koro, Yushima Tenjin* 

no yashiro de Shbioku Taishi* no go sairei zvo okonai^ 

viasKUe, sono ioki taisb sankei no hUo ga deie^ kunju 

Koko m\ Hongb San-cho-me ni Fujimura-ya Shim" 
beP io iu kaiana-ya ga gozainiasKUe^ sono mise-saki 
ni wa yoi shiromono ga narabeie aru tokoro wo, — 
iori-kakarimasfnia htiori no samurai wa, ioshi no 
koro ni-jU'ichi-ni gurai de, iro no shiroi, me-moto no 
kiririito shila, sukoshi kanshaku-mochi to mieie, bin 
no ke wo gutto ageie yuwase, rippa na haori ni 
kekkb na hakama wo tsuke, seiia wo kaiie, saki 
ni tachi ; ushiro kara asagi no happi ni bonien-obi 
wo shimetey shinchU'Zukuri no bokuib wo saskiieru 
chugen ga isuki-solte, kono Fuji- Shin no mise-saki ye 
lachi-yorimashtley koshi wo kake, narabeie aru kaiana 
wo htio-ibri nagameie, — 

Notes. — i. This piece consists of the first two chapters of the 
Botan-Dord (see p. 10), slightly edited in order to make them more 
genuinely colloquial, and to remove a few expressions which English 
standards of propriety condemn. — The title of the novel alludes to an 
incident in a later portion of the story, . which it would take too long to 
relate here. 

2. Kwatnpd is the nengd, or "year-name," which lasted from 
A.D. 1741-4; coiif. p. 116. 




On the 4th May, 1743, in the days when Tokyo was 
still called Yedo, the festival of Prince Shotoku was 
celebrated at the Shinto temple of Tenjin in Yushima, 
and the worshippers assembled in great crowds on the 

Now in Third Street, Hongo, there was a sword-shop 
known as Fujimura-ya Shimbei, the fine articles exposed 
for sale in which were seen by a samurai who happened to 
pass by. He appeared to be about one or two-and-twenty 
years of age, had a fair complexion, a vivacious expression 
in his eyes, and a cue tightly bound up, — indicative of 
slight quickness of temper. He wore a splendid coat, a 
beautiful pair of trowsers, and sandals soled with leather. 
Behind him, as he strode along in front, there followed a 
servant in a blue coat and striped sash, with a wooden 
sword having brass fastenings. The samurai looked in 
at the shop, sat down, and, glancing round at all the 
swords that lay there, said : 

3. Tenjin is the posthumous name, under which the famous and 
unfortunate court noble, Sugawara Michizane (died A.D. 903), is 
worshipped as the god or patron saint of letters. 

4. Shotoku Taishi^ the great imperial patron of Buddhism In Japan, 
lived from A.D. 572-621. 

5. Strictly speaking, Fujimura-ya is the name of the shop, and 
.Shimbei the personal ("Christian") name of the shopkeeper. But 

Japanese idiom does not clearly distinguish between a shop and its 
owner. Conf. ^ 55, p. 40. 


Samurai: '* Teishu yaf Soko no kuro-iio da ka, 

kon-tlo da ka shir en ga, — ano kuroi iro no tsuka ni nam- 

han-teisu no isuha no isuita kaiana zva, makoio ni yosasd 
na shina da ga, choiio o mise. " 

Teishu : ** Hei, heif — Korya! cha wo sashi-age-na f 
Kyo zva, Ten/in no go sairei de, iaisb KUo ga demashtia 
kara, sadameshi orai wa hokori de^ sazo o komari aso- 
hashimashttarb'* to, — katana no chiri wo harai-nagara, 
^^ He! goran asobashimase" to sashi-dasu no wo, — samu- 
rai wa te ni toite, mimashtte, — 

Samurai : " Tonda yosasd na mono, Sessha no kanlei 
suru iokoro de wa, Bizen-mono^ no yd ni omowareru ga, 
— do da, na P" 

Teishu: ^' Hei / Fbi o mekiki de irasshaimasuru. 
Osore-irimashtia. Ose no tori, watakushi-domo nakama 
no mono mo, Tenshb Sukesadd} de arb to no hybban de 
gozaimasu ga, — oskii koto ni wa, nanibun mumei de, 
zannen de gozaimasu," 

Samurai : " Go teishu ya I Kore wa dono kurai suru, nar^* 

Teishu: **Heif Arigatb gozaimasu, O kake-ne wa 
mbshi-agemasen ga, — tadaima mo mbshi-agemasMta 
tori, mei sae gozainiasureba, tabun no ne-uchi mo 
gozaimasu ga, — mumei no tokoro de, km ju-mai de gosai- 

6. Bizen is the name of a province in Central Japan, famoas for its 
swords. — 


"Mine host! That sword over there with the iron 
guard to the dark-coloured hilt, — I don't know whether 
the braid is black or dark blue, — looks like a good one. 
Just let me have a look at it " 

''AH right, Sir," said the shopkeeper. {Then aside 
io the shop-boy .• ) ' ' Here ! you offer the gentleman 
some tea!" (Then again io the samurai:) *' To-day, 
owing to the crowds gone out to see the festival, the roads 
are sure to have been dusty, which must have been a great 
nuisance to Your Honour. " Then, dusting the sword, he 
said ; '* Here ! pray look at it, Sir ! " With these words, 
he handed it to the samurai, who, taking it up and in- 
specting it, said : 

"It's an awfully good one. So far as I can judge, I 
should incline to consider it a Bizen." 

"Ah!'' replied the shopkeeper, "Your Honour is a 
real connoisseur. I am overpowered with admiration. 
It is just as you say. The other dealers in the trade 
make no doubt of its being the handiwork of Sukesada in 
the sixteenth century. But unfortunately it bears no 
maker's name, which is a great pity. " 

' ' Mine host ! What is the price of it, eh ? " 

"You are very kind. Sir. I ask no fancy prices ; and, 
as I have just had the honour to tell you, the sword would 
be an extremely valuable one, if only it had the maker's 
name engraved on it But as it is anonymous, the price 
is ten dollars." 

7, Sukesada was a famous swordsmith of the Tensho period, A.D. 
1573 - 1592. 


Samurai : '* Nam P Ju-ryb to ka P Chitio takai yd da ga^ 
shtchi-mai han ni zva makaran ka, e P 

Teishu : ** Do itashtmashiie / Nanibun, sore de zva son 
ga mairtmashil€y^ hei! Naka-^naka mochtmashliey hei/" io, — 
shViiri ni samurai io teishu to katana no nedan no kake-htki 
wo itashite orimasu to, ushiro no ho de tori-gakari no 
yopparai ga kano samurai no chugen wo ioraete, — 

Yopparai : *^Fai/ Nani wo shiyagaru P'' to ii-nagara, 
hyorO'hyoro to yorokete, patatto shiri-mochi wo tsuki, yd- 
yaku oki-agattCy httai de nirami, iki-nari genkotsu wo /urui, 
chb^chb io hichimashtta ga, — 

Chugen wa, '^ Sake no toga da" to kannin shtie, 
sakarawazu ni daichi ni te wo tsuki, atama wo sageie, 
shtkiri ni wahite mo, yopparai wa mimi ni mo kakesu, 
nao mo chugen wo nagutte imasYt tokoro wo, — samurai 
wa, futo mimasu to, kerai no Tosuke da kara, odoroki- 
masKiie, yopparai ni mukatte eshaku wo shtte, — 

Samurai : * ' Nani wo kerai-me ga buchoho wo iiashi- 
mashita ka zonjimasen ga, tbnin ni nari-kawatte, watakushi 
ga ivabi wo mbshi-agemasu, Dbzo go kamben wo" 

Yopparai : *' Nanif Koitsu wa, sono-hb no kerai da to P 
KesJnkaran buret na yatsu. Bushi no tomo wo suru nara, 
shujin no soba ni chiisaku natte iru ga tbzen. Sore ni, 
nan da P Tensui-oke^ kara san-jaku 7no brai ye de-shabatte, 

8. . This sentence is incomplete ; the next also, the worthy tradesman 
being too much excited to speak grammatically. MockintasBte is 
polite for tnotte, the postposition. 


*'What? you say ten dollars? That's rather too dear. 
But I suppose you'll go down to seven and a half, — won't 
you ? " 

*'0h! really," said the shopkeeper; '*why! I should 
lose at that rate. Indeed, indeed I should. " 

So, while the samurai and the sword-dealer went on 
bargaining about the price of the sword, a drunkard, who 
happened to pass by at the back, caught hold of the samu- 
raVs servant, and, calling out " Hey ! what are you up XoV* 
staggered, and came down plump in a sitting posture. 
Then, managing to get up again, he glared at the fellow 
sideways, abruptly shook his fist at him, and began to 
pommel him. The servant, laying the fault on the liquor, 
took the beating patiently, and, without offering any 
resistance, put his hands on the ground, and apologised 
over and over again with downcast head. But the drunk- 
ard would not so much as give ear to his , apologies, and 
only thrashed him the more. The samurai suddenly hap- 
pened to look round ; and, as the fellow being thrashed was 
his own retainer Tosuke, he was taken aback, and made 
excuses to the drunkard, saying : 

' * I know not of what rude act that man of mine may 
have been guilty towards Your Honour ; but I myself beg 
to apologise to you for him. Pray be so kind as to pardon 

*' What ? " said the drunkard, *' you say that this creature 
is your servant, this outrageously rude fellow ? If he goes 
out as a gentleman's retainer, it would be but proper for 
him to keep himself in the background near his master. 
But no ! what does he do ? He sprawls out into the road 

9. Rain-tubs or water-buckets stand in certain places along the 
streets in Tokyo, as a provision against fire. 


fsuko no samaiage wo shtie, sessha wo i^ki-aiaraseta kara, 
yamu wo ezu chbchaku iiashila," 

Samurai : ' ' Nani mo wakimaen mono de gozaimasH kara, 
hXioe ni go kamben wo, Temae nan'-kawatie o wahi wo 
moshi-agemasu, " 

Yopparai : ^* Ima kono tokoro de temae ga yorokeia 
tokoro wo tonto tsuki-atatta kara, inu de mo oru ka to 
onioeha, kono gero-me ga ite, jibeia ye hiza wo tsukasetCy 
mUnasaru tori^ kore I kono yd ni irui wo doro-darake ni 
ilashila, Burei na yatsu da kara, chbchaku shtia ga, — 
do shtla ? Sessha no zomhun ni iiasu kara, koko ye o 
dashi nasai" 

Samurai : '* Kono tori, nani mo wake no wakaran 
mono, inu dbyb no mono de gozaimasu kara, dbzo go 
kamlen kudasaimashi" 

Yopparai : ** Korya omoshiroi! Hajimete uketamawaita t 
Samurai ga inu no tomo wo meshi-isureie aruhi io iu hb 
wa aruviai, Jnu dbyb no mono nara, temae mbshi-ukete 
kaeri, machin de mo kuwashite yarb. Db wahite mo, 
rybken iva narimasen, Kore f kerai no huchbhb wo 
shujin ga wahiru nara, daichi ye ryb-te wo tsuki, * yu-ju 
osorC'itta ' to, kbbe wo tsuchi ni tataki-tsukete, wahi wo 
suru no ga atarimae. Nan da ? Kata-te ni katana no koi- 
giichi ivo kitte i-nagara, wahi ivo suru nado to wa, samurai 
no hb de arumai. Nan da ? Temae iva sessha wo kiru 
ki ka P"'^ 

IO. Observe the extreme rudeness of the style of address, — the insult- 
ing pronoun ietnae, **thou," and the absence of all honorifics. The 
commonest courtesy would require ki desti ka for ki ka. The sober 
samurai answei's politely, the verb makaru three lines lower down being 
j)eculiarly courteous. 


a good three feet beyond the water-barrel, and prevents 
people from passing, and so made me stumble up against 
him. That's why I couldn't help giving him a thrashing. " 

''He is a thoughtless fellow," replied the samurai, 
''whom I earnestly entreat Your Honour to pardon. I 
beg to apologise for him to you myself" 

"Just now," continued the drunkard, "as something 
came bang up against me when I staggered, I thought 
that perhaps there was a dog there. But no ! it was this 
ruffian, and he made my knee hit the ground. Here, just 
look! he has made my clothes all muddy like this. I 
gave him a thrashing, because he was an insolent fellow. 
What do you think of that } Tm going to do what I want 
with him ; so be good enough to hand him over to me. " 

"You see. Sir," replied the samurai, "that he is too 
stupid to know what he is doing. He is no better than 
a dog. So do pray be kind enough to pardon him. " 

"Well I that's good ! " retorted the drunkard. "I never 
heard of that sort of thing before. Is it etiquette for a 
samurai to go out walking with a dog for a retainer ? If 
he is no better than a dog, I'll take charge of him and 
poison him with strychnine. You may apologise as you 
like, I won't take your apologies. Gracious goodness 1 
If a master wanted to apologise for his servant's insolence, 
the natural thing for him to do would be to put both 
hands on the ground, and to express his regret over and 
over again, apologising and striking the earth with his 
head. But what do you do ? While you are apologising, 
you are busy with one hand loosening your sword for 
use, — pretty manners indeed for a samurai I What do 
you mean ? Is it your intention to kill me, you low 
knave ? " 

374 botan-d6r5, chap, l 

Samurai: ^^lya! kore wa, iemae ga kono katana-ya 
de kai'toro to zonjmashtie, tadaima kanagu wo mite tma- 
shiia tokoro ye, kono sawagi ni tori-aezu makari-demashiia 
no de... " 

Yopparai : **Ei! sore u*a, kau to mo kazvan io mo^ 
anaia no go kattc da"^^" io nonoshiru no zvo, — samurai wa 
skikiri ni sono suikyo uv nadameie iru io, — " 

Orai no hito-Uio iva, * * Sorya ! kenktva da ! ahunai zo I ** 
— *' Nani P kenkwa da io, e ?" — ^^ So sa! aUe wa samurai 
da.*' — ** Sore zva kennon da!*' io iu io, — maia KUori ga : 
''Nan de gesu, ne P" — '* Sayo sal kaiana wo kau io ka, 
kawanai io ka no machigai dasb desu. Ano yopparaiie iru 
samurai ga hajime ni kaiana ni ne wo isukeia ga, iakakuie 
kawarenai de iru iokoro ye, — koichi no tvakai samurai ga 
maia sono kaiana ni ne ivo isukeia iokoro kara, yopparai 
wa okori'dashtie, * Ore ga kab io shiia mono wo, ore ni 
husaia de ne wo isukeia* io ka, nan io ka no machigai- 
rashii" io ieba, — maia hiiori : '' Nani sa! so ja arimasen 
yo! Are wa inu no macJiigai da, ne! ^ Ore no uchi no 
inu ni machin wo kuwaseia kara, sono kdwari no inu 
wo waiase, Maia machin wo kuwaseie korosb* io ka iu 
no desu ga, — inu no machigai wa, mukashi kara yoku 

1 1. Here the drunkard uses honorifics, but ironically. 

12. Observe the incorporation into one gigantic sentence of all 
the varioQS dialogues of the bystanders, fix)m here to the end of 


*'By no means," replied the samurai. '* It is only that 
I had thought of purchasing this sword of the dealer here, 
and was just inspecting the metal- work, when all of a 
sudden I got in for this row, and " 

''Oh!" laughed the drunkard, "whether you buy the 
sword or don't buy the sword, that's your affair ; " — where- 
upon, as the samurai continued to endeavour to appease his 
drunken frenzy, the passers-by put in their word, saying : 

'* Look out ! there's a quarrel ! take care ! " 

' * What ? you say there's a quarrel ? " 

* * Yes ; the parties to it are samurai, " 

''That's a bad look out." 
Then, as another asked what it was, somebody replied : 

"Well, you see, it appears it's a misunderstanding 
about the purchase of a sword. That drunken samurai 
there first priced the sword, and was just refusing to buy 
it on account of its being too dear, when the younger 
samurai here came up and also priced it This angered 
the drunkard, who found fault with him for pricing, 
without reference to him, an article which he himself had 
been intending to buy. That's more or less what the 
misunderstanding sprang from. " 

But another broke in, saying, "Oh dear no ! that's not 
it at all. The misunderstanding is about a dog. One of 
the two said to the other: 'As you killed my dog with 
strychnine, you must give me yours in return, and let me 
poison it with strychnine too. Disputes about dogs have 
always been common ; for you know how, in Shirai" 

the paragraph on p. 378, and conf. ^^ 442-4. 

13. The touching story of Shirai Gompachi and of his lady-love, 
Komurasaki, is to be found in Mitford's " Tales of Old Japan," Vol. I., 
p. 35 ei seq. 


arimasu yo I Shirai Gompachi mido mo, yahari inu no 
kenhva kara anna sddo ni naita no desti Jtara, ne/*' to 
iu to, — mata soda ni iru htto ga : *^ Nani sat sonna wake 
ja nau Ano futari 7va oji oi no aida-gara de, ana makka 
ni yopparatte iru no iva oji san de, wakai kirei na htto 
ga oi daso da, Oi ga oji ni kozukai-zeni ivo kurenai to 
iu tokoro kara no kenkiva da " to ieba, — maia soda ni iru 
htto wa : *^Nani/ are wa kinchaku-kiri da,'* nado to, — 
orai no htio-hito wa iro-iro ?to hyohan wo shite iru uchi 
niy hitori no otoko ga jnoshimasu ni wa : ^^ Ano yopparai 
wa, Maruyama Hommyoji naka-yashiki^^ ni sumu htto de, 
moto wa Koide Sama no go kerai de aiia ga, — mimochi 
ga warukute, shu-shoku ni fukeri, ori-ori wa suppa-nuki 
nado shite htto wo odokashi, ranibo zvo hataraiie shichu 
wo bgyo shi, aru toki wa rybri-ya ye agari-komi, jubun 
sake sakana de hara wo /ukurashita ageku ni, ^ Kanjo wa, 
Hommyoji naka-yashiki ye tori ni koil* to, bhei ni kui-taoshi 
nomi'taoshiie aruku Kurokawa Kbzb to iu waru-zamurai desu 
kara, ioshi no wakai ho wa vii-komareie, tsumari sake de 
mo kawaserareru no deshb yo,'' — ''^S*^ desu ka P Nami- 
taitei no mono nara, kiile shiinaimasu ga, — ano luakai 

14. Each of the larger daitnyds usually possessed three mansions in 
Yedo, respectively distinguished by the titles of kanii or " upper," tiaka 
or " middle," and shimo or "lower." 


Gompachi's case, too, it was a quarrel about a dog which 
grew into all that trouble. " 

*'0h dear no!" said another onlooker at the side of 
him who had just been speaking, ''that's not it in the 
least. It seems that the two samurai are relations, — 
one the uncle, the other his nephew. It is the drunkard 
with the scarlet face that is the uncle, and the handsome 
young fellow that is the nephew. The quarrel between 
them arose from the nephew's refusing to give his uncle 
some pocket-money." 

But another man, standing by, said "Oh! no, he is a 
pickpocket " 

And then, among the various comments which were 
made by the passers-by, one man delivered himself of 
the information that the drunkard was a swashbuckler of 
a samurai called Kurokawa K5z6, who was living in the 
middle mansion of Hommyoji at Maruyama, and who 
had originally been a retainer of my lord Koide, 
but who, being ill-behaved, had sunk into debauchery, 
used often to frighten folks by drawing his sword at 
random, and used to roam through the streets in a 
violent and disorderly manner, sometimes forcing his 
way into eating-houses, and then, when he had had 
his fill of victuals and drink, telling the eating-house- 
keeper to come for payment to the middle mansion of 
Hommyoji, thus ruining people by his violence and 
riotous living, so that the present row would doubt- 
less end in the younger samurai getting bullied into 
treating him to liquor. 

" Oh ! is that it .?" said a voice. ''Any average man would 
cut the ruffian down. But I suppose the young samurai 
won't be able to do so, — will he ? — for he looks weakly." 


hb way domo hybshin no yb da kara, kiremai, nef" — 
^' Nanil Are iva, kenjuisu wo shiranai no darb. Samurai 
ga ken/uisu wo shiranakereba^ koshi-nuke da" nado to 
sasayaku koe ga chira-chira wakai samurai no mimi ni 
hairu kara, guilo komi-agey kampeki ni sawarimashtia to 
mieie, kao ga makka ni nari, ao-suji wo iateie^ isume-yori, 

Samurai : ^* Kore hodo made ni o wahi wo mbshtie mo, 
go kamben nasaimasen ka ? *' 

Yopparai : ^^Kudoi! Mireha, rippa na o samurai^ — 
go jiBsan ka, izure no go hanchu ka wa shiranai ga, — 
o-ha uchi-karashita rbninf" to anadori ; ^^ Shitsurei shi- 
gokuf lyo-iyo kamben ga naranakereba, db suru ka?^* to 
iite^ katio tan wo waka-zamurai no kao ni haki-tsukemashifa 
kara, sasuga ni kamben-zuyoi waka-zamurai mo, korae- 
kirenaku narimashiia to miete, ^^Onorel shtta kara dereba 
tsuke-agari, masu-masu tsunoru bari bbkb, bushi taru mono 
no kao ni tan wo haki-tsukeru to way /u-todoki na yatsul^^ 
Kamben ga dekinakereba, kb suru" to ii-nagara, ima katana- 
ya de mite ita Bizen-mono no tsuka ni te wo kakeru ga 
hayai kay surari to hiki-nuki, yopparai no hana no saki 
ye pikatto dashtta karay kembutsu iva odoroki-awatCy yoivasb 
na otoko da karay mada hikko-nuki wa shimai to omoita 
no ni, pika-pika to shtta kara, ** Soraf nuitaf" to, ko no 
ha ga kaze ni chiru yb ni, shi-hb hap-pb ni bara-baru to 

15. A subjectless and highly irregular sentence, lit. " You ! when I 
come out from underneath (i.e., am condliating), you are puffed up 
with pride ; — abuse and violence accumulating more and more ;— as 


"Don't you believe it!" whispered another. "It must 
be because he doesn't know how to use a sword. A samurat 
who doesn't know how to use a sword is a coward. " 

And the buzz of these whispered insinuations found its 
way to the young samurai's ears, and he flared up, 
and, evidently flying into a passion, his face became 
scarlet, and the blue veins stood out on his forehead, 
and he drew close to the drunken wretch, and said : 

"Will you not excuse my retainer, even after all the 
apologies I have offered.?" 

"You wordy idiot!" laughed the other. "To look 
at you, you are a mighty fine gentleman, of whom one 
might suppose that he either was one of the Shogun's 
great vassals, or else belonged to one of the clans. But 
you are a shabby, disreputable vagrant. Nothing could 
be ruder than your conduct. I am less than ever disposed 
to excuse you ; — and now what will you do ?" and with 
these words he spat in the young samurai's face. 

This was too much for the patience even of one so 
long-suffering as the younger man. "Impudent wretch 
that you are!" cried he, "to presume thus upon my 
forbearance, to continue getting more and more abusive 
and violent, and actually to spit in a gentleman's face ! 
As you won't accept apologies, here's what I'll do to you !" 
And with these words, and almost before he could be seen 
to have placed his hand on the hilt of the sword which 
he had just been inspecting in the shop, he out with it and 
flashed it in the drunkard's face. Thereupon the by- 
standers took fright "Oh! he has drawn his sword!" 
cried they, as they saw it flash in the hands of him, who, 

for your spittiog saliva into the face of a person who is ijaru^ for to 
aru) a warrior, what an impudent fellow I " 

380 botan-d5ro, chap. I. 

ntgemashil€t machi-machi no kido wo ioji, roji wo shime' 
kirij akindo wa mina to wo shimeru sawagi de, machi-ndka 
wa hissori to narimashtia ga, — Fuji-Shin no ieishu hiiori 
wa nige-ha wo ushinai, isukunen to shUCy mise'Saki ni 
suwaite orimashtia. 

Sate Kurokawa Kozo way yopparaiie wa orimasuredo^ 
Nama-yoi honsho tagawazu** de^ ano waka-zamurai no 
kemmaku ni osoremashitey hyorotsuki-nagara ni-jU-ashi bakari 
nigC'dasu no wo, — samurai wa : ** Onore kuchi hodo de 
mo nai, Bushi no aiie ni ushiro wo miser u to wa, htkyo 
na yatsuf Kaerel kaere/" to, setta-baki de ato wo okkake- 
masu to, — Kozo wa mohaya kanawan to omoimasKitey hyoro- 
tsuku ashi wo fumi-shimetey kaiana no tsuka ni te wo kakete^ 
konata wo furi-muku iokoro wo, — waka-zamurai wa ' * Ei! " 
to hitO'kpe, kata»saki fukaku buttsuri to kiri-komu io^ — 
kirarete, Kozo wa, *^A!" tto^"^ sakebi, kata-hiza wo tsuku 
tokoro wo noshi-kakatte, ** Ei/" to hidari no kaia yorimuna- 
moto ye ktri-tsukemashita kara, hasu ni mitsu ni kirarete 
shimaimashita, Waka-zamurai wa sugu to rippa ni todonie 
wo sashite, cki-gatana wo furui-nagara, Fuji- Shin no mise- 
saki ye tachi-kaerimashita ga, — moto yori kiri-korosu ryoken de 
gozaimashtta kara, chitto mo dosuru keshiki mo naku, waga 
gero ni mukatte : 

Samurai: ''Kore! Tosukel sono tensui-oke no mizu 
wo kono katana ni kakerof" to ii-tsukemasu to, — 

16. A proverb. Classical iagawazuisCoWoq. chigawanai. 

17, Pronounce aiio as a single word, tto standing by emphasis for 
tOy the postposition ; conf. bottom p. 82. 


taking liiiu for a weakling, they had imagined would not 
draw. And then, like leaves scattered by the wind, off they 
fled helter-skelter in every direction ; and the ward-doors 
were made fast, and the barriers of every lane were closed, 
and the shop-keepers all shut up their shops, so that the 
whole street was deserted, the old sword-dealer alone con- 
tinuing to sit listlessly in his shop-front, simply because 
he was too much dazed to run away. 

Well, drunk as Kurokawa Kozo was, he, — on the principle 
that ' a tipsy man follows his natural bent,' — scared at the 
rage that was painted on the young samurai's face, tried 
to escape, and had gone some twenty paces with a stag- 
gering gait, when* his antagonist pursued him with his 
sandals on and cried out, ''Wretch! your conduct does 
not bear out your insolent words. You are a coward, 
you are, for showing your back to a gentleman whom 
you are disputing with. Come back ! come back ! " 

Then Kozo seeing it was no longer any good, 
steadied himself on his staggering legs, put his hand on 
the hilt of his sword, and was turning to face the young 
samurai, when the latter, with the single exclamation 
" Ha 1 '* slashed deep into his shoulder, cutting him down, 
so that the man fell on to one knee with a cry, when his 
opponent, springing on him again, cut at his chest in such 
wise that he fell sliced obliquely into three pieces. The 
young sainurai then dexterously gave him the coup- 
de-giace, and returned to the sword-shop, shaking the 
blood from off his blade. As he had from the beginning 
intended to cut the swashbuckler down, he was not flurried 
in the slightest, but turned to his servant, and said : 

*' Here, Tosuke 1 pour some water on this sword from 


Satzen yori furueU orimashtia Tosuke wa : ^^Hei! ion- 
demonai koto ni narimashiia, Moshi kono koto kara Oiono 
Sama no namae de mo demasu yd na koto ga gozaimashUe 
iva^ ai'Sumimasen, Moto 2va, mina waial^hi kara hajimaUa 
koto. Do iiashtiara, yoroshiu gozaimasho ? " 

Samurai : ''lya/ Sayo ni shimpai sum ni wa oyoban. 
Shtchu wo sazvagasu rambo-nin, kiri-suieie mo kurushtkunai 
yaisu da}^ Shimpai suru-na I " /^, gerb ivo nagusame-nagara^ 
yuyu to sKiie^ akke ni iorareie iru Fuji-Shin no teishu 
wo yobi : 

**Korya/ Go teishu yaf Kono katana wa^ kore hodo 
kireyo to wa omoimasen datia ga, naka-naka kiremasu, 
Yohodoyoku kireru'' to in to, — 

Teishu wa, furue-nagara : ** lya ! Anata sama no 
ie ga saete oru kara de gozaimasu" 

Samurai: *'Iyaf iya! Mattaku hamono ga yoi. Do 
da, na ? Shichi-ryb ni-bu ni makete mo yokarb " to iu kara, 
Fuji' Shin wa kakari-ai wo osorete, ^' Yoroshiu gozaimasu*' 

Samurai: ^*Iya/ Omae no mise ni wa, kesshite mei- 
2vaku wa kakemasen, Tomokaku kono koto tvo sugu m 
jishimban ni todokenakereba naran, Nafuda wo kaku kara, 
chotio suzuri-bako ivo kashiie kurero!" to iwarete mo, teishu 
zva jibun no soba ni suzuri-bako no aru no mo me ni tsukazu 
ni, /urue-goe de, 

18. This sentence excellently illustrates the manner in which Japan- 
ese sentences soinetimes fail to hang together logically. The first 


that water -tub;" — whereupon Tosuke, who had been 
trembling all the while, exclaimed ; 

** Oh ! Sir, it has come to a pretty pass. It will be 
dreadful if our master, your father, gets his name dragged 
through the mud because of this. And I was the cause 
of it all. What shall I do .? " 

*'Nay," said the samurai, to comfort him, "you need 

not fret like that. A disorderly fellow who goes about 
disturbing all the town ! there is no harm in cutting 
down a creature of that sort. Don't fret about it." — And 
with these words, he called out nonchalantly to the terror- 
stricken shop-keeper: "Hal ha! mine host! I never 
thought this sword of yours would cut as well as that 
But it does cut. It cuts first-rate." 

To which the shop-keeper, trembling the while, made 
answer: "Nay! it was because Your Honour's arm is 

"Not at all," replied the samurai, "The blade is 
really a good one. And how now ? I hope you'll go 
down to seven dollars and a half." 

So the sword-dealer, anxious not to get implicated in 
the affair, said that it was all right. 

"And mind," continued the samurai, ** that in no case 
will I allow your establishment to be put to any in- 
convenience on account of what has happened. Of 
course I must report the matter at once to the warden of 
the ward. Just let me use your writing-box a minute to 
write a card." 

clause is, so to speak, suspended in the air, as if followed by wa : — " (As 
for) a disorderly person who disturbs the town-middle, he is a person 
whom even catting down is not bad.*' 


'* Kozoyal Suzuri-^ko u*o motie koi/'' to yonde mo, — 
kamii no mono wa, sakki no saii\igi ni doko ye ka mgeie 
shimaiy liiiori mo on'masen kara^ hissori to shiUe, henji ga 
nai kara, 

Samurai: ** Go teishu! Omae iva sasuga ni go shobai-- 
gar a dake atk, kono mise 2co chitto mo ugokazu ni gozaru 
?< w, kanshin na mono da, na ! " 

Teishu: ** lye, nanil O home de osore-irijiiasu, Saki'- 
hodo kara haya-goshi ga nukeie,^* iaienai no de. . . .'' 

Samurai : ' ' Suzuri-bako wa, omae no waki ni aru ja 
nai ka P " to twareie^ yoyo kokoro-zuiie, suzun-bako wo samurai 
no mae ni sashi-dashimasXi to, — samurai wa suzuri-hako no 
fuia IVO hiraiie, fude wo tori, sura-sura to namae wo '' lijima 
Heitarb " to kaki'Ozcari, jishimhan ni todokete oki, Ushigome 
no yashtkiye kaeri ni narifnashita. 

Kono shimatsu wo go shimpu lijima Heizaemon Sama 
ni hanashi ivo mdshi-agemasu to, Heizaemon Sama wa 
* ' Fbku kitta *' to ose ga atte, sore kara sugu ni kashira no 
Kobayashi Gondaiyit Dono'^ ye todoke ni narimasMta ga, 
— sashltaru togame mo ?iaku, kiri-doku kirare-zon to 

19. We have freely rendered this clause by " unable to stir tlirough 
fright." But the popular Japanese idea on the suject is that one of the 
lx)nes actually gets put out of joint through fright. 

20. Gondayu, here rendered as part of this personage's name, was 
originally a title indicative of a certain rank ; but it came to be used 
more or less at will among the samurai class. It is to be supposed 
that this Kobayashi Gondayu was an official entrusted with certain 


But the shop-keeper, never noticing that the writing- 
box was close beside him, called out in a tremulous voice : 
''Boyl bring the writing-box!" — a command to whidi 
nothing but silence responded; for all the people in the 
house had fled none knew whither when the row began, 
and tb^e Was no one present 

So the samurai exclaimed: "Mine host! I really 
admire your courage, — the courage proper in the owner 
of a sword-shop, — sitting here in your shop without 
moving an inch, notwithstanding this affray. " 

''Nay! Sir," gasped the tradesman. "Your praise 
covers me with confusion. I have been unable to stir 
through fright ^ver since the beginning of it, and; " .. 

"Why!" said the samurai, "isn't the writing-box 
there at your side ? " 

These words at last brought the shopman to his senses, 
and he pushed the writing-box towards the samurai, who, 
lifting off the . lid, took up a pen and quietly wrote his 
name, "lijima Heitaro," then reported the matter to the 
warden of the ward, and went home to his lord's mansion 
at Ushigome. 

On his relating the whole affair to his fether, lijima 
Heizaemon, the lattei: praised him for his manly deed ; 
nor was the youttg man specially blamed when. the report 
was sent in to their superior, Kobayashi GondayQ. . It 
all. simply ended by being sO much the better for .the 
slayer, and so much the worse for the slain.. 

affairs, of the clan to which the Jijimas belonged, and who happened 
to be their immediate superior. The title of Dono^ " Mr.," thooghrstill 
often used in writing, i& rarely if ever beard in actnal speech. 

386 BOTAN-D6R5, CHAP. I. 

^ 459. DAI NI-KWAI. 

Sa/e lijima Heiiarb Soma wa^ o ioshi nhfU-ni no 
toki ni Uforu-mono wo ktri-korosXife, ckiUo mo asoreru 
keshiJd mo naku, kisho na o ktUa de gotaimas^aia 
kara, — ^oski wo toru m 5/ife, masu-masu chie ga 
susumvmishtie, sono nocJki go shimpu soma ni naku 
nararete, go kaioku wo o isugi asohasht, Heizaemom 
to na wo aratame,^ Suido^bak^ no Miyake Sama to 
mbs^masU o haiamotc^ kara oJmsama wo o mukae 
ni narimashUey — hodo naku go shussho no o nyoshi 
wo Tsuyu Sama to moski^age, sUkoburu yoi go kiryo 
de, — go ryd$hin wa te no uchi no tama no yd ni 
aisKUe, o sodaie ni narimasJnia ga, — sono o aio m 
kodomo ga dekimasezu, hUo-tsubu-^ne no koto desu 
Aara, nao-sara go hiso ni nasaru uchi, ' koin ni seki" 
mori nashi'* de, o jbsama wa kotoshi toiie ju-roku m 
narare, o ie mo masu-masu go sakan de gozaimaslaia 
ga, — 'miisureda kakuru yo no narai** io iu taioe no 
tori, okusama wa sUkoshi no yamai ga moto to natle, 
tsui ni naku nari nasaimashtta, 

Sono nochi kaji-muki go fufyU no tokoro kara, O 
Kuni to iu nochi-zoi wo o mukae ni narimasKUa 
ga, — tokaku o jbsama to O Kuni to no aida ga nan 
to naku ori-aimasen de, lyima Sama mo kore zoo 
mendb ni omoimasJnte, Yanagi^sbima ye dessb wo ko- 
\ ' ' " ' ' I- ■ ■-■ ■ II,. — _ — 

1. A change of name on some important event was a oommoD 
practioe in Old Japan, 

2. Le., the bank of the aqueduct in Koishikawa, Yedo. 



Now lijima Heitaro, having, at the age of two-and- 
twenty, cut down a rufl&an, and being an energetic young 
samurai who knew not what fear was, grew wiser and 
wiser as he advanced in years. Later on, having lost his 
father, he inherited the patrimony and changed his name to 
Heizaemon, and then married a wife from the family of a 
haiamoto called Miyake residing at Suid6-bata. After a 
little while, there was bom to them a daughter, whom they 
named O Tsuyu, and who was so beautiful that her 
parents doted on her as if they had held a jewel in their 
hand. As they had no other children after her, their 
only pet, their care for her increased all the more ; and 
meanwhile, there being, as the proverb says, "no. barrier- 
keeper to keep time back," the young girl was now in her 
sixteenth year, and the family was more prosperous thaa 
«ver, when, as an exemplification of the saying that "in 
this world what waxeth waneth/' some ailment, quite 
slight at first, attacked the mother and ended by carrying 
her off. 

Afterwards lijima, finding that the household would 
not work smoothly without a mistress, took to himself a 
second wife named O Kuni. But somehow or other, the 
daughter and O Kuni did not get on well together. This 
was a trouble to the master of the house, who thereupon 

3. Sec vocabulary. 

4. Both j^hese sayings are inherited from the Book Langoa^ 
Kakuru Is equivalent to Colloquial kakeru, 2nd <X)nJ» 

588 botan-dor6| chap. II. 

shirae, josama ni O Yone to iu jochu wo tsukeie^ 
beisu-zumai wo sashtie okimashxta ga, — kore ga lijima 
Sama no te no kuzureru hajime de gozamasii. 

Sate sono iosht ?no iachi, akuru^ ioshi tva josama 
wa jU'Shtchi'Sai ni nari asobashimashiia^ 

Koko ni haneie lijima Sama ye de-iri no isha 
ni Yamamoio Shijo to mbsu mono ga gozaimashUe — 
'jiisu wa iaikO'isha no shaberi de, shonin ia^ke 
no lame ni saji wo ie ni ioranai^ io iu jimbuisu de 
gozaimasu kara, — nami no isha nara, choilo kami^ 
ire no naka ni mo gwan-yaku ka ko-gusuri de mo 
haitie imasu ga,—kono Shifo ^no kami-ire no naka ni 
way iezuma no iane yara, hyaku-manako nado ga 
ireie aru gurai na mono de gozaimasu. 

Sate kono isha no chikazuki de, Nezu no Shimizu- 

dani ni dembaia ya kashi-nagaya wo mochi, sono 

- . agari de kurashi wo tateie iru rbnin no Hagiwara 

. ..Shinzahurb io mbsu mono ga arimashtie, umare^isuki 

' Itirei na oloko de, — ioshi zva ni-ju-ichi de gozaimasu 

\ ga, mada nybbb mo moiazu, goku uchiki de gozaimasu * 

kara, solo ye mo demasezu, shomotsu bakari mite orimasu 

iokoro ve, — aru hi Shijo ga iazuneie mairimasKUe, — 

Shijb : ' ' Kyb wa, ienki ga yoroshiit gozaimasii kara, 

Kameido no Gwaryobai'^ ye de-kakeie, sono kaeri 

ni boku no chikazuki lijima Heizaemon no bessb ye 

: yorimashb.—^ Ie' sa ? Kimi wa ittai uchiki de iras- 

. . shanu kara, fujin ni kokoro^gake nasaimasen ga, — 

*'•• ' " ■ ■ ■ '■■ ' ' ■ ■ ■ ■ ' I .^. « i I - I III. 

5. This is Classical for akeru, 2nd conj., " to open," hence " to 

begin," hence used to signify " next " in ** next year.*' 
/J , .u \-^» : Tlie spoon (with which nsBdicines are mixed) is the physician's 
special emblem;;; vin the free, translation we have used the phrase 


tuilt a villa in the neighbourhood of Yanagi-shima, and 
sent his daughtier to reside there separately, attended by 
a maid called O Yone. And this it was which' was the 
beginning of the downfall of the house of lijima. 

Well, that year too passed by, and in the following one 
O Tsuyu entered her seventeenth year. 

Now there was . a man named Yamamoto Shijo, . wjio 
had long been the family physician of the lijimas.. . In 
reality he was a chatterbox and. a quack,— one of those 
doctors of whom it is said that they write no prescriptions 
out of regard for the welfare of their patients, — a man 
who carried about in his pocket-book such things as the 
wherewithal for conjuring tricks, or else paper-masks for 
acting the mimic, instead of the pills 6t powders of AVhich 
any ordinary physician has a little store by him. . - 

Well, this doctor had a friend^ an unattached samurai 
called Hagiwara Shinzaburo, who lived on the income 
derived from fields and house property which he owned 
at Shimizu-danl in Nezu. He was naturally a handsome 
man, still unmarried though already twenty-one years of 
age, and so shy that he would not go out, but occupied 
himself with nothing but reading. 

Shij5 came to call upon him one day, and said : 
* ' As it is such fine weather to-day, let us go and see the 
plum-blossoms at Kameido, and, on our way back, look 
in at the villa of a friend of mine, lijima Peizaemon. — 
What? you say no? You are altogether so shy, that you 

f< writing prescriptions" -a^ oar nearest equivalent to. the^Japanesfe 
"taking the spoon in handi" 

1, A garden in Tokyo, celebrated for the pictoresque beauty oT- its 
fantastic old plum-trees, lit. the " recumbent dragon plam-tre^." 

390 botan*d5r5, chap. ii. 

danshi m ioUe ztw, /iifm no is&ki-ai hodo ianoshimt 
na mono wa nai, Ima mioskUa lyima no besso ni 
tva, fujin bdkari de.^^ore wa! sore wa! yohodo 
heppin no o josama ni shmseisu na jochu to iada 
/^lari'gin desu kara, jbdan de mo Hie kimashd. 
Honib ni josama miru dake de mo kekko na kurai 
de, — ^me mo yoroshii ga, ugoki mo shmai, kuc^i mo 
Jtiktmasen. Fujin wa, kucki mo kiku shi, ugoki mo 
sMmasii. Tomokaku ki-iamae!*' io sasoi-dashimashtie, 
Juiari-zure de Gwaryobai ye mairiy haeri ni lijima no 
besso ye iachi-yorimasKUey — 

Shijo : ^^ Go men kudasai! Makoio ni shiharaku !** 
io iu koe wo JUkt-ts^ikemashtie, — 

O Fbne : ** Donaia sama ? Oya»oya! irasshaimaski!*' 
Shijo: ^Korewa! O Yone San! Sono nochi wa, 
isui ni nai go busaia iiashimashtia, O josama ni wa 
kawari mo gozaimasen ka ? — Sore wa, sore Tva ! kekko, 
kekko! Ushigome kara koko ye o htki-uisuri ni nari- 
mashtie kara wa, dbmo empo na no de, isui isut 
go busaia ni narimasOiie, makoio ni ai-sumimasen,*' 

O Ybne : **Ma! anaia hisashitku o mie nasaimasen 
kara, do nasaiia ka to omoiie, maido o uwasa too iiashtie 
orimashiia, Kyo wa dochira ye ?" 

Sliijo : ** Kyo tva Gwaryobai ye ume-mi ni de-kake- 

mashtia ga^ — * Ume mireba, hdzu ga nai^* io iu iaioe no 

tori, mada mi-tarinai no de^ o niwa no ume wo kaiken 
tiashtiaiwie mairimashitia" 

8. Shijo is joking. The real saying is Ue ntireba, hozuga nai, "11 
one looks upwards, there is no limit," i.e., *^ there is no limit to the 
possibility of aping one's superiors/' 

botan-dor5| chap, il 391 

ta^ke no interest in ladies' society, whereas there is no- 
thing so delightful for a man as that society. In the villa 
which I have just mentioned there are none but ladies, 
and oh I dear me I there are only two of them,— a perfect- 
ly lovely young girl and a good-natured maid-servant, so 
that we can have some fun. The young lady is really a 
treat just simply to look at Doubtless the plum*blos- 
soms are beautiful too; but then tiiey don't move, they 
can't speak, whereas women possess both motion and 
speech. Anyhow, please come along I " 

So saying, he led him off, and they went together to 
see the plum-blossoms, and then, on the way home, looked 
in at lijima's villa. 

"Excuse me!" called out Shijd "Here I am, after 
all this long time." 

"Who is it?" answered O Yone. "Oh, really! pray 
come in I " 

"Ah! O Yone!" cried Shijo. "It is really an un- 
conscionable time since my last visit. I hope the young 
lady is quite well. — ^Well, well ! this is splendid. — But 
you do live so far off since you moved here from Ushi- 
gome, that I have become quite remiss in calling, which 
is really too bad of me. ■' 

O Yme: "Why ! it's so long since we last had the 
pleasure of seeing you, that we wondered what had 
become of you, and have been constantly talking about 
you. — ^Where have you been to-day ? " 

Shtjo : "To see the plum-blossoms at Kameido. 
But, as the saying is, 'When one looks at the plum-blos- 
soms, there is no end to it' So we don't yet feel that we 
have seen enough, and have come hoping to get a sight 
of the plum-blossoms in your garden." 

3^i B0TAN-D5R5, CHAP. II. 

O Tone: *' Sore waf yoku irasshaimashtia. Mhi 
dozo kochira ye o hmri asobase!"* io, — kin'do wo akema^ 
shtia kara, "Go men kudasai!'* io, mtva-gucki kara 
■ $sa$Ntki ye lorimasKia. 

O Yone : " Mh ! ifhpuku meshi^gare ! Kyb wa yoku 
irusskiie kudasamasKfa. Fudan zva, walakUshi h o jo- 
soma bakan des& kara, samishikutie komaih orimas& 
iohoro de gotamasKUaJ* - 

Shijo : *' Kekko na a sumai desfi. Sale, Hagiwara 
Uji! Kyb Mmi no go meigin ni osore-irtmas^a,* Nan to 
ka mbshimasKUa, "ne, e ? 

* Tahako ni wa, 

Suri-hi no umashi 
Ume no naka'^ 
deshtia ka, ne /^ Kampuku, kampuku I Boku no yb na 
bchaku-mono zva, deru ku mo bckaku de, 

' Ume homele, 

, ha^ ne ? \ 

*' Kimi no yb ni shoken bakari shtie He nua, ikemasen 
yo / Sakki no sake no nokori ga koko ni am kara^ ip-pai 
agare^ol Nan desu, — ne ? lya de^ i* Sore de Wa, kUori 
-de chodai iiashimashb*' io ii-nagara, hybian zoo dashi-^ 

9. Every Japanese of education is supposed to be able to compose 
in verse ; bat the so-called verses here given are of course only Shijo's 

^ chaff, invented on the spur <^ the moment. This particular kind of 
. ^tanza iis termed hokku, and consists of three Hnes of lespectivelx five^ 
«even, and five syllables. Japanese prosody knows nx>thing either of 
rhyme or of quantity. Con£ f 4^5 '' '^f • 

10. The words lit. mean " As for tobacco (-smoking), within the 
plum-trees, is delicious of striking-fire/' i.e., ** How delicious it is to Ifght 

B0TAN-D6R6, CHAP. h. 393 

O Yone : " Well, well ! and a good welcome to you ! Oh ! 
please come in this way ! " — and so saying, she opened 
the wicket, so that the visitors, with a "By your leave," 
passed through the garden entrance into the house. 

Yone : " Oh ! please smoke ! It is exceedingly kind 
of you to have come to-day. We are generally very 
dull, because there are only the two of us, — my youtig 
mistress and' I. " 

Shijo : . '*This is a splendid house. — ;Well, Mr. ,Ha^- 
Svafa! I was quite taken aback by that beautiful, stanza 
of-yours to*day. What was it again ? 
. * To the smoker 

How sweet for striking a match 
Is the entourage of the plum-blossoms ! ' 
*'That was it, wasn't it? Admirable! admirable! In 
the tase of a viUaiii like me, the verses that come out 
of hi3 tiiouth are villainous too. My stanza was : 
'In belauding the plum-blossoms 

I got confused. 

And belauded a lovely girl instead.' 

''I think that was it. — It doesn't do to be always reading 

as you are, — indeeid it doesn't As we have the remains of 

the liquor we took with us on our picnic, just have a glass 

of it — What ? you say no ? Well then, I'll drink alone ; " — 

a pipe among the plom-blossoms ! '^ The second and third lines are 
inverted. Note the conclusive form of the adjective limasAi, "is 
deliciotis," equivalent to the more genuinely Colloquial umat, and conf. 
p, lai. . 

II. J^eriia a Classical termination of verbs and adj^tives. TnlCol- 

loquial tfte word would be magirakarAtta, Itddo-cMgai, lit. a ''iAistake 

of gates," refers to Shij5's preferring the house where the young lady 

. lives to the celebrated garden with the plum-trees. We have represented 

this meaning very, freely in the third line of thiStranslaticMi. * 


kakeru iokoro ye, O Yone ga cha to kuoashi wo moUe mairi- 

Yone : '' Socha de gozaimasu ga^ o ktioisu mesht-- 
agar el** 

Shijo : '*Ddzo mo o kamai kudasaru'ftal Tokt nt\ ky& 
wa jbsama ni o me fd kakariioMtte mairmasJuia. Koka 
ni iru no wa, boku no goku shilaskii hqyu desu. Sore zva 
so /o, kyo zva miyage mo nani mo jisan tiashimaset^. — E, 
he, he/ artgaid gozaimas&. Kore wa, osore^irimashtia, O 
kwasht wa yohan, Kekkof Sal Hagvwara Kun, mesht* 
agare-yo/** iOi-^ 

Yone ga kibisho ye yu wo sashi ni Uia aio de, ^^jftisu 
ni koko no uchi no o josama zoa, ienha ni nai bijin desu, 
Ima ni trassharu kara, goran nasai/*' to hanashi wo shl£fe 
orimasu to, muko no yO'jd^han no ko-zashtki de lijima no 
josama, Tsuyu Sama ga, htio-mezurashii kara, shoji wo 
sukoshi akeie nozoiie miru to, Shijo no soda ni suwaiie iru 
Hagvwara Shinzaburo no oioko-buri to iV, hiio-gara to »**', 
' Onna ni sMtara donna daro / ' to omou hodo no ii otoko 
desu kara, htto-me mimasu to zotio shtte, do shtta kaze no 
yuki-mawashi de anna kirei na tonogo ga koko ye kita no ka 
to omou to, katto nobosete, makka na kao ni nari, nan to 
naku ma ga warukute, pata to shoji wo shime-kitte, uchi ye 

12. It is a graceful Japanese custom to bring a present with one 
when coming to pay a visit. 

13. To ii is often thus used in enumerations. It may be most easily 
parsed as equivalent to to itt€ mo, " whether saying that." 


and with these words, he was just bringing out his 
wine-gourd, when O Yone came in with tea and cakes, 
«aying : 

** It is poor tea, but pray take a cup of it" 

"Please don't take any more trouble about us," replied 
Shijo. "By the way," continued he, "we have come 
here to-day in hopes of seeing your young mistress. 
This gentleman here is an extremely intimate friend of 
mine. — Oh I by the bye, that reminds me that I have 
forgotten to bring you any present to-day. — Oh 1 thank 
you ! I am really quite overcome by your kind atten- 
tions. — ^The sweetmeats are bean paste. — Delicious I— 
Come along, Mr. Hagiwara, do take some. — ^Really," 
continued he, after O Yone had gone to pour some hot 
water into the tea-pot, "the young lady of the house is 
one who has not her equal for beauty in the world. 
She'll be coming now ; so look at her." 

While he was thus speaking, lijima's daughter. Miss 
O Tsuyu, in the small four and a half mat room opposite, 
curious to see the rare visitors, had opened one of the slid- 
ing paper doors a little and peeped out; and, as she did 
so, her glance fell on Hagiwara Shinzaburo seated at Shi- 
j6's side, — so manly, so distinguished-looking, handsome 
to the pitch of making one think what a beautiful woman 
he would have made. And she started, and wondered 
what stroke of fortune had brought hither so handsome 
a fellow. Then, the blood rushing to her cheeks, she be- 
came scarlet, and, overcome by a feeling of awkwardness, 
shut the paper slide with a click, and retired within it. But, 
as she could not see his face when shut up in the room, 
she again gently slid the door open, and, while pretending 

59^ botan-d6r6, chap, iii 

hairimashUa ga, — uchi de zva oioko no kao ga mirarenai 
kara, maia sotto shoji wo akete^ niwa no Hme no hana wo 
nagameru furi wo shi^nagara, choi-choi to Hagiwara no kao 
wo mite zva, hasukashiso ni shoJi no uchi ye hairu ka io 
omou to, maia deie kuru, Delari hikkondari, hikkondart 
detan\ mofi-moji shfte irti no wo Shijb ga mi-isukemashtie, 

r ' Shijo : *^ Hagiwara Kun ! Simi wo o ' jdsama ga sakki 

' kara isHtku^zuku mite imasu, yo I Pme no hana wo miru 

/uri Tjoq.sJtiie He mo, me no lama 7va niaru de.koichiwo 

mite iru, yo/ Kyb wa, tonto kimi ni kerareta^,^ neT^^-to 

: mmsa wo shtte iru tokoro ye^ 

Gejo no Yone ga dete mairimashtte : ** jdsama kara 
* Nam mo gozaimasen ga, Hon no inaka-ryori de ik-kon 
' . $aski^agemasu, Dozo go yurtiri io meshi^agarimashiie, ai' 
kawarazii anaia no go jbdan wo^tikagaiiai* toosshamasuj* 

-, Shijb: '^Dbmoi osor^'irimashtta,. Kore wa, kore wa! 

: o s'uimono I kekkb f arigaib gozaimasiu, Sakki kara rei^ 

' shu wa moite or imasu ga^ o kanshu wa maia kakudeisu, 

Arigaib gozaimasU. Dbzo t? jbsama ni mo irassharu yd 

ni. Kyb wa ume ja nai, J.Hsu wa, o jbsdma] wo. . . 

'Jya! nani ?** . . - _ ..-. ^ . - 


,. to gaze at the plum-blosspms in thiB' garden, ca^t sly 
glances from time to time at Hagiwara's face. Then 
again, apparently overcome with bashfulness, she withdrew 
within the sliding door, but had hardly done so 

• when once more her face popped out. And so she went- on 
fidgeting, — out and in, in and out, which Shijo perceiving 
said ; 

*' Mr. Hagiwara ! I say ! the young lady has been 
;. staring at you all the time. She may pretend to be 
looking at the plum-blossoms; but for all that, her eyes 
are turned completely in this direction, — indeed they are. 
To-day I have been quite thrown into the shade by 
you, eh ? " 

While he was thus chattering away, the maid O Yone 
came into the room and said : ' 

"My young mistress bids me say that, though she 
has nothing worthy your acceptance, she begs you to 
take a glass of wine accompanied by a snack of our 
poor rustic fare. She hopes you will take your own 
time over it, and give her the benefit of your amusing 
conversation, as on previous occasions." 

.^ '^'Really," replied Shij6> '*I am confounded by so 
jmuch civility. Dear me ! dear me ! Here is soup ! 
Delicious! Thank you! Cold liquor we already had 
with us; but this hot wine of yours iS quite ^A-* special 

- »treat. .Many thanks I Please «ask yoiwr young.:. naSateress 
jj w.if , sl^c^ too won't favour us with her company^-,,; It was 

- not ^ for.- ihe plum-blossoms that we- cam e , ^ tp^d ay-.- In 
.rf ality . it .was the young lady whom . . ..»/Wliy^ !: ,\yliat^ is 


O Yone; " H(hho-ho /-^Tadama sayo moshi-agemashSia 
ga, tsure no haia wo go zonji ga nai mono des& kara, * Ma 
ga warm* to osshaimasli kara, — ^ Sonnara, yoshi asohasef 
to mdshi'agemas& to, — ' Sore de mo, itte mitai* to osskaima^ 

Shi;o : ^* lya! kore wa hohu no shin no chikazuki de, chiku-- 
la no iomo to mosfnte mo yoroshU kurai na mono de, go 
enryo m wa oyobmasen, Ddzo chotto josama ni me m 
kakaritaJ^ie mairimashtia** to iu to, — O Yone wa yagate o 
Josama too isureie mairtmasu to, — josama wa hazukashtso 
ni Yone no ushiro ni suwatte, kHM no uchi de ** Shijo San / 
zrasshaimashir to iita-giri de, — Yone ga kochira ye kure- 
ha, kochira ye iki; achira ye ikeba, achira ye iki; shiju O 
Yone no ushiro ni bakari ktdtsuite orimasti to, — 

Shijo*, *'Kore wa! horewa! Josama! Som nochi wa, 
zonji-nagara go busata itashimashtta. lisu mo kawari mo 
gozaimasen de, kekko de gozaimas^, Kono hito wa, boku no 
chikazuki de, Hagvwara Shinzaburb to mbshimas^, Doku-^ 
shin-mono de gozaimasu. Kyb wa hakarazu tsuremas^Ste, 
go chisb ni nari, osore-irimasu, Chotto chikazuki ho tame, 
sakazukiwo chbdai itasasemashb, — Oya! nan daka ? Kore 
de wa, go konrei no sakazuki no yb de gozaimasu"^ — to, 
sukoshi mo iogire naku tori-maki wo itashtie ormasH to, — 
jbsama wa, hazukashii ga, mata ureshtkute, Hagiwara 

14. Notice the force of this final particle no, half exclamatory, half 
expressive of helplessness to deal with the situation. See p. 79, % 113. 

15. 50^^-drinking is a notable feature of a Japanese wedding. 


Yone (laughing) : ** I told her so just now ; but she 
said she felt it awkward, because she doesn't know the 
gentleman whom you have brought with you. But when 
I thereupon said 'Then refuse to see him,' she said 'But 
I do want to see him all the same." 

Shijo\ '*Nay! nay! there is no reason for her to feel 
shy. This gentleman is a most intimate friend of mine. 
It would hardly be too much to say that we played 
about as children together; and we have come with the 
most earnest desire to see her just for a minute or two. " 

Afler this speech of Shijo's, O Yone led in her young 
mistress, who was, however, evidently so bashful that, 
after whispering a welcome to Shijo from the place 
where she sat behind O Yone, she said no more, but 
constantly stuck close behind O Yone, edging hither 
when O Yone came hither, and edging thither when 
O Yone went thither. 

"Well! well! Miss O Tsuyu!" cried Shijo, "I know 
that I have been an unconscionable time in coming to see 
you. It is delightful to find you in the same excellent 
health as ever. This gentleman is my Mend, Hagiwara 
Shinzaburo. He is a bachelor. Happening to bring him 
with me to-day, we have been hospitably feasted, and 
are overcome with gratitude. Let me offer you the wine- 
cup, just to drink to the making of a new acquaintance. — 
Ha! ha! ha! what is this? At this rate, it looks as if 
we were celebrating a wedding ! " 

And as he thus went on ceaselessly keeping the ball 
rolling, the young lady, though bashful, was glad too, 
and, while pretending not to look at Hagiwara Shin- 
zaburo, was casting furtive side-glances at him ; and, as an 
illustration of the sajdng that "when the intention is ther^ 

400 B0TAK-DOR5f CHAP.. II. 

SAimaburd wo yokome de Jtro-jtro mmai/uri tvo ^hi-nagara 
mtie orimasX^ io^ — ^ki ga areba, me mo kScAt kodo ni mono 
wo iu* to tu iatoe no tori, Shinzaburd mo jdsama no yoi 
kiryb ni mi-ioreie, muchu ni naiie orimasIL So ko suru 
uchi ni, yukei ni narimashtia kara, 

Shinzaburd: ^^Kore wahc^imeie uhagaimasbSte^ hakarazu- 
go chiso ni narimashtia. Mo o iioma iiashimasu, " 

O Tone : *^Anaia/ mada o kayo gozaimas&. Mo sotio go 
yururi asohashimase** — io, o Jdsama no kokoro-arige na yosu 
wo sasshi, iro-iro io iodomete orimasd io, Shinzaburd mo, koko- 
ro no uchi wa omoi too kakeie orimasu ga, tnada seken nare- 
masen yue, moji-moji shtfe : 

*^ Arigaid zonjimasu, Shikashi yo ni irimasu io, taku no 
mono mo anjimasu yue, maia kasanete ukagaimasu* io, koioha 
'■' wo nokoshtie, iachi-kakemashtia kara, 

Shijd : ** Saydnara^*, o iioma mdshimasu, Kyd wa iro^iro 

go chisd ni narimashtie, arigaid gozaimasu, Izure kinjitsu, o 

rei kaia-gaia, o ukagai mdshimasu, — Sa/ Hagiwara Kun, o 

. iomo iiashimasho* io^—^jibun wa kaiie rnireie orimasu kara, O 

Yone iojddan H-nagara, genkwa no hdye mairimasXi io, 

Yone : ''Shijd San/ Anaia no fsumuri ga iaisd pika-pika 
io hikaiie mairimashtia yoT 

Shijd: ** Nani sa/ Sore wa, akari de miru kara, 

- " i6.' Hereusfedhalfinitsoriginalaiidproper senseof «*if thatisso," 
.?MU ap H» newer iense of ** goodbye." ^ 


the eyes can say as much as the mouth/ Shinzaburo too, 
captivated by the girl's beauty, felt as if he were in a 

Well, what with one thing and another, the evening 
was drawing in. So Shinzaburo said : 

'*Many thanks for your kind hospitality on this my 
first visit. I think I must now be taking my leave." 

" Oh ! " cried O Yone, who had guessed her young mis- 
tress's tender passion, and who therefore did her best to 
detain the young man, '*it is still early. Please don't 
be in such a hurry. " 

Shinzaburo, too, in his heart of hearts, was in love, but as 
he was still ignorant of the world, he was embarrassed 
and said : 

'*Many thanks. But when it gets dark, my people 
will become anxious about me ; so I will call again 
another day instead." 

With these parting words, he made to go. So Shi^o 
said : 

"Well then, we will take our leave. Many thanks 
for all your kind hospitality to us to-day. We will cer- 
tainly come in a few days to call and thank you. — Come 
along, Mr. Hagiwara ! let us go ! " 

And with these words, knowing, as he did, his way 
about the house, he went in the direction of the entrance, 
joking with O Yone all the while. 

*'Mr. Shijo," said O Yone, ''your head has become 
perfectly shining." 

''Nonsense!" retorted Shijo, "you only think i 
shines, because you are looking at it under the 
light,— ha I ha ! " 

402 botan-d6r6, crap. ii. 

htkaru no desu zva, n§/" to^—fiUari wa H wo kikashi, o josama 
to Shinsaburo wo \ilo ni nokoshiy jbdan-majiri m tro-iro no 
hanaskiwo shi^nagara^ sakiye mairimashtia, 

Aio ni Shinzahurb wa o josama ni okurare^nagara^ lai^me 
no nai no wo sarwai ni, hazukashisa ivo koraeie, kogoe de nani 
ka kuchi-yalatsoku wo iiashimasMta kara, O Tsuyu Sama zva 
hazukashisd ni : 

^^Anatal Sore de wa, maia Mtto o ide kttdasaremasht / 
Kite kudasaranakereha, watalmshi wa shinde shimaimasu ye f ** 
to, — muryo no jo wo fuhinde, omoi'kiile mbshimaskUa, 

O Yone: '' Sayonaraf konnichi wa makoio ni o soso 
sama, Sayonaral" to, — Shijo, Shinzahurb no ryb-nin wa, 
uchi-isure-daiie kaerimashtia. 

Sono nochi Shinzahurb iva, o jbsan no koioha ga mimi ni 
nokori, shibashi mo wasureru hima wa arimasenandd. 


Thus did these two display their tact as they walked on 
towards the entrance, talking and joking about all sorts 
of subjects, and leaving the young lady of the house and 
Shinzaburo behind. Shinzaburo, to whom the young 
lady showed the way, was only too glad to find that no 
one was by to see. So, overcoming his shyness, he 
whispered some vow into O Tsuyu's ear, thereby making 
her look bashful and answer : 

"Oh! then, do please come again! If you don't come, 
I shall die, — indeed I ^hall" In this decided manner 
did she speak, with infinite love in her words. 

"Goodbye!" cried O Yone. "Pi^y excuse the 
poorness of our entertainment to-day. Goodbye ! " — ^and 
thereupon Shijo and Shinzaburo went off together. 

From that day fc«-ward the young girl's words remained 
in Shinzaburo's ears, and he never forgot them even for 
a moment 

1^460. N A Z Er 

Eigo no Why, sunawachi naze io iu koio zm, hanahada 
iaiselsu de am no ni, Shina ya Nihon no mukasht fw hiio- 
hiio wa meiia nihono koioha wo tsukawazu^t '^ Koshi no seisu 
da " to ka, ** Moshi no jiron da " io ka iu ioki wa, mohaya 
helsu nisono rikuisu wo sensaku sum koio mo naku, iada gaien 
sKiie shimau no ga isurei de art ; soko de nioiie, " Uiagat 
wa hummel shimpo no ichi dai gen-in da'' io iu ron mo dekiia 
wake de, ima wa yaya mo sureha Seiyo-jin wa * * Uiagai wa 
iaiseisu na mono da ; bummei shimpo no gen-in da. Sono shoko 
ni wa, Shina-Jin ya Nihon-jin wa, mono-goio wo uiagau io iu 
koio wo 'shinai ni yoiie, iisu made iaiie mo shimpo shinai de 
wa ttai kaP" io ronji-iaieru koio de am ga, — ko iu rei fiado ni 
htkarem io iu wa, o iagai sama ni^ amari zoiio Hasan shidai io 
iwanakereha narimasen. 

Uiagai io wa, ion mo naosazu naze io iu koioha no hiisuyb ni 
naiie kuru gen-in de, — iaioeha, kodomo nojihun, '* Uso Hie wa, 
ikenaiyo I " io ohasan nado ni ii-Mkasarem de arb, Sono ioki 

I. This piece is a leading article taken from the columns of one of 
the cheaper Tokyo newspapers, the Kcdshin Shitnbun^ several years ago. 
It has been retained in this edition, though its point of view is somewhat 
antiquated, because of its representatively idiomatic style. Speak thus, 
and you will be intelligible to any audience, however uncultivated. 


What is termed why in English and naze in our lan- 
guage, is a very important thing. Nevertheless, the 
Chinese and Japanese of olden times hardly ever used 
the word. When told perhaps that such and such was 
the doctrine of Confucius or the opinion advocated by 
Mencius, they habitually acquiesced without further 
enquiry into the rights of the question. Now, therefore, 
when the theory has arisen that doubt is one of the great- 
est sources of enlightenment and progress, and when, con- 
sequently, Europeans are apt to assert the importance of 
doubt and its services to the cause of civilisation, and 
to prove this their assertion by pointing to the Chinese 
and Japanese as instances of nations forever unprogressive, 
ON\ ing to their neglect to subject all things to the scrutiny 
of doubt, — when we hear such opinions ventilated, and 
find ourselves quoted in such a connection, we all must 
agree that it is by no means a pleasant state of affairs. 

It is exactly this thing called doubt that causes the 
word why to become an indispensable one. Take a child, 
for instance. Probably its grandmother or somebody 

2. The word naze is little used even now, except in anger. The 
circumlocution do iu wake de ? " for what reason ? " is generally pre- 

3. O tagai sama ni^ "mutually," "for you and me," the honorific 
o giving a half-polite, half-comical tinge to the expression. 

406 NAZE ? 

///, ^* Naze uso ICO Hie wn, ivarui no de gozaimasu ka ?'' 
lo ulagai wo ii-dashiie goranjiro ! — * ' Naze daiie /* Sonna koioba 
wo kaesii mono de wa arimasen. * Ningen way use wo itla zva, 
wanii mono ni kimaiie orimasYi " to aiama-kabuse* ni ii-lsuke- 
rareru ga tsuf et de aro. 

Naruhodo I ningen wa, tiso wo Hie wa, zvarui ni kimaiie 
oni ni chigai nai ga^ — sono warui rikuisu^ wo shiile gaien 
sum no iOy iada bon-yari io gaien sum no to de wa, o9iaJi 
gaien suru no de mo, gaien no wake ga iaiso c/ji^au de aro 
io zonjimasti. Naze ni kuni ni wa seifu io iu mono ga aru no 
ka ? Naze ni jimmin wa sozei wo osameru mono ka ? 
Mazu uiagai wo okoshiie, sono rikuisu wo sensaku shiie koso, 
hajimeie jiyitseido-ron mo ok'oiie kuru io iu mono de, — iada 
rikuisu nashi ni, ** Kuni ni iva sei/u ga aru mono^, jimmin 
7S.HI sozei wo osameru mono '' io gaien shiie He wa, shidai ni 
hikuisu ni nam bakari de, kesshiie shimpo suru koio wa 

Naze tw hiisuyb na no wa, hliori doioku ya seiji nomi ni 
kagirazu,^^sono ia, sekai ni arayuru* tnono goio ni wa^ donna 
sasai no ien ni Ham made mo, subeie hiisuyb na koio de, — 
yoku sekcn no hiiobiio ga '' Gakumon ga iaiseisu da, iaiseisu 
da " io iu ga, — isumari nan no gakumon mo, uiagai wo moio 

4. Datte is from da to iite, ** saying that ; " but it has become a sort 
of interjection. 

5. De wa arimasen, \\i " is not," is occasionally thus used in tlie 
sense of " must not.*' 

6. Atama-kabuse ni — " v ith a snub." The kindred expression 
a lama kara kogoio 7vo in is a common phrase for "unreasonable 

WHY ? 407 

sajs to it: *'Mind you mustn't tell stories!" Then let 
the following doubt be expressed in reply : ** Why is it 
wrong to tell stories?" and it will generally happen 
that the enquirer will be snubbed with a " * Why ?' indeed 1 
None of your pert retorts for me ! Every one agrees that 
it is wrong for people to tell stories. " 

Yes, indeed ! no doubt every one agrees that it is wrong 
to tell stories ; and to acquiesce in this principle with a 
knowledge of the reasons why story-telling is wrong, or 
to acquiesce in it unintelligently, is equally to acquiesce. 
But surely there is a great difference between the two 
modes of acquiescence. Why is it that there is what is 
termed a government in the country ? Why do the people 
have to pay taxes ? It is only by raising such questions 
and searching for reasons, that liberal political opinions 
get started. When people simply go on unreasoningly, 
accepting as ultimate facts the existence of government 
and the obJigation to pay the taxes, they merely sink 
deeper and deeper into servility, and never make any 

Doubt is indispensable, not in morals and in politics 
only. It is indisp<ensable in other things also, in every 
single thing in the world, down to the very smallest 
People often say and repeat that learning is important. 
But after all, in no branch of learning is there any frui-tful 
course to be pursued, unless we make doubt the founda- 


7. Warui rikutsu does not mean *' a bad reason," but " the reason 
why it is bad; " conf. p. 60. 

8. Supply da, " it is (a fact that there is a government, etc.)." 

9. Arayuru is an exceptional verbal form derived from aru, "to 
be," and meaning " all that there are." 

408 NAZE ? 

ni shi, naze naze *de moi/e oku no oku made rtkuisu wo 
sensaku sum to iu koto ni hoka wa nal Sht-sho Go-fyo^^ m 
haite aru mono-goto ni kesshtte machigai wa nai to, iada 
rikuisu nashi ni gaten shtie shimaite ita^ hi ni wa, yo no 
naka wa Shi-sho Go^fyb inai no yo no naka de owaru no de, 
itsu made tatte mo susumu kizukai wa nai ga, — mottomo 
** Sore dake de^ takKisan da" to iu ki naraba^ sunian koto 
mo arumai keredomo, naze wo mochiite, rikutsu wo sensaku 
sMta^* hi niwa, rikutsu kara rikutsu to, shidai ni rikutsu ni hana 
ga saki, mi ga nariy kwairaku no shurui ga oku mo dkiku mo 
nam to wakari^kitte iru to shite mireha^^j naze uua mochiite 
mitai mono de wa nai kaP 

Ningen ga hikutsu no kyokuian ni tasshireha, zuibun omoi 
mo yoran fuzoku nado ga shojiru mono de, — mugaku no 
kyoJmtan^ sunaivacki mono-goto no rikutsu wo shiran to iu 
koto no kyokutan mo, zuibun myo na ?nono de,—jii-ku-seiki 
no konnichi de moy ydban no shakwai ni iri-konde miru to, 
ki'D no senzo no koto ya, mirai no shison no koto nado Tva, 
sukoshi mo omowazu ; tada ichi-dai-kiri ni owaru to iu yo 
na jinshu ga naka ni wa arimasu. Ina /** ki-b no senzo ya 
mirai no shison zva, iu made mo nashi, Hanahadashii no 

10. Shi'sho Go'J^o^ " the Four Books and the Five Canons," is the 
name given to the sacred Classics of China, which form the basis of the 
Chinese polity and of the Confucian morality. 

1 1 . Substitute the present tense iru, " to be," for the past ita in order 
to understand this passage. Strange as it may appear, Japanese idiom 
always employs the past in such contexts ; conf. f 275, p. 176. 

WHY ? 409 

tion, and, with a perpetual why^ search for reasons into 
every nook and corner of the subject So long as folks 
simply acquiesce, without reasoning, in the infallibility of 
every word that stands written in the Chinese Classics, 
the world will remain a Chinese Classic world, without 
a chance of progressing, however many centuries may 
roll by. Of course, too, it may be quite possible for those 
to exist thus, whose spirit is satisfied with such a state of 
things. But when people have once come to a clear under- 
standing of how, if they use the word why and search for 
reasons, they will go on from reason to reason, so that 
the reasons will first bear blossoms and then fruit, and 
that more numerous and more intense kinds of happiness 
will be attained to, will not why then become a thing 
which they will like to try their hand at using ? 

When human beings reach the ne plus tdtra of ser- 
vility, somewhat unexpected manners and customs are 
the result. Somewhat strange, too, are the results of 
the ne plus ultra of ignorance, — ^in other words, of a lack 
of knowledge of the reasons of things. Penetrate into 
savage societies at this very day, in this nineteenth cen- 
tury of ours, and you will find among them races that 
show an utter disregard both for departed ancestors and 
for unborn descendants, — races that live for their 
own generation only. Nay ! what need to talk of de- 
parted ancestors and of unborn descendants ? Why ! 

12. Similar remark to the preceding : substitute the present sttru 
for the past shtia in order to understand the clause. 

13. To shite mireba=da niyottey " in consequence of which.'* 

14. A classical word for " nay," used emphatically by contemporary 
writers in imitation of English idiom. 


ni naiie wa, genzai no qya-ko fyodai no aida-gara ni ^oshi 
mo kwankei wo MMe, shin-ai suru no, nan no^^, to iu yd 
na koto mo naku, iada jibun is-shin ga do ni ka ko ni ha 
romei wo isunagu koto ga dekireba, sore de manzoku shtle 
iru to iu jinshti mo ma^^ ni iva arimasu, 

Shokunl inu wo mi-iamae, — inu ivo/^'^ E ! IkagA de goza- 
ru? Oya-ko-rashiku omowareru wa, chichi wo nomu aida^ 
zvazuka hdkari no koto de, — chi-banare wo suru to, viohaya 
ianin, — otto f^^ mattaku taketi^^ ni naite shimau de wa nai kai^ 
Shikaraba, ima iu tokoro no yaban-jinshu no gotoki wa, 
rwayuru^ * ' Kin-ju wo saru koto idkarazu^** no renju de aro, 
Oya-ko kyodai yori shite, shidai ni shin-ax wo rin/in ni 
oyoboshi, ichi-gun ni oyoboshi, is-shu ni oyobosu no ga aikoku- 
shin no genso da keredomo, — genzai 710 oya-ko de sae betsu 
ni shin-ai sen to iu yd de Tva, totemo aikokM-shin nado no aro 
hazu wa nai, 

Shikashi Nihon-jin nado wa, shi-awase to sore hodo mugaku 
de mo naku ; shitagatte sod ni aikoku-shin mo aru n da ga, 
— sude ni aikoku-shin ga aru naraba, kano naze wa iyo-iyo 

15. For no thus used enumeratively or to indicate a sort of pause, 
see ^ 115* P- So. Shin-ai sttru no, nan no is, as literally as possible, 
" loving or anything-(else-) ing." 

16. Ma ni wa^iama ni wa or naka 7ti wa, " among the rest." Ma 
originally meant "space," "room." 

17. The emphatic repetition of the accusative after the verb is rather 
common, especially in the mouths of the lower classes. 

18. Oito is an interjection, which we have very freely rendered by 
" excuse me." 

WHY ? 411 

there are among the number, when you get to the very 
lowest of them, races of men who pay not the slightest 
heed to the ties of kindred, who show no trace of family 
affection or of anything of that sort, but who are quite 
contented if, by hook or by crook, they can, each on his 
own account, scrape together a livelihood. 

Gentlemen ! just look at the way dogs live. What is 
it like, let me ask ? Is it not true that the fondness be- 
tween the piarent and her young endures but for a brief 
season, while the puppies are sucking ? Wean them, 
and at once they become strangers — excuse me, strange- 
curs — to one another. This being so, I take it that 
such creatures as the savage races just referred to belong 
to the category described as *' not far removed from the 
birds and beasts." To begin by parental, filial, and frater- 
nal love, gradually to extend such kindly feelings to 
neighbours, then to all the people of a district, and next to 
those of a province is the origin of patriotism. But there 
can never be any such thing as patriotism in the absence 
of even the love between living parents and children. 

However, we Japanese are fortunately not so ignorant 
as all that, and accordingly we have a fair share of the 
patriotic spirit. But having this patriotic spirit, the wfy 
of which I have spoken becomes all the more indispens- 

19. Tanin and taken, lit. * other-person " (or "stranger") and 
** other-dog," make a sort of pun, which we have endeavoured to render 
in the English version by " strangers " and '* strange curs " (!) 

20. An exceptional verbal form meaning " what is called," and 
derived from ««, "to say," like araynru fr 'm am (see foot-note 9, 

lP- 407). 

21. This quotation is in the Written Language, where tokarazu is 
the " negative conclusive present " of the adjective toi, " far," and is 
equivalent to the Colloquial tdku nai. 

412 NAZE ? 

hitsuyb ni naite kuru shidai de, — Shi-sho Go-kyo wo rikuisu 
nashi ni galen shtie^ Sht-sho Go-kyo inai no yo no naka de 
award to omotte mOy kochira wa kore de manzoku shtle mo^ 
O-Bei shoshu wa manzoku sezu ; shidai ni naze z«w mochi- 
He, shin-kwairaku wo shojiru to sureba^, yushoreppai shizen 
no ikioi de^ beisu ni 0-Bei-jin ni Nihon wo horohosb to iu 
kokorozashi nashi to sum mo, hitori-de ni horobile shimau 
karay shiyb ga nai. Nihon bakari, hoka ni kuni wa nai to 
iu koto naraba, go chumon-dori^ Shi-sho Go-kyo inai no yo 
na naka de iisu made mo irareru keredomOy hoka ni kuni 
ga iakusan aiie wa, so wa ikazu ; mendo-kXtsakeredomo, naze 
wo mochiiie^ mono^goio no sensaku wo seneba narimasen. 

22. To sureha — '* if it should come to pass that." 

23. Go chumon-dori, lit. " according to (your) august orders," here 
used half- jokingly in the sense of '* if you please." This half-polite 

WHY? 413 

able. Even should we, acquiescing unreasoningly in 
the dicta of the Chinese Classics, think to live on in a 
Chinese Classic world, the satisfaction with such a state 
of things would be for ourselves alone. None of the 
nations of Europe and America will be satisfied with it. 
They will go on using the word ivhy, they will go on 
inventing new sources of happiness. This granted, there 
will be no help for it but that Japan must perish natural- 
ly, without the necessity for assuming any special inten- 
tion on the part of foreign nations to destroy her, but by 
the mere working of the law of the survival of the fittest. 
If Japan were the only country in the world, then, gentle- 
men, you might continue forever to please yourselves by 
living on in a Chinese Classic world. But this plan will 
not do when there are so many other countries besides 
ours. Troublesome though it be, we are bound to use the 
word why^ and to search to the root of everything. 

half-joking use of the honorifics is by no means uncommon, and is 
used to give many jl sly tap under cover of an apparently polite style 
of address. • ^ . 



Doiis&'koku no tofu de, Heidelberg to iu iokoro ni, dai- 
gakko ga armashXfe, soko ni koioshi hachi-fi-rohn ka shtchi 
ni narareru ioshi no yotta sensei ga Miori oraremasfS^. 
Kak&shdku^ iaru rbjin de, sono na wo Bunsen to iimashtie^ 
sono HUo no semmon kara ieha, walttkushi-domo* no nakama 
de arimasu ga, — nenrei no choyo^ to, chishiki no tashb kara 
moskimasii to, tuare-ware no dai'sensei de arhnasu ga, — 
sono Kilo ga seinen no koro, aru beppin^ to kon-in no yakM- 
soku ga dekite, nan-gelsu ik-ka ni wa, gozen no Ju-ichi- 
ji goro ni, lera ni oiie kon-in no shtki wo okonao to ille, 
yakusoku wo shimasKUa ga,—/ujin no ho de wa , rippa na 
yosooi wo shile, " Osoku naru to ikenai " to itte, ju-ji goro 
kara tera ni haitte, Bunsen no kuru no wo matte imashtta 
ga,—jU'ichi-ji ni nolle mo, jH-ni-ji ni natte mo, san-ji ni 
natte mo, yoji ni natte mo, Bunsen sensei yatte^ konai kara^ 

I. Shi is book language for « Mr." Noberaretaru is book language 
for noberareta, honorific potential for nobeta ; conf. \ 403, p. 350. Ni 
oite is a somewhat stiff equivalent of ni, " in." — 2. Narareru is honori- 
fic potential for naru ; orarfntasu is similarly for orimasu. Instead of 
saying " is eighty-six years old," Japanese idiom prefers to say " be" 
comes eighty-six years old." — 3. ||jR|» ^ learned Chinese word for 
" hale." The following particle iaru is a^book language form, a con- 
traction of to aru, "being (that);" na would here be the true Col- 
loquial equivalent. Z?tfs=«* being." — 4^ A humble term; see top of 





At Heidelberg, a town in Germany, there is a univer- 
sity, where lives an old professor now eighty-six or seven 
years of age. He is a hale old man, and his name is 
Bunsen. He and I are colleagues, in the sense that 
we are both specialists in the same field. But the 
difference of our respective ages and of our talents makes 
of me his very humble follower. — Well, this old gentleman, 
in his younger days, had engaged himself to a beautiful 
girl. It had been settled that the wedding should lake 
place at the chuneh at about ekven a'clo€k in the 
morning of a certain day in a ceTtftin mjcmth. So the bride, 
anxious not to be late, reached the church about ten in 
brilliant array, to find, however, that Bunsen had not yet 
arrived. Eleven o'clock came, twelve o'clock came, three 
o'clock, fbnr o'clock, — still nxir sig^ of the Professor. A 

p. 49. Ware-ware, a little lower down, fs Iiumble too. The lecttrrer 
and Dr. Bunsen are both chemists.— 5. CTio-yo^^ o\d young;' ftcnce 
«*age." Ta'Sho^*'muc\i litUc," hence "amount;" conf. f 48, p. 54, 
for the " synthesis of contradictories," wHich these terms exemplify. — 
6. This word is used half-jokingly. Indeed there is a touch of raillery 
in all this passage, especially in the bride's words " Osoku naru to 
ikenaiy — 7. A somewhat slangy substitute for the proper verb, which 
would here be df^/tf or miete, Cont yarakaskUe, so often used by the 
lowest classes as a substitute for all sorts of verbs. Hhtyatte just below 
has its usual sense of *' sending." 


uchi ye htio zvo yaiie ukagawaseru io, senses wa doko ye iita 
ka ? inaiio iu no de,^ fujin no ho de wa taiso hara tvo iaietey 
siigti ucfdni haette shimaiia to iu koh,^ 

Sale Bunsen sensei wa, sono hi no asa kara jikken-shiisu 

de chiisa na shaken wo hajimete iia ga, — sono shtken ni 

omoshiromi ga tsuiie^ jikan no sugiru no ni mo kokorozukazu, 

yagaie tokei wo miru io, gogo no roku-ji de atta kara, hi ga 

Isuiie, odoroiie, iera ye Hie miru to, fujin no ho tva, okoiie 

kaette shimatia ato de arimasKUa. Soko de, Bunsen sensei no 

izvaku^^ : ^* Kon-in io iu mono wa, mendokusai mono da'* 

iOy — sore-giri sono go wa kon-in wo sezu ni, konnichi de 

?no kakiishaku taru rojin de, musai de orimasu, 

" Kore wo miie mo, gahimon no kenfyu no omoshiroi koto 
wa wakari ni narimasho. 

8. There is not any intention of quoting words actually used. 
Iu has here little signification. To iu no ^=*<it being the fact 
that..."— 9. Koto is here a sort of expletive. To iu, "it is said 
that," does not require to be represented in the English transla- 

N. B. Apropos of these lectures, we take the opportunity to re- 

7 mind students of the fundament^ difference between English and ' 

Japanese in the matter of the length and complication of sentences, 

brought about by that system of syntactical "integration,'* which we 

have explained in ^ 442 — ^4, p. 280 ei seq. No foreigner will 


messenger was sent lo the house to make enquiries. 
Where was he ? Nowhere to be seen I Thereupon, home 
went the bride in a fury. 

The fact was that the Professor had instituted some 
small experiment in his laboratory on the morning of the 
day in question, and had become so deeply interested in 
it as to fail to notice the flight of the hours. By and by, 
on looking at his watch and finding that it was six o'clock 
in the afternoon, he recollected the situation with dismay, 
and hurried off to the church to see what could be done. 
But the bride had already departed in her wrath. There- 
upon, the Professor came to the conclusion that marriage 
was a bother. So he remained unmarried from that day 
forward, and he still lives on as a hale old man, but wife- 

This example may suflSce to show you the attraction 
which scientific investigation is capable of exercising. 

tion. — ID. JVo iwaku, lit. " the speech of," is a Classical equiva- 
lent for the Colloquial ga iimashtta, — ii. The original wording of 
this last paragraph has beoi slightly altered, to suit the purposes 
of the present work. 

attain to a good Japanese style, unless he learns how to concatenate his 
thoughts into long and complicated periods, just as no Japanese will 
express himself clearly in English unless he learns to be short and 
simple. The English translation of the above lecture has no less than 
eighteen sentences. The Japanese original has but five. 



yb no naka m'wa, '*me-ah' sethnm, mekura sen-nir^" to 
iu koh ga aru, Tsugo m-sen-nin no uchi, me-aki to mekura 
ga sen-nin-zuisu aru to iu no de arimasu ga, — waiakushi zva, 
me-aki to mekura wa iotemo hambun-zuisu arb to wa omowanai, 
Ni'Sen-nin no uchi ni, sen ku-hyaku ku-ju shtchi-hachi-nin made 
wa mekura de, sono ato no ni-san^nin ga me-aki de, — sore 
mo me-aki ni naren kurai de aru, Sore-hodo yo no naka ni 
iva mekura ga oi. Sore wa hontb no mekura de wa nau 
Rigaku tetsugaku ga mekura na no da. Shin ni gakumothjo 
kara ieba, sen ku-hyaku ku-ju shtchi-hachi-nin wa mina mekura 
de aru. Sore dake ni oi mekura no yo no naka de arebc^^ 

I. The lecture from which these few ps^es have been extracted 
has been reprinted by its learned and eloquent author in pamphlet 
form, under the title of " Toku-iku Hoho An." Dr. Kato, in granting 
the present writer permission to make use of the composition in ques- 
tion, suggested that it would be best to take the text of the pamphlet, 
as having been touched up, and hence showing a better style. After 
some consideration, this advice has been disregarded, it seeming 
more interesting, and also probably more profitable from the point of 
view of a student of the Colloquial, to print the words exactly as 
taken down by the short-hand reporter from the accomplished 





The proverb tells us that **for every thousand with 
eyes, there are a thousand without." That is to say that, 
out of a total of two thousand persons, there are a thou- 
sand who can see and a thousand who cannot In my 
opinion, however, the proportion of those who can, to 
those who cannot, see is by no means equal. Out of 
every two thousand persons, no less than one thousand 
nine hundred and ninety-seven or eight are blind, leaving 
but two or three with sight, while even those two or three 
cannot see properly. Thus enormous, in this world of 
ours, is the proportion of blind folks. I do not mean to 

say that they are blind physically. They are blind 

I « II I II — ^f^^^^ 

speaker's lips, and published in the "Journal of the Educational 
Society of Japan,*' No. 68, and also in the •* Taika Rons^^' No. 7, 
the text of which latter ^leriodical has here been followed. The an 
of icht'on is lit. "an opinion," hence "a case," here rendered "a 
point." — 2. Observe the potential used honorifically. — ^3, For this 
proverb, see p. 312, Na 21. Observe, here and elsewhere, how we 
anglicise the style by turning the phrase personally ("the proverb 
tells us,*' etc.), and conf. f 44©, P- 279. If all the sentences were left 
in^)ersonal as in the Japanese original, the translation would never 
read like genuine English,— 4. The conditional mood here has its 
original Classical sense of " since, " when," or " as,** ....,'* not " if . . . , ;" 
conf. p. 184. 


mekura wo osamei^ iku dogu io iu mono ga nakereba naran, 
Ni'san-nm no me-aki tvo osameru dogu yori uua, sen ku-hyaku 
ku'ju shtchi-hachi-nin made aru mekura wo osameru no ga 
hiisuyo de aru. Soreyue ni^ waiak&shi wa sen ku-hyaku ku-^u 
shtcht-hachi-nm no mekura no fame ni hiisuyd de aru kara, 
sono ho no dori kara ieba, TJoataiSUshi wa shukyb to iu mono ga 
iaihen s&ki ni naru, Doiisu no ieisugak&'Sha Schopenhauer 
io iu hiio no iuta^ koioha ni, " Shufyd zva hoiaru no yd na 
mono'*, Kurai iokoro de nakereba , hlkaru koto ga dekinat^" 
io moshimasHUa ga, — waiakushi no kangae ga, ima mbsKUa 
tori ni, yo no naka no ni-sen-nin no uchi, sen ku-fyaku ku-ju 
shtchi-hachi-nin made wa mekura de aru io sureba^, maru de 
yami no sekai de aru, Yami no sekai de areba, hoiaru ga 
hikaranakereba narimasen. 

Augusie Comie io iu hiio no koioba ni, ** Kono yo no 

n aka no susumu zva, shufyo-ieisugaku kara sozo-ieisugaku no 

sekai^^; sore kara susunde^ jikken-ieisugaku ni naru " io iu 

koio wo mbshvnasMa ga, — waidlmshino kangae de wa, shukyd 

no sekai wo hanareie shimau koto wa yoi ni dekinai, Ippan 

no jimmin ga shOfyo no sekai ni iru mono de aru io kangaeru. 

. Sd iu yd ni kangaereba, sunawachi shukyd io iu mono zva, 

rigaku ya ieisugaku no me kara mireba, makoio ni kuri wo 

S. Osameru, " to pacify," " to govern," hence here ** to guide." — 
6. 2uta is "a westemism,*' see p. 163. — 7. Supply da, "is." — 8. Ob- 
serve the double negative, used in Japanese to express tiie sense 


scientifically and philosophically. One thousand nine 
hundred and ninety-seven or eight of them are blind, if re- 
garded from the standpoint of the truly educated. Since, 
then, this world is one in which the blind so greatly predomi- 
nate, we need something wherewith to guide them. Far 
more indispensable than the machinery wherewith to guide 
the two or three who can see, is that required for the guid- 
ance of the one thousand nine hundred and ninety-seven or 
eight who cannot Thus does it come about that a con- 
sideration of the subject from our present point of view 
makes me quite a friend to religion, as the thing need- 
ed for the guidance of the one thousand nine hundred and 
ninety-seven or eight who cannot see. The German 
philosopher Schopenhauer has said : ' ' Religion is like 
a firefly. It can shine only in dark places." Now, if I am 
right in thinking, as I said just now, that out of every two 
thousand persons in the world, no fewer than one thousand 
nine hundred and ninety-seven or eight cannot see, ours 
is indeed a world of total darkness. And if it is so dark 
a world, the light of the fireflies must not be dispensed with. 

Auguste Comte has said that the stages of the world's 
development are first from the theological order of ideas 
to the metaphysical, and thence on to that of the positive 
philosophy. But in my opinion it is an infinitely difficult 
matter for the world to pass out of the theological stage. 
I think that the mass of mankind are in this theological 
stage. And to one who thinks thus, religion, though 
unacceptable, — indeed unworthy of mention, — from the 
scientific or philosophical standpoint, because dealing 

which we render by the word " only.** — 9. To sureba^*' if one assumes 

that ," hence "if I am (allowed to be) right in thinking that. ..." 

— 10. Supply ni nari, correlated with ni naru in the next daase. 


ioiie, ioru ni iaran, shiga ni kakuru m iarar^^ to iu yd na 
mono de aru keredomo, sono uchi sen ku-hyaku ku-ju shtcht- 
kachi-nm no mekura no iame ni wa makoio ni hiisuyo nam 
mono. Sore da kara, konnichi ippan no iokuiku to iu mono 
zm, do shUe mo shufyb de nakereba, yaku ni iatan, Arigaiai 
io ka, osoroshii io ka iu Kami Sama^^ to ka, Hotoke Sama to 
ka, Jblei io ka iu Honzon Sama ga aiie, sore too iayori ni 
shiie, kunio shiie iku oshie de nakereba, ippan no gumai na 
sekai ni wa kiki-me ga nai, Rigaku ieisugaku wa kosho na 
mono da keredomo^ kore wa gak&sha-shakwai ni hiisuyo na 
mono de, sono hoka ni nani ni mo yd wo nasu koto wa dekinai, 
Sono hokay ippan no HUo ni zva, shufyo no ho kara defa 
iokuiku de nakereha, sUkoshi mo yd wo nasan mono de aro io 
iyO'iyo waiak^hi no kangae ja omou. 

Sore nareba, shUfyo wa do iu shufyb ga yokarb to iu mondai 
ga sono tsugi ni deie kuru. Donna shuk)^ wo mochiiiaraba^ kond 
ga aro ka to iu mondai ga deie kuruga^ — wataJ&shiwa shukyo 
no/tltkai tokoro wo shir an. DaOai no seishiisu wa, dotoku-tetsii' 
gaku kara mireba, shinri ni kanawan mono to minakereba^^ naran, 
Kuwashii koto wa shirimasen kara, dono shukyo ga yokaro io 
TJoataJmshi ga kesshiie sadameru koto wa dekin, Tada konnichi 
made no sekai ni kond no aita tokoro no aio ni tsuiie, jijitsu no 
ue yori kangaete mireba^*, Faso-kyo ga ichiban koseki ga aita 
yd ni kangaeraruru, Bukkyd no ho wa, iitai no ydsu wo kan- 

II. Lit. "not sufficient to place on the teeth," i.e., " unworthy of 
mention/' For the negative iaran, ist conj., instead of iarin, 3rd conj., 
. see p. 164. — 12. Kami, though adopted by the Protestant missionaries 
to denote tlie Christian God, here has its proper original sense, ie., it 
denotes the gods and goddesses of Shintoisnu ydtei, lit. *' the Supreme 
Emperor," is here the Christian God. For the sake of making a dis- 
tinction, we have rendered Kand by " a deified hero," that being a feir 
approach to the status of many of the gods of Shintoism. Honzon, on- 


with gratuitous fancies, — religion, I say, is indispensable for 
the sake of the one thousand nine hundred and ninety-seven 
or eight who cannot see. For this reason moral culture in 
general, inculcate it as you will, is of no avail in our day 
unless associated with religion. No system of training will 
produce practical results in this universally stupid world 
of ours, unless it possess, and use as its lever, some object 
of worship either beneficent or redoubtable, be it a deified 
hero, a Buddha, or a supreme God. Science and philo- 
sophy are sublime things. But they are needed only by the 
learned world, beyond the limits of which they are power- 
less. I grow daily more fully convinced that, beyond those 
limits, among mankind at large, no moral training that 
does not start from religion is likely to have the least effect. 
Supposing this position granted, there next arise the 
questions : — Which religion is probably the best ? Which 
religion will probably, if adopted, be most fertile in 
results? In the presence of such questions, I feel my 
own ignorance of the profounder aspects of religion. 
Nevertheless, the general character of religion is known 
to me, and this general character must be pronounced to 
be in disagreement with truth as deduced from moral 
philosophy. My ignorance of details incapacitates me 
altogether from deciding which religion is the best. But 

ginally a Buddhist term, means lit. " the chiefly revered," i.e., " the 
(chief) object of worship." The many SanuCs here are slightly ironi- 
cal. — 13. Miru, "to see," here and often elsewhere =" to consider," 
** to regard as."— 14. Lit "If, following after the traces of that which 
(Jokoro) has been of effect in the world of till to^ay, and looking, one 
considers from the top of facts, one may think (potential kangaeraruru ; 
also to be rendered "I am inclined to think*') in such wise that 
Christianity has been of the most deeds." For hangaerantru^ instead 
of kangaerareru, see N.B. to p. 165, 


gaeie mireda, ieisHigaku mad$ mo haiUe vru yd d^^^ /ukai dort 
made ioUe am* Naka^ttaka YasO'fyd nado no yd na asai mono 
de nai, Yohodo hosho na mono de armasH keredomo, ski" 
kashi^^ shukyo io shtla kdno de uua^'', Faso-fyo hodo no kono wa 
nakaro io kangaemasu, Shtkashi-nagara, mukashi ijoa Buk- 
fyo mo kono ga aUa de artmash^^ ga^ — konmchi de zva, kono 
ga USUI yd ni kangaeru, Kono Bukkyo no kono no usui no iva, 
shukyo ga warui no de naku, shukyo wo fsUkasadoru hUo m 
juhun iekiio shila hiio ga iakusan nai lame ni, BukJyo no 
kono ga nai no ka mo shiremasen^*. Sore wado da ka shvi- 
masen ga, — Faso-kyo wa konmchi Yorofpa ni jubun kono ga 
am, Moiiomo, mukashi yori kono ga oioroele iru keredomo, 
konnichi de mo zuibun am, Yoroppa de wa, joid-shakzvai de 
mo YasO'kyd wo shinzuru^ hxio ga du Yoroppa no ki/ii ya 
shisd no dai-bubun wa, Yaso-fyd ga moto ni naile, so shtte sono 
kuni no kifu ya shisd ga sore kara umi-dasareie iru. Sore 
hodo kdnd no am moncP^, Shtkashi gakusha no seisu de wa, 
*' Shufyo wa kdnd ga nai, Jimmin no kifti ya shisd wo 
umi-dasu kdnd wa nai mono de aru " io iu ga, — waiakushiwa 

15. Ijt. " being {de) the appearance that even philosophy is inside." — 

16. Shtkashi followed by keredomo may seem tautological. Such cona- 
binations are, however, not infrequent, though the present writer does 
not undertake to recommend them to the imitation of foreign students. — 

17. Lit. "with regard to its efficacy as being a religion," jwrwhere 
resembling our verb "to be;" conf. \ 356—7, p. 227.— 18. Atta 
de arimashd=x** it probably is a fact that there was." — 19. According 
to European notions of logic, the last clause of this sentence is super- 
fluous, because reiterating the ideas of the first, and we should incline 
to make the sentence end after lame with some such words as /^^m- 


a practical consideration of the eflfecls produted on the 
world by various religions down to the present day leads 
me to look on Christianity as probably the one that has 
made most, proof of efficiency. Buddhism, indeed, consi- 
dered theoretically and in its totality, with the philosophy 
which is apparently contained in it and the profoundness 
of its reasoning, rises far superior to any such shallow 
doctrines as Christianity has to offer. Buddhism is sub- 
lime in the extreme. Nevertheless, I venture to think that 
its influence as a religious system has been inferior to that 
of Christianity. No doubt it may have been influential in 
olden times ; but I do not think it has much influence 
in our own day. Perhaps this insufliciency arises, not 
from any defect in Buddhism itself, but from a paucity of 
suitable men among those who direct its affairs. How 
this may be, I know not. But this I know : — Christianity 
has enormous influence in Europe at the present day. 
True, this influence is no longer what it once was, but it 
is still great. Most Europeans, even those belonging to 
the upper classes, still believe in Christianity. Christianity 
is the foundation on which the sentiments, the thoughts 
of Europeans mostly rest, — the mother by whom those 
sentiments, those thoughts were given birth to. Thus 

san nai tame ka mo shiremasen. But thus to repeat in a final clause 
the idea of the first clause (here, Kono Bukkyo no kono no ustd no wa) 
is quite consonant to Japanese methods of thought and expression. 
In such cases, either the first clause or the last must be dropped from 
the English translation. Observe the difference between J^a mo shire-' 
masen at the end of this sentence, meaning *' one cannot know whe- 
ther," here freely rendered *• perhaps," and ka skirintasen immediately 
below, meaning " I know not." — ^20. Shinzuru is slightly bookish for 
shinjiru. Similarly below we find benzuru for ^^»/Vrw/ conf. If 353, 
p. 226.— 21. Supply desu^ "it is." 

436 LSCTUftES. 

sonna chikara no usui mono to wa minai Shtkashi, ckikara 
ga USUI to ka, iakusan aru to ka iu koto wa, konnichi koko de 
henzuru koto wa dekimasen kara, okimashtt^, tada waidkusht 
wa shukyo wa zut^n chikara no aru mono ; so slnte kokumm 
no h^ ya shiso no bi nam genso ni natte iru mono to kan^ 
gaeru, Yoroppa de wa, joto-shakwai to ledomc^, konnichi 
seiryoku too motte iru. So iu tokoro no keiben kara*\ Faso-kyo 
ga ichiban kono ga^ aru mono de aru to watakushi wa omotu 

22. OJHmas/nU a "le&w'mg that aside."— 23. To iedomo hsxQ^de 
mo, ** even (in)." This is an idiom borrowed from the Written I-an- 
goage. — 24. *• (Judging) from the convenience of such things " (^tokoro). 


great has been its influence. It is true that the learned 
deny this influence, and assert that religion is powerless 
to produce thoughts and sentiments. But I, for my part, 
cannot regard it as so powerless a thing. Be this as it 
may, I cannot at this time and in this place discuss the 
question as to the degree of power which it may or may 
not possess. I will, therefore, only advance my personal 
opinion, which is that religion has considerable power, 
that it is indeed a prime factor of national sentiment and 
national thought Its force is felt in Europe at the pre- 
sent day, even in the upper classes of society. These 
advantages it is that lead me to regard Christianity as, of all 
religions, the one that produces the greatest effects. 

25. No would here be more regular, as the phrase is an attributive 
one ; see If 206, p. 141. Ga is, however, sometimes exceptionally used 
in such contexts. 



Chikagoro Seiyo ni shinkuM-ron ga sakan ni okoiie^ kono 

ienchi hamlmtsu ga deki, kono yo no naka ga deki-agaiiaru 

ho-ho wo toki^akashimasuru, Sono setsu ni yoiie mtreba, kono 

sekat ni wa hajime wa shigoku ianjun naru seHnUsu sKka 

arimasenanda ga, — sore ga iekiio no fyogu no haiaraki wo 

ukCy ima no fukuzatsu naru kono uruwashtki sekai wo /sukuri" 

dashimashtia, Kono tekUb no kybgu to wa, sunawachi shizen- 

idiajand^, shiyu-iotajano to iu mono* ga arimasu. Yusho^reppai, 

iekishu-seizon to iu koto ga arimas&, Subete kore-ra seidutsu 

no hattatsu, skinkwa ni tekito naru kybgu to iu koto wo komaka 

ni seisumei shiiaru mono* de arimasu, Ima kono kybgu no 

haiaraki wa, iada db-shoku-hutsi^ no nikuiai no ue nomi narazu, 

maia watakushi-domo no chishiki no ue ni iotie kangaeie mo, 

I. Written with the Chinese characters iC^S±0 9tfi- ''^^ 
sermon was printed in a Christian magazine (now extinct) entitled 
^^Hanltyo^' or "The Echo." It somewhat approaches the Written 
Language in its style. Thus we find : in line 2, agattaru for agatta; 
lines 4 and 6, naru for na ; line 6, urmuashiki for uruwashii; line 6 of 
p. 430, s€sHtneta for saseta, etc.; furthermore the constantly recurring 
use of the indefinite form at the end of clauses, as deki in line 2, cor- 
related with deH-agattaru in the next clause. Here are (for the benefit 
of the student's Japanese teacher) the Chinese characters with which the 
most difficult words in this sermon are written : — sMn-kwaron, ^S^fblfti 
** the doctrine of evolution ; ^'fukuzatsu, ft JHI i " complicated ; " shizm^ 



Ol" late years wide credence has been given in Western 
countries to the doctrine of evolution, which explains the 
method whereby heaven and earth and all that there» 
in is arose, — the way in which the world was finished. 
According to this theory, the world at first contained 
none but the simplest types of life, which, thanks to the 
action of a suitable environment, resulted in the formation 
of our present complicated and beautiful world. The 
suitable environment in question includes such things as 
natural selection and sexual selection, such facts as the 
struggle for existence and the survival of the fittest. 
The theory explains in detail the conditions of environ- 
ment which are favourable to the development and evolu- 
tion of living beings. Now, this action of the environ- 
ment is exercised not only on the bodily frames of animals 
and plants. It is as clearly to be traced in the develop- 

ioia, g|SWi&» "natural selection;" shiyU-tdta,1^i^^^ "sexual 
sdection ; " yusho^eppai, flE R ^ Ki " ^^ struggle for existence" (in- 
cluding the idea of the survival of the fittest) ; teMskt^^seiton^ 3K8£#» 
** the survival of the fittest ; " and, close to the end, jika-dochaku^ gg5 
g^, " self-confutation."— 2. Jam is the Kyoto equivalent of the dona 
explained on p. 80. — 3. Mono in this sentence is equivalent to koto 
in the next. The author was perhaps led to this somewhat exceptional 
use of mono by an instinctive dislike to the repetition of too many hoto^s 
in succession. — 4. This mono denotes the doctrine of evolution. — 
5. Short for dobtttstt shokubuisu. 

430 A SEBHON. 

hanahada akiraka m tuakarimas^, Gak&sha to gujtn ga dekiru 
no mo, sono kyogu than niyotte bi ni sadamaru koto de^ ima koko 
fit onaji saichi onaji rikiryb wo moite oru kodomo wo toite, htiori 
zva goku inaka no shimbun wo miru koto mo nai chiho ni 
oki ; maia hiiori wa, kore wo iotk^, bummei no ckushin to iu 
Tokyo ni oki, tsui ni daigaku ni ireie shUgaku seshimeia naraba, 
go-nen ka roku-nen no nochini wa, kono/uiari no chishikt-jd 
hoiondo ien<hi no chigai ga dekiru koto de arimasH, {Chu- 
ryaku'. ) 

Yo no naka no hUo ga moshimasuru ni, watatmshi wa yoi 
koto wo shtiaito iu kangae ga jubun ari ; watalmshi ni wa zen 
wo nashttai to iu negai ga jObun ari; wataJmshi no okonaiwo 
mite mo, TVaiakushi wa kakubetsu warui koto wo sinte oru to 
wa omoimasen. Sude ni wataJnishi no kokoro ni rybshin ga 
atte, watakushi ni zen wo susume, aku wo imaskimemasu kara, 
sono rybshin no sashizu wo motte ikeba, betsu ni Seisho ivo 
yomazu, betsu ni inori wo shinakute mo yoroshiio iu is-sAu 
no kangae ga gozaimasu. Sate kono kangae zva, Nikon nomi 
ni okonawarete oru chiisai mono ka to iu ni, Seiyb no mottomo 
bummei naru Doiisu, Igirisu ni cite mo okonoTJoaruru tokoro 
no mono de aru, Shufyb wa iranai, sekkyb wo kiku koto wa 
iranaif Seisho woyomu koto wa iranai, tada watdJmshi no kokoro 
de warui koto wo shinakereba yoroshii to mbshimasu. Do de 
arimashb ka ? Koko ni goku chiisai kito-tsubu no shii no mi 
ga dete kite mbsu ni, ** Watakushi wa, watakushi no uchini 
kano kbdainaru sora ni soUyuru shii no Mto naru no chikara 
wo motte ori, kore to naru keikwaku wo sonaete oru ga yue ni, 
6. lit. " as for again one, having taken him '- {kore), — 7, This word is 

A SERMON. 431 

ment of our intelligences. The environment it is^ which 
chiefly determines whether a man shall be learned or 
ignorant Take two children of equal intelligence and 
ability. Set down one of them in a place where there is 
not so much as the poorest provincial newspaper to be 
seen. Take the other, and set him in Tokyo, the centre 
of enlightenment; let him finish his studies at the uni- 
versity, and in five or six years there will result, in the 
intellects of these two youths, a difference almost as 

great as that which divides heaven from earth 

People declare themselves to be fiiU of good resolves, 
full of yearnings after virtue, and incapable, on self- 
examination, of discovering anything particularly repre- 
hensible in their actions. Their hearts, say they, have 
a good conscience, which recommends virtue to them 
and restrains them firom vice, — sl conscience which, if 
they follow its dictates, obviates all special need of 
reading the Bible and engaging in prayer. Nor is such a 
way of thinking an insignificant exception confined to 
Japan. It is to be found in the most civilised countries^ of 
the West, — in Germany and in England. There, too, 
men are apt to say that there is no use in religion, no use 
in hearing sermons preached, no use in reading the Bible, 
and that nothing is required beyond good intentions. 
Now, my brethren, how would it strike you, if a tiny 
acorn were to come and tell you that it contained in itself 
the capacity for growing into one of those gigantic oaks 
which rear their heads to the skies, and that, as its design 
was to become such a one, it had no special need of 

used, as a row of stars or dots is with us, to show that a passage has 
been omitted. It signifies literally « abbzeviating " (i. e., dispens- 
ing with), fyaku; "the middle," chu. 

432 A SERMON, 

heisu m laiyd ni ierasarenai de mo yoroshii, ame ni awazu to 
mo yaroshtif is^hi no naka ni ne wo hab^rasenai de mo 
yoroshii" io nuada, mina soma tva kore wo motte tka naru 
koto to nasaruru ka P Sadameie ** Roman ni mo hodo ga aru, 
Negau dake de wa, mokuteki tva iasserarenai*' io oseraruru 
ni chigai nai. 

Oyoso hUo wa, ika naru htio mie mo, ioki io shUe zen wo 
nashUai to iu negai wo okosan mono wa arimasen, Ano 
Ishtkawa Goemof^ mo, issho no uchi ni wa, kanarazu zen 
1V0 nashHai io iu nen wo okoshUa koio ga aru ni chigai 
not, Shtkashi kanji ga okoiia kara io iiie,^ zennin io wa 
mosaremasen. Ware-ware mo, ioki io shtie wa, Mjd ni shinko- 
shin ga okori, Seisho woyomazu ni oraren koio ga arimasH ; 
shinfa no hiio io majiwarazu ni oraren io iu koio ga arimasu, 
Shtkashi kanji ga okoiia kara io iii^, rippa naru Kami no shinja 
io wa mosaremasen, Tada ni kokorozashi dake de wa yahi ni 
wa iaian ; kanji dake de wa mok&ieki wa iasseraren. Kore 
woydsei ski, kore wo haiiaisu seshvmuru ni iekiio naru kyogu ga 
hanahada hiisuyb de arimaslu, Shitfyd wa iranai, Seisho wa 
iranaiio iu hnio-bHo wa, dare ka io iu ni, — sono hiio ga motiomo 
shinkwa-ron wo ionaeie, yoki kyogii ga nakereha dobuisu mo 
shokuduisu mo ningen mo dekinai io iu Jnio de, gakko wo 
omonji, shomoisu mo omonzuru iokoro no htio de arimasu, 
Kare-ra wa iada dbiokujb, shinkojo no koio ni kagiri, zenryo 
naru kyogu wa iranai io iimasu, Fb no naka ni jika-dochaku 
io iu koio ga oku arimasu ga, — kore yori hanahadashlki 
osoroshiki jika-ddchaku wa arumai io omoimasu. 

8. A notorioos highwayman of the latter part of the sixteenth 
century. He suffered the penalty of his innumerable crimes by being 
bofled to death in a cauldron oi oil. The scene of the execution was 

A SERMON. 433 

being shone on by the sun, no need of being moistened 
by the rain, no need of spreading its roots into the soil ? 
What would you think of this? Most assuredly you 
would say that even conceit has its limits, and that the 
forming of a wish by no means entails reaching the goal. 

There are none among the sons of men who do not 
occasionally form virtuous resolves. Doubtless Ishikawa 
Goemon himself formed virtuous resolves some time during 
the course of his life. But good impulses cannot be said to 
constitute a virtuous man. We ourselves occasionally 
experience an extraordinary ardour of belief, an extraordinary 
craving to read the Bible, an irresistible attraction towards the 
society of believers. But such good impulses cannot be said 
to constitute us exemplary Christians. A mere intention is of 
no use. A mere intention will not make us attain to the goal. 
It is essential that we should be placed in an environment 
calculated to foster our good intentions and develop them. 
Who are the men who say that religion and the Bible are 
useless ? They are those self-same ones, who, holding firmly 
to the doctrine of evolution, and asserting that neither 
animals, plants, nor human beings can develop without a 
favourable environment, lay the greatest stress on schools and 
on book-learning. It is only in matters of faith and morals 
that they assert the uselessness of a virtuous environment. 
Numerous as are the instances which the world affords of 
self- confutation, surely there never was a more extreme, a 
more terrible instance of self- confutation than this. 

the dry bed of the river Kamo at Kyoto. —9. For this idiom see ^f 118, 
p. 83. 


(Mr. Komuro Shigehiro presented a formal "question," caUing on 
the Matsiikata Cabinet — that now at the head cf affairs — to declare 
whether it intended to redeem its promise of governing constitutionally in 
accordance with the national desire, and of purifying the public service. 
Such were not the appearances that presented themselves to the public eye, 
but on the contrary, jobl)ery and corruption everywhere, even to the extent 
of buying up members of the Diet. He then went on to make a long and 
violent speech, alleging that this same prime minister, when in office some 
years ago, had misused his power by interfering in the general elections, 
and had even caused the burning of houses and the murder of many in- 
nocent people. But now His Excellency resorted to subtler means, — to the 
corrupting influence of gold, to the sale of offices, and the purchase of 
members. What was the use of Japan's victories in war, if her honour in 
peace was thus to be sullied by a " trading cabinet," whose millionaire 
supporters were nothing better than loafers in frock- coats and thieves in 
tall hats ? 

When Mr. Komuro had sat down, the proceedings continued as 
follows : — ) 

Kudo Kokan Kun {hyaku hi-ju shichi'bat^) : — Waiakushi ga 
Komuro Kun ni iaishtie shilsumon ga arimasH. Dozo koiae 
wo negaiiai. To iu mono wa, hoka de nai : — tadaima Komuro 
Kun no chb-chb twaruru iokoro ga, waiakicsht ra Xomuro Kum 

Notes. — i. This piece is taken from the verbatim report of the pro- 
ceedings of the Imperial Diet on March 3rd, 1897, printed in the 
Supplement to the Kzvatnpo^ or " Official Gazette," of the following day. 
Of Mr. Komuro*s speech we have given only a very brief summary ; but 
the subsequent debate is reproduced in full. On such occasions, speaking 
as they do on the spur of the moment, the members fall into almost 
pure Colloquial. Set speeches, prepared beforehand, are far more 


Mr. Kudo Kokan (No. 197) [then rose and said] : — I have 
a question to address to Mr. Komuro, and should be glad 
of an answer. What I refer to is simply this : — observing 
what Mr. Komuro asserts to be going on, as he has just 

deeply tinged with the influence of the book language, and are pro- 
portionately harder of comprehension by foreigners. Motions, addresses, 
etc., presented in writing, are all in the book language. — 2, There are 
three hundred members in the (Lower House of the) Diet, and to each 
a number is oflScially allotted. They sit in the order of their numbers, 
each at a separate desk. This arrangement of course precludes the local 
grouping of partisans. 


no sude ni okonau tokoro to mireba, — sore kara kono koto ni 
tsuite toil koto ga aru, 

Gicho (Hatoyama Kazuo Kun) : — Kudo Kun ni moshimasu 
ga, — shitsumon no bemmei ni taishite wa, yurushimasen.^ 

Kudo Kokan Kun : — Watakushi wa Komuro Kun ni iott 
koto ga arimasu. 

Komuro Shigehiro Kun {ni-hyaku ku-ju roku-ban) : — 
Shitsumon ni taisuru shitsumon no toben zva, ilashimasen, 

Kashiivada Seibun Kun (ni-hyaku ku-ju hachi-bati) : Hon-in 
wa kinkyU'dogi ga arimasu, 

Gicho : — Kudo Kun ni wa, mada hatsugen wa yurushite 
arimasen. Shitsumon no bemmei ni taisuru shitsumon zva, 

Kudo Kokari Kun : — Komuro Kun no erizetsu wa, gijo ivo 
kegashita mono to omoimasu. Sore ni tsuite nobeyb to omou, 
Kore wo o yurushi nasaran to iu koto wa nai. 

Gicho : — Dogi nara, yoroshii. Shitsumon nara, ikemasen. 

Kudo Kdka7i Kun : — Sore nara, kinkyu-dogi to shite, .... 

Gicho : — Kinkyu'dogi nara, yoroshii. 

Kashiwada Seibun Kun : — Gicho I Gicho I 

Gicho : — Sude ni Kudo Kun ni hatsugen no kenriwo atae- 
mashita kara, sono ato ni negaimasu. 

Kudo Kokan Kun endan ni noboru : — Watakushi wa Komuro 
Kun no enzetsu ni tsuite, — Komuro Kun no enzetsu wa kesshite 
sono mama ni shite okaruru monoja nai, Yue niichi-o watakushi 
2va Komuro Kun no toben wo ete, watakushi wa tadachi ni dogiwo 
ieishutsu shiiai to omoimasu. To iu mono wa, hoka de iva nai : 

3. Such would seem to be Mr. Kudo's mcining; but he is a l)acl, 
obscure speaker. Japanese speeches, more pei-haps than any others, 
suffer from being reported exactly, as oratory is not this nation's forte. 


-explained to us at great length, I now have something to 
ask him concerning it. ' 

The President (Mr. Hatoyama Kazuo) :-— I must inform 
Mr. Kudo that I cannot allow one question to be elucidated 
by another. 

Mr. Kudo Kokan :— I have something to ask Mr. Ko- 

Mr. Komuro Shigehiro (No. 296) : — I will not reply to a 
-question asked about a question. 

Mr. Kashiwada Seibun (No. 298) : — I have an urgency 
motion to propose. 

The President : — Mr. Kudo has not yet been given the 
right to speak. I cannot allow the elucidation of one 
question by means of another. 

Mr. Kudo Kokan : — I consider Mr. Komuro's speech a 
disgrace to this House. It is on that I would speak. You 
cannot refuse me permission to do so. 

The President : — It will do as a motion, but not as a 

Mr. Kudo Kokan : — Well then, as an urgency motion, .... 

The President : — If it is an urgency motion, it will do. 

Mr. Kashiwada Seibun : — Mr. President ! Mr. President ! 

The President : — I must ask you to wait, as I have already 
given Mr. Kudo the right to speak. 

Mr. Kudo Kokan then ascended the rostrum, and spoke 
as follows :— Referring to Mr. Komuro's speech, that speech 
of Mr. Komuro's is one which I can by no means let pass 
unnoticed. For this reason, what I desire is, once for all, to 
get an answer from him and thereupon to bring in a motion. 

Written composition has alone lieen honoured in the Far-East, while 
the spoken speech has been left unpruned and unkempt. — 4. Before 
yurushimasettt add ia no shUsuman wo in order to make the sense clear. 


— kono *' gh'n batshu, giin baishu " to m koto zta, koshu no mi" 
tomete oru koto de aru to iu koto de aru. * Jyashtku mo ware-ware 
wa kono rippo-fu ni tatte, giin no ichi-nin to natte oru mono de 
gozariniasu *. Giin wo baishu shttay — kono koto no tame ni iu 
no de wa nai. Baishu serareta mono ga^ moshi kono sam- 
hyaku-nin no uchi ni ari to suru nara, jitsu ni kono gikwai na 
shinsei wo midashtia mono de aru, Tadaima no enzetsu to iu 
mono zva, sude ni kono gikwai— giin no uchi ni baishu serareta 
mono ga aru, sore wo meigen shUai keredomo, ima koko de wa 
meigen senu to iu ga gotoki i wo iuta no de aru, Hatashlte 
sono koto ga aru naraba, Komuro Kun ga jubun ni nanigashi 
ga baishu serarete, dore-dake no jijitsu ga aru to iu koto 7va 
akiraka ni watakHishi wa uketamawaritai. Nan no nanigashi, 
— nam-ban no nan no nanigashi, kin nani-hodo wo motte, do iu 
te-tsuzukide baishu serareta (taisho), — /t(?r^ wo uketamawaritai 
O koiae aran koto wo kibo itashimasu, ( ' ' Sonna shitsumon 
wa muyo " to yobu mono ari. ) Moshi Komuro Kun ga 
koiaeru naraba, watakushi wa dogi wo teishutsu itashimasu, 
Moshi Komuro Kun ga kono koto wo — sono jitsu wo — rwazu 
shtte, baishu serareta to iu koto wo iu naraba^, kono gikwai wo 
hazukashimeta mono de aru, Yue 7ii kore wo chobatsu-iin ni 
/ushite, soto no shobun aran koto wo kibo suru to iu dqgi wo^ 
watakushi wa teishutsu itashimasu. 

5. Signification fairly clear, though the style is slovenly with its 
repetition of ^^/(? and aru. Lit. "as for the fact of saying * member 
purchase, member purchase/ it is a fact that he says that it is a fact that 
the public are noticing it" — 6. The force of iyaskiku mo, a difficult term, 
conveying the idea of being " trifling *' or " temporary," is here sought 
to be rendered by " I have the honour." Fu is ^, a " hall " or " place." 
— 7. I.e,, the places they occupy in the Diet ; conf. Note 2. — 8. Lit. ** if he^ 


What I refer to is simply this : — he says that the purchase 
of members of the Diet, on which he continues harping, is a 
matter of public notoriety. Now, I too have the honour to sit 
in this legislative hall, and to be numbered among its members. 
That any one should have purchased members, — that is not 
the reason for my speaking thus. But that members should 
have allowed themselves to be purchased, — if any such there be 
thought to be among our three hundred members, — then truly 
are they creatures who have profaned the sacred character 
of this assembly. The drift of the speech we have just 
listened to is more or less this, — that in this assembly, among 
our members, are men who have been purchased, that the 
speaker intends to declare this fact plainly, but will not do 
so now in this place. Well ! if such is really the case, I 
want to hear from Mr. Komuro in clear terms exactly who 
it is that has been purchased, and to what the circumstances 
really amount. The names of the members in question, 
their names together with their numbers^ the sums they were 
purchased for, and the manner in which the transaction was 
arranged {loud laughter), — that is what 1 want to hear. I 
desire Mr. Komuro kindly to answer this query. {A voice : 
*' Such questions are usc-Iess/*) If he replies, I will offer a 
motion. If, without actually stating it, — without adducing 
facts, — he leaves the members of the Diet under the imputation 
of having been purchased, then he has insulted this assembly. 
I therefore offer a motion that Mr. Komuro be handed over 
to the Disciplinary Committee, with a request that suitable 
punishment be meted out to him. 

says that they have been purchased." We have rendered tlie phrase by 
"if he leaves them under the imputation of having l^een purchased," 
because English usage demands stricter logic and finer distinctions 
than so poor a speaker as Mr. Kudo has at his command. 


Komuro Shigehiro Kun : — Shiisumon no shUsumon ru 
iaishiie way wataktishi wa iohen wo iiashimasen ga^ — ia no dogi 
de gozaimasuru nara, uketamazvaiie mo yoroshU ga^ — uuaiakushi 
wa iken wo nobete^ kaku no goioki koto ga aile wa ikan io iu 
koto wo seifu ni iadasKUa ni sugimasen. 

Kudo Kokan Kun : — Waiakdshi no dogi no yuen io iu mono 
wa, nanigashi ga haishu serareia io iu koio wo meigen siiru 
koio ga dekinai narada, sono koio ga nai no ni soi nai, Nat 
no wo moiie, giin ga baishU serareia io iu koio wo iu no zva, 
kono gikwai wo hazukashimuru mono^ de aru. Sunawachi, 
kore ga^^ chobaisu-iin ni/usanakucha naran, Yue ni chbhaisu- 
iin ni fusKUe, haiashtie kono koio ga aru ka ina ya wo iori- 
shirabeiCf izure baishti serareia mono^^ wa, baishu serareia 
mono; baishti seriareia mono ga nakereba, haisugen-ja wo 
chbbaisu ni fusanaJnicha naran, Yue ni waiakSishi ga kono 
dogi wo ieishuisu iiashimasu, Negawaku wa^ go sansei aran 
koto WO kibo iiashimasu, (** Sansei ! sansei ! " to yobu mono 

Kashiwada Seibun Kun : — Tadaima Kudo Kun no iwareia 
kinkyur-dogi wa, keisu wo o iori ni naru no desu ka ? 
Gicho : — Mochiron, sono tsumori desu, 
Kashiwada Seibun Kun : — Shikaraba, sansei de arimasu, 

Itioue Kakugorb Kun (ni-hyaku hachi-ju ban) : — Kore ga 
dogi de aru naraba, ichi-b iashikameie okimasu, Dogi no shut 
wo iashikameru iame ni^ hon-in wa haisugen wo moiomemasu. 

9. Mono stands by exception ior ko/o. Con/, ^[54, p. 39. — 
10. Thisga is curious, for one would have expected wo before the tran-. 
silive verb fusuru, Prol)ably Mr. Kudo had some other end to the 
sentence in his mind. Here, as elsewhere, one could wish that the 


Mr. Komuro Shigehiro : — ^Though I cannot reply to a 
question about a question, I may listen to it if it takes the 
shape of another motion. [I would, however, draw Mr. 
Kudo's attention to the fact that] what I have done has been 
simply to express my views, and to warn the government 
that such conduct was not permissible. 

Mr. Kudo Kokan : — The rationale of my motion is that if 
Mr. Komuro is unable to give the names of the members 
alleged to have been purchased, the statement as to their 
purchase is indubitably contrary to fact. To make an allega- 
tion as to the purchase of members in contradiction to the 
facts, is to insult this assembly, — conduct which must be sub- 
mitted to the Disciplinary Committee. It must be submit- 
ted to the Disciplinary Committee, and the question as to 
the occurrence of these malpractices must be investigated. 
If any members have been purchased, then they have been 
purchased ; but if none have been purchased, then the 
utterer of the libel must be punished. Therefore do I bring 
forward this motion. I beg that you will be so good as to 
second it. (A voice [or voices :] " / second it! I second it /") 

Mr. Kashiwada Seibun : — ^Are you going to take a vote 
on the urgency motion just brought forward by Mr. Kudo ? 

The President : — Of course that is my intention. 

Mr. Kashiwada Seibun : — In that case, I beg to second 
the motion. 

Mr. Inoue Kakugoro (No. 280) : — If this is a motion, 

there is something I should like first to ascertain. I ask to 

be allowed to speak, in order to ascertain the sense of the 


speeches were revised before being sent to the press. Sunardoachi liere has 
the force of a weak ** therefore," and is sufficiently indicated by the ap- 
position of the two clauses of the sentence. — 11. Here mono reverts to 
its proper material signification, and in this case means ** persons." 


Gicho : — Voroshii, 

Inoue Kakugoro Kun : — Tadaima Kudo Kun ga Komuro 

Shigehiro Kun wo chobatsu-iin ni/usuru io iu no de aru ga, 

chobaisu'iin nifusurn io iu no wa, do iuisumiwo moiie chobafsu^ 
tin ni/usuru no de aru ka ? 

Kudo Kokan Kun : — Gikwai wo hari shtia mono de aru 

Inoue Kakugoro Ku?i : — Yoroshii, Komuro Shigehiro Kun 
wa, /ashJka ni san-ju^mei no sanseisha ga aiie, shiisumon- 
sho wo ieishutsu shiia mono de aru io omoimasu. Chobaisu-im 
ni /usuru wa^ darc-dake wo chobaisu-iin ni fusuru no de 
arimasu ka ? 

Kudo Kokan Kun : — Waiakushi wa haisugen-ja wo — ima 
iiia mono^^ wo — chobaisu-iin ni/usuru no de aru, — sunawachi 
Komuro Shigehiro Kun wo, 

Inoue Kakugoro Kun : — Komuro Kun no iadaima no enzeisu 
wa, hon-in moyaya kiki-gurushiku kanjiie orimashtia keredotno, 
kb iu jijiisu ga aru io iu ga, do de aru ka io iu uiagai de aru, 
Kono giin no uchi ni baishit serareia mono ga aru io iu koio 
iva, shinbun mo mina so Hie oru. So Hie oru ga, — are ga 
honib desu ka, waiaktcshi wa domo honib io mo uso io mo 
zvakaran. '* Omae wa dorobb da^ Kudo Kun wa dorbbb da " io 
iuiara, ^' Waiakushi wa dorobdja nai,'' So darb. Dorobb de 
aru hazu wa nai. (Kassai. ) ^^Kore ga chbbaisu mondai ni naiie 
wa, — ware-ware genr on nojiyu wo mo He, kono gijb ni shusseki 

12. In Mr. Kudo's peculiar phraseology, ima itia mono is equivalent 
to ima enzetsu shita hito, — no very civil way of referring to another 
♦'honourable member."— 13. More lit. " but there is a doubt as to the 
how of his assertion that such facts exist," i.e. whether they may not 
exist after all. The de near the close of this sentence may sound queer 
to many, who would rather expect ga in such a context. But de is 
sometimes so used, though scarcely by natives of Tokyo. — 14. This 
complicated sentence is not only apparently, but really, olDscure. The 


The President : — All right. 

Mr. Inoue Kakugoro : — Mr. Kudo has just spoken to us 
of handing over Mr. Komuro Shigehiro to the Disciplinary 
Committee. But what is the offence for which he is to be 
handed over to that Committee ? 

Mr. Kudo Kokan : — For having slandered this assembly. 

Mr. Inoue Kakugoro : — Good. ]\Ir. Komuro Shigehiro 
had, I believe, thirty members to support him when he 
brought forward his question. Now, exactly whom do you 
propose to hand over to the Disciplinary Committee ? 

Mr. Kudo Kokan : I propose to hand over the utterer of 
of the libel, the man who spoke just now, — I mean Mr. 
Komuro Shigehiro. 

Mr. Inoue Kakugoro : — Mr. Komuro's speech made a 
more or less unpleasant impression on myself as well. But 
the question is, what degree of accuracy may there be in his 
assertion that such facts exist" ? As for the statement that 
among our members are men who have been purchased, all 
the newspapers are saying so. They are all saying so. But 
is it true ? I really cannot make up my mind as to whether 
it is true or false. If any one were to say, ''You are a 
thief," or '' Mr. Kudo is a thief," the reply would be, ''I am 
no thief. " No doubt There is no reason why you should 

first part of it may best be understood by supplying kotnaru after 
iiatU Wiif and assuming ware-ware to begin a new sentence. Mono ni 
^mono de aru no ni. AT? xtt^>^« refers to Kudo's contention. Ware- 
ware is the subject oikanziiru. Jiyu ni omoki 7Vo ka»zuru=z'* to set 
store on liberty." The minto^ or so-called " popular party," is that to 
which Count Matsiikata and his followers belong. The orator (Inoue) 
did not originally belong to it : — he (as stated just l)elow) only gave in 
his adhesion to it, in the hope of obtaining a reform of the press laws. 


shite oru mono ni^ kb iu giron wo dasu no W2, hon-in iva 
ieikoku gikivai no tame, ware-ware jiyu no, — kono genron no 
jiyu ni motiomo omoki zvo kanzuru ga tame ni, nakanzuku niirUo^ 
iurai genron no jiyu wo moppara sakan ni ionae-kiiatta kono 
naikaku wo sansei sum no wa, shinUfunshi no hakko-teishi zvo 
yameru ga tame ni sansei suru no de aru, ITUorijiyu zvo 
ionae-kiiatta Kudo Kun mizukara seigen suru nado wa, jitsu 
ni gaiian kiwamaru, Negazvaku zva, Kudo Kun, — hon-in zva 
Kudo Kun ni shiite nozomu : — doka waga Nihon-koku to iu 
mono^*—Jimmin ni—kaku made jiyu wo omonjiie oru to iu koto wo 
shirashimeru tame ni, kono gidai wo o HUH ni naru koto zvo kibb 
suru no de arimasu. 

Kudo Kbkan Kun : — Kes^htie htku koto zva dekimasen. 
Inoue Kun no goioku, harawata no/uhai sh^e oru mono to zva 
chigau no de aru. Kono shitsumon de arimasureda, kotaemasu. 

Inoue Kakugorb Kun :— Shitsumon itashimasu, 
Gichb : — Inoue Kun no shitsumon no shui zva ? 

Inoue Kakugorb Kun : — Shitsumon no shushi wa kayo de 
arimasti. Kudo Kun zva^jiyU wo omonjiie, kore wo o hiki ni 
naru zvake n\ wa ikimasen ka ? Kore ga shitsumon desu. 
(*'Muy6! muyo !" to yobu mono arl **Yarel yarel" to 
yobu mono ari. Gijo sozen.) Sukoshi shizuka ni shiie o 
kiki ni naranai to, wakaranai. Naruhodo, jiyu wa taisetsu na 
mono de aru .... 

15. After mono supply ni, thus putting Nihon-koku in apposition 
vii^jimnUn in the next clause. 16. The original Japanese expression 


be. {Applause. ) It is a pity that the question of punish- 
ment should have been raised. We bring to this assembly 
the right of free speech, when, lo and behold ! Mr. Kudo 
springs these questions on us. It is for the sake of 
the Imperial Diet, for the sake of our liberty of speech — that 
liberty by which we set more store than on aught else — 
that I have supported the Popular Party rather than any 
other, and the Cabinet which had hitherto so strenuously 
championed the cause of free speech, hoping thereby to put 
a stop to the suspension of newspapers. That only Mr. 
Kudo, who had hitherto been preaching liberty, should 
himself now do such a thing as call out for the punishment of 
others, is truly the height of sadness. I beg of you, Mr. 
Kudo I — it is my earnest entreaty to you, Mr. Kudo ! — do 
please withdraw this subject from discussion, in order to show 
lo Japan, to our people, the extent to which we respect liberty. 
Such is my request to you. 

Mr. Kudo Kokan : — I certainly cannot withdraw it. I 
am of a different sort from the insincere trimmers" like Mr. 
Inoue. If you have any question to ask me about this, I 
will answer it. 

Mr. Inoue Kakugoro : — I have a question. 
The President : — And the purport of Mr. Inoue's question 
is.... ? 

Mr. Inoue Kakugoro : — The aim of my question is as 
follows. Could not Mr. Kudo be persuaded to withdraw 
his motion, out of respect for liberty ? That is my question. 
(Some voices y ' ' No good! no good ! " Other voices y '' Go on f 
go on I " The chamber is in an uproar, ) You won't under- 
stand me, if you don't listen a little more quietly. Yes, 
indeed, liberty is an important thing. . . . 
is coarser ; see Vocabulary. 


Kudo Kbhan Kun : — Hiku ka Kikanai ka io m tura^ /ilkanai. 
Maia go shitsumon ga aru nara .... 

Inoue Kakugoro Kun : -^Mizukara jihaku sum nara, nanzo 
aeie koioha 7vo isuiyashimasen, " yiyu wo shiran htio io ana/a 
ga iu motto ni, tare ga shitsumon wo suru mono wa nai. *® 

Kudo Kbkan Kun :-- Shitsumon ga fiakereba, yoroshii, 

Gicho, Kinkyu'dbgi to mi-tomeru ya ina ya io iu ko/o ni 
isuite, saiketsu shiyb to kangaemasu. Kudo Kun no d')gt 2V0 
kinkyii'ddgi to mitomuru " to iu koto ni doi no shokun no ktriisu 
wo motomemasii, (Kiritsu-sha shosu.) Shbsu to mi-tome- 
masu, (Hakushu okoru.) 

17. This is almost book language. The actual literary idiom would 
be Nanzo aete kotoha wo tsuiyasan ya ? an oratorical question which 
the English version closely follows. For the future in w, see \ 257, 
p. 168. For j'^ interrogative, see \ 133, p. 93. The use of the Colloquial 
negative phrase, in lieu of the Classical interrogative, takes all the point 
out of the expression. — 18. Ni in this sentence =/«? «/, "whereas,'* 


Mr. Kudo Kokan : — If you want to know whether I shall 
or shall not withdraw, I [may tell you that] I shall not If 
you have any other question .... 

Mr. Inoue Kakugoro : — If you yourself confess 1[that you 
despise liberty], why should I waste any more words ? If 
you [show by what you] say that you don't know what 
liberty is, who would think of addressing any questions to 

Mr. Kudo Kokan : — If you have no question to put, well 
and good. 

The President : — I intend to take a vote on the question 
as to whether this is to be considered an urgency motion. I 
request all those gentlemen who think that Mr. Kudo's 
motion should be considered an urgency motion to stand 
up. (A minoriiy stood up,^ I find there to be a minority. 
{Clapping of hands. ) 

" since." The rest of the construction closely resembles that explained 
in the preceding note. In true lx)ok language it would read thus. 
Tare ka shiisumon sum mono aran ya ? — 19. Mi-iomuru here, 
immediately above mi'tomeru, shows how even the same speaker 
will hesitate between tlie use of the true Colloquial and the book 
form ; conf, N.B. to \ 240, p. 165. 


^465. With very few exceptions, all the Japanese poetry that 
is esteemed by the educated is written in the Classical 
language of a thousand years ago. Even the ditties sung 
by singing-girls to the twanging of the samisen are usually 
more or less Classical in diction. Hence it is difficult to 
lind verses written in the Colloquial that shall be worthy 
to place before the student. The following specimens 
are therefore offered with some diffidence. The chief 
positive characteristics of Japanese poetr}- are : 

I. Its lines of five syllables and seven syllables. This is 
the basis on which all the existing varieties of the stanza 
are raised. 

II. Its extreme shortness, — three, four, or five lines 
constituting an entire poem. 

III. The terseness of the style, the poetical sentence 
often having no verb and being in fact rather an exclama- 
tion than an assertion. These liliputian poems remind a 
European of the sketches in which a Japanese artist will 
represent a flight of cranes passing before the moon, or a 
bamboo swaying in the wind, with but half-a-dozen bold 
touches of the pencil. 

The chief negative feature of Japanese poetry is the 
absence of rhyme and of quantity. Long vowels, diph- 
thongs, and syllables ending in n or pi do indeed count 
double ; but that is because they were originally pro- 

POETRY. 449 

nounced separately, and are still figured separately in the 
Kana writing. 

^ 466. Here is a miniature ode, — what is called a hokku, — 
by the poetess Chiyo, who flourished in the last centur}^ : — 

(5) Asagao ni 

(7) Tsurube torareiCj. 

(5) Morai-mizu ! 

lit. ' ' Having had my well-bucket taken away by the con- 
volvuli, — ^gift- water ! " The meaning is this : — Chiyo, 
having gone to her well one morning to draw water, 
found that some tendrils of the convolvulus had twined 
themselves around the rope. As a poetess and a woman 
of taste, she could not bring herself to disturb the dainty 
blossoms. So, leaving her own well to the convolvuli, 
she went and begged water of a neighbour, — a pretty little 
vignette, surely, and expressed in five words. Whether 
the circumstance actually occurred or not, we cannot 
undertake to say ; for Japanese poets are as much given 
to the invention of apocryphal esthetic incidents, as our 
own rhymesters of an ^earlier generation were to the inven- 
tion of non-existent Chloes and Amelias. 

^467. Here is a hokku by the most famous of all hokku- 
writers, Basho, a poet of the latter part of the seventeenth 
century. It is entitled Getsu-zen no Hoioiogisu, or *'The 
Cuckoo in Front of the Moon," and is as follows : — 

(5) Hito-koe wa^ 

(7) Tsuki ga natla ka ? 

(5) Hoiologisul 

lit. ' * As for the single note, did the moon sing ? — Cuckoo ! " 
The poet means that, startled by the note of the cuckoo, 

45© POETRY. 

he looked up in the direction whence it came, — to see, 
however, no cuckoo, but the brightly shining moon. 
Could it then be the moon that was the songstress ? No, 
it must be the cuckoo after all. 

T 468. Japanese poets are fond of jokes, puns, and 
whimsical notions. The already-mentioned Basho was 
riding along a country lane one day, when his groom, 
who afterwards rose to be the well-known poet Kikaku, 
espied a red dragon-fly, and cried out in verse 

(5) Aka-iombo — 

(7) Hdne wo totiara^ 

(5) Tb-garashi! 

i.e., "Pluck off the wings of a red dragon-fly, and you 
have a cayenne pepper-pod." But Basho reproved him 
for so cruel a fancy, and corrected the verse thus ; 

(5) To-garashi — 

(7) Hane wo isUkeiara, 

(5) Aka-tombo / 

i. e., ''Add wings to a cayenne pepper-pod, "and you have 
a red dragon-fly." 

Tf 469. The following y^<?>^fl, or *' comic poem," of thirty-one 
syllables, contains a pun on the words go-bu go-bu^ ''five 
parts and five parts," i.e., "half and half," and gobu-gobu, 
an onomatope for the gurgling sound made by a* liquid in 
issuing from a bottle : — 

(5) Kimimo nomiy 

(7) Boku mo nomu kara^ 

(5) Wari-ai mo 

(7) Go'bu gO'bu io isugi- 

(7) Dasu iarii no sake ! 

POETRY. 451 

This may mean either : '* Oh ! the liquor from the cask, 
poured out in equal halves, because, as you are drinking 
and I. too am drinking, proportion must be observed," or 
*'0h! the liquor from the cask poured out gurgle-gurgle, 
because, etc." 

•f 470. The following contains no pun, but has a delicate 
touch of satire : — 

(5) Hototogisu 

(7) yiyu jizai ni 

(5) Kiku salo wa, — 

(7) Saka-ya ni san-ri, 

(7) Tofu-ya ni ni-ri i 
i.e., *' The village where one may list undisturbedly to the 

cuckoo's song is three leagues from the grog-shop, 

and two from the bean-curd shop ! " — Notice in passing 
that this stanza of thirty-one syllables is the vehicle of 
the greater portion of the Classical poetry of Japan. 

^471. The dodoiisu generally consists of three lines of 
seven syllables and one of five. Take, for instance, 
(7) Htio wa sUki'Zuki. i So many men, so many tastes. 
(7) Soshiru wa yaho yo I VYo blame is clownish. He who 
(7) Horeie iru ucha,^ lis in love is blind, though 
(5) Aki-mekura. (possessed of eyes. 

(?) Si^'^-^^W </., J At first W a joke, in the 
(7 Ima ja iagai no >id-time a duty but now it is 
(X rt:7^„ *» ::4^.. true love o» both sides. ^ 

(5) 7^^^^ to jiisu, 

(7) Konna kokoro'ni 

(7) Sinta no mo omae, 

(7) Ima-sara akite wa, 
(5) Kawaiso. 


You it is who have put my 
heart in this state. For you 
to weary of me now is cruel. ^ 

I. For uchi wa. Such contracted forms in a are common in the 
popular poetry. In the next poem we find nakagora for nakagoro tva. 

452 POETRY. 

Even a board stuck up and 
inscribed with the words ' * It is 
strictly prohibited to pluck these 
blossoms " is useless as ag^ainst 
,the wind, which cannot read. 

T 472. Occasionally the dodoitsu has five lines, thus : — 

(5) ^^ Kono hatui wo 

(7) Kiifiiku oru-na* !" fo 

(7) lu iaie'/uda mo^ 

(7) Vomenu kaze ni wa 

(5) Zchi mo nashi,^ 

T ^11' ^^ ^"^ ^^^ "P ^y * longer poem of a form called 
Sendai-hushiy which, though containing two or three 
Book Language forms, is otherwise easy. It is put into 
the mouth of one who was exiled to a small island beyond 
the stormy reach of sea called the Genkai-nada, to the 
north-west of Kvushu : — 

I care not for myself, who am 
sent across the Genkai Sea 
over which even the birds do 

(7) Tori mo kosanai 

(7) Genkai-nada 7V0 

(8) Vara rem kono miiva* 

(5) liowanedo, — ^ t» ^ *u • -r j 

/i\ AS • ^j,^ • h't "{not pass. But the wife and 

(7) Ato m nokonshV 1 u-u u u • j 

y( ^ , children who have remained 

S^\ n-^lT A ^'''''' behind,-how mav thev be 
(7) Doshic tsuh-hi ivo L endi the months and 'days? 
(5) Okuruyara^? \v t> j 

2. It is to be understood that, tlioagh no longer enamoured of his 
choice, the lover liad remained faithful to her through a feeling of 
honour, — a feeling which was rewarded by the eventual growth of 
solid mutual affection.— -3. In the little book from which this verse is 
taken, there is, opposite the lines, a picture of a girl weeping and 
stretching out imploring hands to a man who is turning his back on 
her.— 4. Lit. " positively break not ! " kaiaku being equivalent to 
kess/nU. — 5. Equivalent to shtkata ga nai, — 6. This line has eight 
syllables instead of seven, by a poetical license. — 7. Nokorishi is Class- 
ical for nokoiia, — 8. Yara comes from Classical ya arati, which is 
equivalent to the Colloquial de aro ka ? 

If 474. ' 



{Remember that this is only a vocabulary, ftot a dictionary. The fundamental 
differences of conception and expression which separate English idiom from 
Japanese, render it an impossible task to assign equivalents thai shall be 
satisfactory in all contexts. The student is accordingly referred for details 
to Messrs. Sataw and IshibashVs excellent little '* English -Japanese Dic- 
tionary of the Spoken Language. *'\ 


almanac, koyomi. 

alone, Miori. 

along, no satisf. equiv. 

abdomen, hara. 

already, mo/iayat sude ni. 

able (can), dekiru. 

also, yaharit mo. 

about (approximately), ktirai {gu- 

always, itsudemo. 

rat), hodo. 

America, Amerika, Seiko ku (learn- 

above, no ue. 

ed style). 

absent (to be), rusu da^ inai. 

among, no ucki ni. 

absurd, tondemonai, bakarashii. 

amount (whole), so-daka, tsugo. 

according to, ni yotte. 

amuse oneself (to), asobtt. 

account (bill), kanjd. 

amusing, omoshiroi. 

ache (to), iiamu. 

ancestor, senzo. 

across, no muko ni. 

anchor, ikari. 

actor, yakusha. 

and, see p. 242. 

add (to), ktnvaeruy awaseru. 

angry (to be), hara 100 tateru, rip- 

address (written), tokoro-gaki, trwa- 

puku suru (learned). 

gaki (on a letter). 

animal (quadruped), kedamono. 

adopted son, ydshi. 

another, mo kttoisu, hoka no. 

advantage, rieki^ toku. 

answer, henji^ hento. 

advertisement, kokoku (in' a news- 

answer (to), hento stiru, kotaeru. 

paper); htki-fttda. 

answer for (to), uke-au. 

afraid, koivai. 

ant, ari. 

after, no nochi ni. 

anxious (to be), shivipai suru. 

afternoon, hiru-sugi. 

any body, dare de mo. 

afterwards, nochi ni. 

„ how, dd de mo. 

again, maia. 

„ thing, 7tan de mo. 

against, no satisf. equiv. 

„ time, itsu de mo. 

apo, mae. 

„ where, doko de mo. 

air (atmosphere), kuki. 

apple, ringo. 

alive (to be), ikite iru. 

apricot, anzu. 

all, minat nokorazu. 

April, shi'gwaisu. 

allow (to),^'«r«j«. 

arm (of body), /<?, ude. 



arm (weapon), buH, 

bay, iri'Umit wan. 

armour, yoroi. 

be, arui but see p. 221. 

army, rikugtm. 

beach (sea-)» hamahe, utnibe. 

around, no nuzwari ni. 

beans, mame. 

arrive (to), iochaku sum. 

bear (quadruped), kuma. 

art, (fine) Injutsu, 
artizan, shoktmin. 

bear (to), koraertt. 

beard, htge. 

as, see pp. 70, 184, 243. 

beat (to), butsu^ ntsu (more pol- 

ashamed (to 1 e), haji wo kaku. 


ashes, hat. 

beautiful, uisiikuskii, kirei {na\ 

ask (to), kiku (lit. to hear) ; tou. 

migoio {no). 

at, tit. 

because, kara. 

attention (to pay), ki wo isukeru. 

become (to), nam. 

auction, seri-uri. 

bed, nedai, nedoko. 

August, hachi-givatsii 

bed-clothes, yagu^ futon. 

aunt, oba. 

bedroom, nema^ nebeya. 

autumn, aki. 

bee, hachi. 

average, heikin. 

beef, ushi, gyunikn. 

away, no satisf. equiv. 

beer, biiru (from English). 

awkward, hcia (na). 

before, no mae ni, saki. 

azalea, fstifsuji, saisukL 

beg ear, kojiki. 

begm (intrans.), hajimaru. 


begin (trans.), hajinteru. 


behind, no nskiro ni, no ura ni. 

baby, akambo. 

believe (to), shinjirn, omou. 

back (of body), senaka. 

believer, shinja. 

bad, warui. 

bell, kane. 

bag, fukuro. 

lielt, obi. 

baggage, nimotsti. 

bend (intrans.), magaru. 

bake {^io\ yaku. 

bend (trans.), mageru. 

baker, pan-ya. 

beneath, no shita ni. 

ball (for throwing, shooting, etc.), 

berry, ichigo. 

tama^ tnari. 

besides, no hoka ni. 

bamboo, take. 

between, aida ni. 

bamboo grass, sasa, 
band (of music), gakutai. 

beyond, no saki ni, no mtikd ni. 

Bible, Seisho. 

banjo, samisen, shamisen. 

big, dkii, 5ki (na), 

biu (at a hotel, etc.), kanjd. 

bank (for money), ginko, 
bank-note, ginkd-shihei. 

bill of exchange, ka^vase-tegata. 

bankrupt (to become), shindai- 

bill of fare, kondate. 

kagiri ni nam. 

bird, tori. 

baptism, senrei. 

bit (little), sukoshi, Hre, kah'. 

bargain (to), negiru\ bargain- 

bite (to), kui-tsukti, kamu. 

money, te-tsuke-kin. 

Wtter, nigai. 

bark (of a tree), kaxva. 

black, kuroi. 

bark (to), hoeru. 

blind, mekura (no). 

barley, dmugi. 

blister, hatst*bo. 

barometer, sei-u-kti. 

blood, chi. 

bat (animal), koniori. 

blotting-paper, oshi-gami. 
blow (io\ fiiku. 

bath, furo. 

B C 


blue, sora-iro {iw), ai, asagi, aoi. 

butterfly, r//J, cJiocho. 

boat,/f/»^. kobune. 

button, botan (from English). 

body, karada. 

buy (to), kav. 

boil (to. . .food), niru. 

by, ;//, dc. 

boil (to. . . water), ivakasti. 


boiling water, ni-tatta yu. 


bone, hone. 

book, hon, shomotsti. 

cabin (on board ship), heya. 

book-keeping, boki. 

cabinet (furniture), tansii. 

bookseller, hon-ya. 

cake, kwashi. 

l)OOt, kutsu. 

calculate (to), kanj'd sum. 

I)orn (to be), umareru. 

czX\ {io\ y obit. 

borrow (to), kariru. 

call ( = to rouse), okosu. 

both, ryohd, dore mo. 

camellia, isubaki. 

bothered (to be}, komaru. 

can, dekirti : see also pp. 201-3. 

bottle, iokkuri. 

canal, hori. 

bottom, sJiita {fto ho). 

candle, rdsokn. 

bow (to), oji^ 1V0 sum. 

cannon, tat ho. 

bow and arrows, yttmiya. 

cape, ntisaki. 

box, hako. 

capital (city), vilyako. 

boy, otoko no ko, mtisuko. 

capital (funds), vwtode^ shihon. 

branch, eda. 

captain (merchant), senchd ; (naval)^ 

brass, shinchu. 

kxnancho ; (army), tai-i. 

brazier, hibachi. 

card (playing), kariiia (from the 

bread, pan. 

Spanish carta). 

break (in trans.), orrru^ kowareru. 

card (visiting), nafuda^ tneishi. 

break (trans.), oru^ ko7vasu. 

care (to take), kl wo tsiikcru. 

breakfast, asa-han. 

cargo, tsumi-ni. 

bribe, viahiai, wairo. 

carpenter, daiku. 

brick, rcuga. 

carpet, shtki-mono. 

bride, {hnna-)yome. 

carriage, basha. 

bridegroom, {/inna')muko. 

carmt, ninjin. 

bridge, has hi. 

carry, (to), hakobn. 

bridle, iazuna 

cash, (ready mon^y) gcnki ft. 

bring (a person), tsurdc kttru. 

castle, shij'o. 

bring (n thing), viotte kitrn. 

castor-oil, himashi no abura. 

broad, hiroi. 

cat, ncko. 

broker, nakaf^ai. 

catch (to), tsukamacnt. 

bronze, karakane. 

caterpillar, kemushi. 

brother (elder), ani, ) but see 
brother (younger), ototo.]^. 256. 

Catholicism (Romans, Tcnshu-kyo^ 

cause, ivake, gni-iu. 

brown, akai^ htrt-iro {no). 

cave, {hora-)ana. 

Buddhism, Buppd, Bitkkyo. 

ceiling, tenjo. 

build (to), tatern. 

centip^e, mukadc-. 

building (a), iate-mono. 

certaiH, inshlka {mi). 

business, yo^ yomiiki, shobai. 

certainly (of course), mochiron. 

busy, isogashii. 

certificate, shdsho. 

but, see pp. 242-3. 

chain, kusnri. 

butcher, nikii-ya. 

chair, isn. 

butter, bata (from English). 

chairman, kivaichd^ gichd. 


ax(;lo-japanese vocabulary. 

change (a), kmuari^ hcukwa. 
change (intrans. verb), kinuartt. 
change (trans, verb), kacru^ tori- 

change (money), tsuri, 
character (Chinese), //, moji, 
character (nature), sris/iitsti. 
charcoal, sufiii, 
cheap, yasui. 
cheat (to), (i.iinusn. 
cheeks, /id, Jidpi-ta. 
cheque (bank), kogitte. 
cherry-tree, sakura. 
chest (breast), munc. 
chicken, niwa-tori. 
child, ko^ kodomo, 
chin, ago. 

China, Shiun^ Kara^ Nankin (vulg.). 
cholera, konni-hyd (from English), 
choose (to), crabti, 
chopsticks, hashi, 
chrysanthemum, kiku. 
cigar, ha-maki {tahako), 
cigarette, kami-maki-ialHiko . 
circumstance, baai^ koto, kotogara. 
civilisation, hiimnwi, kaikwa, 
class (lst),yW^. 

„ (2nd), chtUd. 

» (Srd), ^'J^o. 
clean, ktrei (na). 
clever, rtka {na). 
climb (to), noboru, 
clock, tokei. 
cloth (woollen), rasha, 
clothes, kimono, ifiikn. 
cloud, kumo. 

club, kuralm (from English), 
coal, sekitan. 
coat, mvagi, 

cocks and hens, niiva-tori, 
cod-fish, tara. 
coffee, kdhi, ka/w (from the Knglish 

or French word), 
cold (to the touch), tstinwtai, 
cold (of the weather), samtd. 
cold (to catch), kaze wo htku. 
collar, cri; dog—, kubi-wa. 
collect (intrans. verb), atsumiru, ia- 

collect (trans, verb), atsumcrit.yosern. 

colloj^e, gakko, 

coIlcKjuial, isitzoku, 

colonel, iaisa. 

colour, iro. 

C«mil>, kit ski. 

come (to), ktiru; see p. 158 and 

p. »93 
come in (to), hmru, 
commission (brokerage), kosen, 
confusion, konzaisu, d-sawagi, 
conjuror, tt'zt4ma-tsukai. 
consent (to), s/idchi sum, 
consul, rydji. 
consulate, ryofi-kwan, 
consult ( to), sodafi suru, 
contained (to be), /uiitie int. 
contented (to be), manzokii sunt. 
convenient, btmri {fia), isugo no yoi, 
cool, suzushii, 
coolie, ninsokti, 
copper, akagane. 
corkscrew, sen-nuki. 
corn (callosity), tako. 
corn (Indian), tomorokoshi. 
corn (wheat), mugi, ko-mugi. 
corner, kado. 
corpse, shigai, 

cost (how much does it ?), iktira / 
cotton, tnomen. 
cough (to), seki ga dem. 
count (noble), haku {^shaku). 
count (to), kazoeru, 
country (not the town), itiaka, 
country (native), vjaga kuni, hoti' 

course (of), mocMron, motoyori. 
cow, {me')jtshi. 
crab, kani. 
crape, chirimen. 
credit, no satis, equiv. 
creditor, kashi-nushi, 
crooked (to be), magatte int. 
cross (a mountain), kostt, 
cross (a river), watani. 
crow (a), karasit, 
crowd, ozei. 
cry (to), mikti, 
cryptomeria, sitgi, 
cuckoo, hototogisii. 
cucumber, ki-uri. 


cup, cJunvatt. 

dinner (iiite), yus/u?ku, bam-meshl. 

cupboard, todmia. 

dirty, ki/anai, kitanarashii. 

curio, ftiru-ddgii. 

dirty (to), yogosu, dcdnaM ni 

curio-dealer, dogii-ya. 


curtain, viado-kake. 

disappear (to), mietiaku nam. 

cushion (to sit on), zalnilon. 

discount, wari-bike. 

oisioxn^fuzoku, sH-kitari. 

disease, l>y5ki,yauiai. 

customer, toktii, kyaku. 

dish (large plate), ozara. 

custom-house, zeikimu. 

dislike (to), kirau. 

cut (to), kirti. 

dismiss (to), hiuia wo yam. 

distance, michi-nori, risii. 


distant, toi, cmpd {fui). 

ditch, dobu. 

damp, shimeppoi. 

do (to), suru, itasu, nasu. 

dance (to), odorti. 

doctor, isha. 

dangerous, abiiimi, kennon {na). 

dog, /■;///. 

dare (to), no satsif. equiv. 

door, to ; next — , tomiri. 

dark, kurai. 

doubt (a), utagai, gincu. 

date, isuki-/ii, gwappi, Jiizuke, 

doubt (to) utagau,fushin ni omou. 

daughter, musiune ; but see p. 256. 

down, shita (yd). 

daughter-in-law, yome. 

downhill (to go), kudaru. 

dawn, yo-ake. 

downstairs, s/iU(7. 

day, hi ; conf. p. 117. 

draft (bill of exchange), kawasi.-- 

day after to-morrow, myogonichi. 


asatte (less polite). 

dragon, ryd, tatsu. 

day before yesterday, issakujitsii. 

draught (of wind), sukima-kaze. 

ototoi (less polite). 

drawer, hlki-dashi. 

day-time, hint. 

drawers (garments), shUa-zubon. 

dead (to be), shinde int. 

drawing-room, kyaktuna. 

deaf, tsunbo {no). 

dream (to), yume ivo iniru. 

dear (in price), lakai. 

dreary, sabishii. 

debt, sliakkin. 

drink (to), twmu. 

debtor, kari-mishi. 

drive (in a carriage), nom. 


drive away (trans.), oi-yam, harau. 

decide (to), kimeni, kettci sum. 

driver, gyosJui. 

deck (of a vessel), kainpan. 

drop (a), shizuku, teki. 


drop (intrans. verb), ochiru. 

deer, shtka. 

drop (trans, verb), otosu. 

dentist, fia-isJui. 

dry (to trans.), hosu. 

depend {X6),yortt, kwankci sum. 

dry (to be), kawaite iru. 

devil, oni. 

duck, ahim. 

dew, tsuyu. 

duke, kd{'s/uiku). 

diarrhoea (to have), liar a ga kudaru. 

dull, (of weather), uttoshii, kumoiia. 

([iciion3.ry, ji/nki,jis/io. 

dust (flying), Jwkori, 

die (to), shinuru. 

dust (on things), ^<?;///. 

different, betsu {no\ chigaita. 

duster, zokin. 

difficult, muzuknshii. 

Dutch, Oranda no. 

dig (to), horn. 

duty (obligation), gimu. 

dimensions, sumpd. 

duty (tariflf), zei. 

dining-room, shokunui, shokudO. 

dye {io), someru. 



example (for), iatoeba. 


except, no Jioka ni. 

exchange (to) tori-kaeni. 

ear, tfiimi. 

excuse (please me), gomen nasai^ 

early, kayai, 
earth, is'uchi. 

excuse (to oneself), iuwake tvo 

iu, kstowam. 

earthquak e, jishin, 
east, higashi. 

exhibition, haktirankwai. 

expense, nyuhi, nyuyo. 

tSLSjtyasashii, zdsa mo tun. 

explain (to), toki-akastt. 

eat (to), inbcr7i ; but see p. 251. 

export (to), yusAutsu sum. 

eel, imagi. 

eye, me : — of needle, medo. 

egg, tatnago. 

ti^\,yaisH ; but see p. lOi. 


eighteen, ju-hachi. 

eighty, hacM-ju, 

face, kao. 

either or, see p. 243. 

fail (to), sokonan, /uizureru. 

elbow, hiji. 

fail (without), machigai nakn^ kitto. 

eleven, jTi-ichi. 

faint, (to\ me wo mawasu, kizefsu 

embankment, dote. 


embroidery, nuimotw. 

fair (a), />///, ennichi. 

emperor, ttfishi, tcnnd^ koiei. 

fall (to), ochirn. 

empress (consort), khaki, kogo. 

false, uso {no), Jionto dc nai. 

empty, kara [rta). 

famous, nadakai. 

end, shinmi^ cnuari. 

fan (that does not shut,) itchiwa. 

enemy, kaiaki, teki. 

fan (that opens and shuts), ogi. 

engage (to), yatoit^ tanonm (more 



far, toi, empd (fia). 

engmeer. kikwaushi. 

farmer, hyakushd. 

England, -^V/j//, Eikoktt, 

fashion, ryukd, hay art. 

English (language), Igirisu no 

fast, (quick), hayai. 

kotoba^ Eigo. 

fat, (to he),/ufofie int. 

enough (to be), tariru. 

father, chidii ; but see pp. 256-7. 

envelope, y^- bvkuro. 

father-in-law, shuto. 

estimate (written), tsumori-gaki. 

feast, gochiso. 

et-cetera, undo, id. 

feather, hane. 

eucharist, scibansait^ shu no bansan. 

February, ni-givatsti. 

Europe, Ydroppa^ Seiyd. 

feel (to), kanjirti, obocru. 

even ( smooth), taira {no). 

female, mestt. 

even (adverb), sae^ sura^ de mo. 

fern, shida. 

evening, yugata, ban. 

ferry, funa-watashi. 

ever (at any time), no satisf. equiv. 

ferry-boa t , watashi-bunc. 

every body, dare de mo. 

festival, viatstiri. 

every day, niainichi. 

fetch, (to), to He kurn. 

every time, maido. 

fever, netsu. 

everywhere, doko de mo, hobo. 

few, suktniai ; see p. 274. 

examination (school), shiken : to 

field (rices ta. 

pass an examination, sJiiken wo 

field (vegetable,) halake, Jiata. 



examine (to investigate), shirabern. 

fifty, go-jit. 

tadasu, araiavieru. 

fig, ichijikits 

F — G 


fill (to) ippai ni surti. 

find (to), ffii'dasu^ mi-aiaru^ mi- 

fine {goodi\ yoi, rippa (na). 
fingtr,yudt (vulg. i/n). 
finger-iowl, kiichi-yusitgi, 
finish (to), shinian. 
fire (conflagration), kwajL 
fire (flame), hi. 
fire-wood, maki, 
first, dcd'ichif hajime no. 
fish (alive), tewo. 
fish (used as food), sakana, 
fish (to), tnvo wo tsiirtt ; (with a 

net), ami wo utsti. 
five, iisutsu ; but see p. 10 1. 
flag, haia, 
flame, hondy hi. 
flat, Mratiaiy fair a {na). 
flea, nomi, 
flesh, niku, 
floor, ^«^fl. 
flour, konuj udonko. 
flow (to) nagarerti. 
flower, hana. 
flower-bed, kwadan. 
fly (insect), Jiai. 
fly (to), tobn. 
follow (to), tsttite ikii. 
food, tabemoiio, shokinnotsii. 
fool, haka. 
foot, ashi. 

foot-warmer, yit-tnmpc. 
for, no tame ni. 
forbid (to), kinjirn. 
forehead, hitai. 
foreign , gwaikoku (no\ 
foreign (article), Juikurai-hin. 
foreigner, givaikoknjin^ ijin. 
forest, hayashi^ mori^yama ^ properly 

" mountain "). 
forget (to), wasureru. 
forgive {\o\yurttsu. 
fork (eating), niku-sashi. 
forty, shi-jii. 

ioxjx^yotsuy but see p. 10 1. 
fonrteen. Ju-sJd. 
fowl, tort. 
fox, kitsune. 
France, Ftiranstt^ Futsukokv. 

hte,jiyu {no). 

freight (money for), ttnchin, 

fresh (cool), suztishii. 

fresh (new), atarashii, shinki na. 

Friday, kin-yobi. 

friend, iomodachiy hoyu. 

frightful, osoroshii, 

frog, kaerti, 

from, kara^yori. 

front, ornate. 

fruit (for eating), mizu-gwashi. 

fruit (on a tree), {ki no) mi. 

full, ippai {na). 

funeral, tomurai, 

funny, omoshiroi, okashii. 

furniture, dogtt^ kazai. 

gain (to), mokertt. 

gambling, bakuchi. 

game, asobi. 

garden, niwa. 

gardener, ueki-ya. 

gate, vion, 

general (usual), ippan no,futsu no, 

general (full), iaisno; (lieut.-) chu/oy 

(major-), shosho, 
Germany, Doitsu. 

get (to down), oriru. 

get (given to one), moran, 

get in, hairUy 

get off, no satisf. equiv. 

get out, derti. 

get up (rise), okiru. 

ghost, bakemono, yttrei^ o bake. 

girl, onna no ko^ musume. 

give {^o\yarUy but see p. 251. 

give 2i:NZ.y^yatte shimau. 

give back, kaesti. 

give in (yield), nmkeru. 

give up (leave off), yosu. 

glad, ureshii. 

glass (a), koppu. 

glass (the material), giyaman. 

glove, te-bukuro, 

glue, nikawa, 

go (to), iku ; but see p. 251. 

go away (to), kaeru, itte shimau. 

go down (to), kudaruy orim. 



go in (to), hmrtt. 

go out (to), dt'rtt, 

go up (to), nobiyrn. 

goblin, tcitfrii. 

God (Buddhist), /Iotokt\ 

God (Catholic), Tcnshu. 

God (Shinto and Protcsant), h\wu, 

godown, kura. 

gold, kin, 

goldfish, kingyo. 

good, yorosliiit yoi^ ii, 

^ood (of children), otonashii. 

good (to eat), unuii, 

goodbye, say mar a. 

goods, shnui-viono. 

goose (tame), gacho, 

goose (wild), gan. 

government, scifu^ sciji. 

graduate (to), soisug)'d sunt. 

grammar, biimpo. 

grand, rippa {na). 

grandcliild, mago, 

grandfather, ojiisan, 

grandmother, obasan, 

grass (turf), shiba, 


grease, abura. 

green, aoi^ f/iidori, fuotgi, 

green-grocer, yaoya. 

grey, nczutni-iro {no), hai-iro {iid). 

groom, bettd. 

grown-up person, otona, 

guarantee (to), uke-au. 

guard (to), nmniorn, 

guest, kyaku, 

guide, annai {no mono), 

gun, ieppo. 

gunpowder, kwayakn, 


habit, narai ; (bad) — , kiisc, 

had better, see p. 177. 

hail, arare, hyo. 

hair, kc ; (specifically of the head) 

kanii, kami no ke. 
hairdresser, hami-yui, 
hair-pin, kanzashi, 
half, Juitnbun, Jian, 
hand, U, 

hand (to), xvatiuu, 

handkerchief, /uukifuki, Juvtkt'chi 

(from English). 
hang (intrans. verb), kakaru. 
hang (trans, verb), kakcru, tsitru, 

harbour, fninato, 
hard, katai 

hardly, no satisf. equiy. 
hare, usa^i, 

hat, bdshi, sJuippo (from the French). 
have (to), motsu, inotte iru. 
he, ano /iltOy ano otoko, 
head, atama. 
headache, zntsh. 
hear (to), kiku. 
heart, kokoro. 
heat, tUsTisa^ danki. 
heat (to), atatdiiwru. 
heaven icn (Confuc), gokuraku 

(Buddh.), tcfi{koku) (Christ.), 
heavy, onioi, oniotai, 
heel, kakato, 
hell, jigoku, 

help (to), jt'Ti'ir 7V0 sum, tctstidau, 
hen, niifidori. 

henceforward, kono nocJii, korc kara. 
here, koko, kochi{ra). 
liigh, takai. 

hill, iv//;/^7 ,• — (on a road), saka. 
hinge, chd-tsiigai. 
hire (a house), karint, 
hire (a servant), yaton. 
history, rcklshi. 
hitherto, ium uuide, kore made. 
hold (to), tc ni motsn, motsu, 
hold (to ht contained), /lairii. 
hole, ana. 

holiday, yasnmi-bi, kyujitsu. 
Holland, Oranda. 
home, nchi ; (country), knni. 
honest, shdjiki {na), 
horn, tsnno, 
horrid, osoroshii. 
horse, uma. 
horsefly, abu. 
hospital, bydin, 
host (master), aritjl, 
hot (like pepper), karai. 
hot (not colfl », atsid. 

46 1 

hotQ]f yadoya. 

hotel-keeper, yadoya no teishu. 

hour, tokiyjikan. 

house, /<?, tichj, taku. 

how ? do ? do shite ? ikaga ? 

how long ? itsu made ? 

how many? ikittsii? ikit-viai? 

etc.; conf. p. 113. 
how often ? tku tabi ? 
hundred, hyakn, 
hungry (to be), Jiaraga hcrti^ o naka 

ga sukit, 
hunt (to), kari sunt. 
hurry (to be in a), isogtt. 
hurt (intrans. verb), itavm. 
hurt oneself (to), kega wo sune, 
husband, otto ; but see p. 256. 
hut, koya, 


I, wataktishi ; but see p. 46. 

ice, kori. 

idle (to be), namaketc int. 

if, see p. 243. 

ignorant (illiterate), viugakii fta; 

(unacquainted with),///-^;i«<w*, 
ill (sick), bydki {mi). 
illness, d)'dki, yamai, 
immediately (at once), sassoku, sttgu 

imjiertinence, shitsttrei, bitrei, 
import (to), yttftyu sunt. 
impossible, dekinai, 
in, ni. 

included (to be), Iiaiite iru. 
inconvenient, fubvn (fM), isttgd no 

7varui,fntsitgo {na), 
indeed J ji/su ni. 
indeed ! naruhodo ! 
India, Tenjiktty Indo. 
Indian corn, tomorokoski. 
indoors, ie no uchi. 
infectious disease, densembyo, 
ink (Indian) sttvti. 
inn, yadoya. 
insect, mushi. 
inside, no naka, ni. 
inside (a person's), o naka. 
instead, no katvaii ni. 

insurance (fire), kwasai hoken. 

insurance (marine), kaijd hoken. 

interpret (to), isuben wo sum. 

interpreter, tsubeft^ tsnji. 

into, no naka ye, ni. 

invalid, bydnin. 

investigate (to), tori-shiraberu. 

invite (to), maneku. 

invoice, okuri-jd. 

iron, tetsu. 

island, shima. 

it, sore, ano mono (little used). 


January, slidgwatsu. 
Japan, Nippon, Nihon (more ele- 
jar (a), isttbo. 

jealousy, yakimochi, nctami, 
jewel, tanta. 

join (trans, verb), awaseru ; tsugu, 
joke, jodan. 
jug, mizu-tstigi. 
jugglery, feznma. 
July, shlchi-gwatsu. 
June, roktt'gatsu. 
just (fair), tadashii, kohri na. 
just (exactly), chddo. 


keep (things in general), tamotsu, 

motte iru. 
keep (pet animals), kaJte oku. 
kettle, tetsubin. 
key, kagi. 
kick (to), keru. 
kill (to), korostt, 
kind (sort), shurui,yd. 
kind (-hearted), shinseisu (na). 
king, o, koktw, 
kitchen, dai-dokcro, katte. 
kite (bird), ton^n. 
kite (toy), lake. 
knee, hiza. 
knife, hochd. 
knock (to), tatahiy 
knock down (to), buchi-taosu. 
know (to), shirti, sJiitte iru, 
Korea, Chosen. 



lacqaer, urushi, 

lacquer-ware, m^ri-mono. 

lady, okusoH, 

lake, miau'Umif kosui, 

lame, bikkOy chirnba, 

lamp, rampu (from English). 

land, riktiy oka. 

land (intrans. werh^joriku suru. 

land (trans, verb), ri^ku-age sum, 

language, kotoba, 

lantern, chdchin, 

last (at), tsui ni,yoyaku, 

last (the), sue no, ato no, but no 

really satisf. equiv. 
last (to), moisu, 
late, osoi, 
laugh (to), warau, 
law, kisokuy Jioritsu, 
lawyer, daigen-nin, 
lazy (to be), fiamakeru. 
lead (metal), namari, 
lead (to), hikuy atmcu suru, 
leaf (of a tree), ha, 
learn (to), narau, manabu, 
least (at), sukunakute mo, 
leave (of absence), Hma. 
leave (of depart), tatsu, 
leave behind (to), nokosu, 
leave off (to), yameru, yosu, 
leave out (to), habuku, yosu, 
lecture, cnzetsu, 
left (-hand), hidarl, 
leg, rt!j/«. 

legation, kosMkivan, 
lemon, yuzu. 

lemonade, ramune (from English), 
lend (to), kasu, 
length, nagasa^ take, 
let ( to allow), saseru, yurusu, 
let (a house), kasu. 
letter (of alphabet, etc.), tnoji, 
letter (correspondence), iegami, 
liar, uso-tsuH, 

lie down (to), neru, 
lie (to tell a), tiso wo iu, 
life, inochi. 

lift (to), mocAi-ageru, 

light (not heavy), >^a/^/. 

light (not dark), akarui, 

light (to ... the fire), hi wo taku, 

light (to.... tlie lamp), rampu zcfo 

light (a), akariy Idkari, 
lightning, inabikari, 
like (to), suki, see p. 65; konomu, 
like (to be), mte iru, 
lilac, murasaki {fto), 
lily, yuri, 
lime, is/U'bai, 
line, Ji///. 
lion, skis/ii, 
lips, kuc/u'biru. 
list, mokuroku, 

Uttle (small), ckiisai, chiisa (««). 
little (a), sukosJd, 
live (to dwell), sumau, 
lively, nigiyaka {no), 
look (to),y<7 tf/^ orosu, 
lonely, sabisJiii, 
long, «^/7/. 
look at (to), iw>«. 
look for (to), sagasu, 
loose, yurut, 

lose (not to win), ffiakeru, 
lose (something), us/dnau, nakusu^ 
loss (pecuniary), sonshitsu, son, 
lottery, fnujin,fuku-biki, 

lotus, ^ATW. 

loud, ^a/&flr/, J>&i («a). 
love (to be in), horeru, 
low, ^?^///. 
lucky, f/« fU) yoi, 
luggage, nimotsu, 
lukewarm, nurui, 
luncheon, hiru-gozen, 


mad, kichigai {no), 

maid-servant, jocJm; gejo (less 

mail (steamer), lukyaku-sen, 
make (to), kosJuracru, 
male, ostt. . 
man, otoko, 
manage (^o), tori-atsiikau. 

M — N 


manager (of a bank, etc.), shihai- 

mist, kiri, moya. 


mistake, machigai. 

manager (head clerk), banto. 

mix (intrans. verb), vtazaru 

mankind, nitigen. 

mix (trans, verb), mazeru. 

man-of- war, gunkan. 

money, kane, kinsu. 

manufactare (to), seizo-sttrtt. 

money (paper), shihei. 

manure. koyasJii, 

money-changer, ryogae-ya. 

many, oi (see p. 274); oku no. 

Monday, getsuydbiy 

map, cJuzu. 

monkey, sartt. 

March, san-givatsu. 

month, tsuki. 

mark, shiruski^ ato. 

moon, tsuki. 

market, ichiba. 

moor, no{-/iara). 

market price, soba. 

more, motto. 

marqnis, ko^-shaku). 

morning, asa. 

mast, hO'bashira. 

mortgage, shuhi-motsu. 

master(of a house), aruji. 

mosquito, ka. 

mat, tatami. 

mosquito curtain, kaya. 

match (lucifer), haya-tsukf^i. 

mother, haha, but see p. 256. 

matter (what is the ?), do shtmashtta. 

mother-in-law, shutome. 

matter (it doesn't), kamaimasen. 

motion, tmdo, (at a meeting) dogi. 

matting, usuberi, goza. 

mountain, yania. 

may, see pp. 69, 174) 188, 207. 

mouth, kuchi. 

May (month), go-gwatsti. 

move (intrans. verb), ugokti. 

meaning, imi. 

move (ti-ans. verb), ugokasu. 

meanwhile, sono nchi. 

Mr., Saf/M, San, 

measure (to), sumpd wo torn. 

Mrs., see p. 258, 

meat, niku. 

much, takiisan. 

medicine, kusuri. 

mud, doro. 

meet (to), an. 

murder(er), JUio-gorosH. 

meeting (a), kivai^ shukwai. 

mushroom, shiitake, matsutake. 

melon, uri. 

music (classical), ongaku. 

melon (musk-), makuwa-uri. 

must, see pp. I74-5; ^22, 132, 183. 

melon (water-), suikwa. 

mustard, karashi. 

member (of a society), kwai-in. 

mend (to), tsTikttrou^ naosu. 


merchant, akindo, s/tonin. 

message, kotozuke. 

nail (finger-), tsume. 

messenger, isukai{tto mono). 

nail (metal), kugi. 

middle, mannaka. 

naked, hadaka. 

midnight, yonaka. 

name (personal), na. 

milk, chichi. 

name (family), sei, myofi. 

minister (of religion), kyoshi. 

napkin, kucJii-fuki. 

minister (of state), daijin. 

narrow, semai. 

minister (plenipotentiary), ^oshi. 

nasty (to eat), maztd. 

minute (one), ip-ptm. 

navy, kaigtm. 

mirror, kagami. 

near, chikai. 

Miss, see p. 258. 

nearly, mo sukoshi de. 

missionary, (protest.), seukyoshi ; 

necessary, hitsuyd {na). 

Yaso-kyoshi; (cath.) Tenshu- 

neck, nodo. 


need, see p. 188. 



needle, haH, nui-bari. 

observe, muuk^u^ ki ga isuku. 

needlework, mdtnono. 

o'clock (what) ? nan-ji ? nan-doki ? 

neighbour, kinjo no h%U\ 

October, /fi'g-u'a/sif. 

neighbourhood, kit^o^ kimpen. 

of, no. 

neither... nor, see p. 72. 

off, no satisf. eqaiv. 

nephew, oL 

offer (to), susuf/tent. 

net (fishing), ami. 

office, yakushojimitsko. 

never, seep. 272. 

official (an), sftiki^^an^ yaktinitt. 

new, afaras/iJi, s/iinki {na). 

often, tabi-taln. 

news, sMmbun, 

oil, abttra. 

newspaper, shimbunshi. 
next, tstigi fto. 

old, (of people) tos/iiyori {no) . 
old (of things), furui. 

niece, md. 

omelet, tantago-yaki. 

night, ;'^r«, ban. 

on, w, no ue ni. 

night-clothes, nemaki. 

once, ichi'do. 

nightingale, uguisu. 

one, hitotsu ; but see p. loi. 

nightmare (to have a), unasareru. 

onion, ftegi. 

nine, kokonotsu; but sec p. lOi. 

only, (adv), bakari^ tada. 

nineteen, /«->&//. 

open (trans, verb), aktru. 

ninety, ku-jn. 

open (to be), aite iru. 

no, ie: but see pp. 234-5. 

opinion, rydken, zonjiyori. 

nobody, \ 

Opposite, fw miiko ni. 

Sn,. -P-^- 

orange (hard-skinncxi), daidai. 

orange, (mandarin), mikan. 

nowhere, j 

order (sequence), /w«, jtmjo. 

noise, oto. 

order (to command), ti-tsukeru^ 

noisy, sdzdshii. 


north, kiia. 

orphan nunashi-go, 
other, hoka no, ato no. 

north-east, higasH-kita, 

north-west, nishi-kita. 

ought, hazu, beki; see pp. 41, 57, 

nose, hana. 


not, rendered by negative verbal 

out (to go), dem. 


out-of-doors, outside, soto, omote. 

notwithstanding, ni kavtan^azu. 

over, no tte ni. 

novel (romance), shdsetsu. 

overcharge, kakene. 

November, ju-ichUgivatstt, 

overcoat, gwaiid. 

nuisance (troublesome), urttsai. 

owe (to), no satisf. equiv. 

number, kazu. 

own (one's), jibun no. 

nun (Buddhist), atna. 

owner, mochi-nushi. 

nurse (governess), ko-vtori. 

oyster, kaki. 

nurse (wet-) uba^ omba. 


pack (to), ni-zukuri wo sttru. 

oak, iiara^ kashiwa. 

package, isutsumi. 

oar, ro. 

pagoda, to. 

cats, karasu-mugi. 

pain, it ami. 

oblige (force), shiite saseru. 

painful, itai. 

oblong, choho'kei. 

paint (to pictures), egaku. 

obscure, bon-yari sJiVa, 

painter, ekaki. 


palace, goteti^ gosho. 

pale, ao-zameta. 

paper, kami. 

parasol, Jdgasa, 

parcel, ko-zutstwu, 

parent, oya. 

park, kdenchi. 

parliament, kokkwai, 

part (intrans. verb), wakareru^ Juma- 

part (subst.), no satisf. equiv. 
partner (business), shdn, 
party (entertainment), kyaktirai, 
pass (across mountains), toge, 
pass (to), tarUf sugiru, 
passage (in a house), rdka, 
passport, {ryoko-) menjo, 
pastor, bokushi. 
patient (to be), gatnan sum. 
patient (sick person), bymin, 
pattern, moyd, 
pay (to), karau. 
payment, harai, 
peach, monw, 
pear, nashi. 
peas, ciidd-mame. 
peasant, hyakushd. 
pencil, empitsn, 
peninsula, hanto, 
penknife, ko-gatana. 
peony, botan. 
pepper, kosho. 
per cent, see page 119. 
perhaps, ...ka mo shiran\ see also 

pp. 69 and 72. 
permit (a) menjo, 
permit (to), r«r//j//, shochi sum, 
persimmon, kaki, 
person, Jiito^ jin, 
perspiiation, asc. 
pheasant, kiji, 
phoenix, hdo. 
photograph, sJiaMn, 
physician, is ha, 
pick (to), isumu, 
pick up (to ), hirou, 
picnic, yusan. 
picture (ol)Iong and scroll), kake- 

r.ioKo; (square), gaku. 

pierce (to), tsnki-tdsu. 

pig, Imta. 

pigeon, hxito. 

pUl, giuan-yaku. 

pillow, iftakura. 

pin, hari, tome-bari, 

pine-tree, niatsu, 

pink, moniO'tro iio, 

pipe (smoking), klscrti. 

pity ! (what a), oskii koto, 

place, basJu\ tokoro, 

planet, ^ttJ«, wakusei. 

plant (in a general), ktisa, 

plant (m garden), ueki. 

plant (to), uem, 

plate, sara, 

play (drama), kydgen, 

play (to), asobu. 

please, dozo^ ddka. 

pleasure, tatwshhni, 


plum (large red ), botankyw. 

plum ( small red), sumonio. 

plum-blossom, iiine no hana, 

pocket, kakiishi^futokoro, 

pocket-handkerchief, hanafuki. 

poem, (Jap.) uia ; (Chin.) ski, 

pol iceman , junsa. 

polish (to), migahi, 

polite, teinei {no). 

pond, ike, 

poor, bifitiw (fM), 

porcelain, seionuttto, toki (learned). 

port (harbour), mitmto. 

post (letter), yubin, 

postage, ytibin-zei. 

postage stamp, ins/U^ yubif^gitte, 

post-card, hagaki. 

post-office, yUbin^kyoht. 

postman, haitatsu-tdn, 

potato (ordinary), into, 

potato (sweet), Satsuma-imo, 

pottery, tsuchi-yaki, 

pour (to), tsugu, 

powder, ko, kotia, 

powders (medicine), ko-gusuri, 

power of attorney, dairi ininjo. 

practise (to), keiko too suru, 

praise (to), homeru, 

pray (to), inont. 



prawn, . /'/. 

preach (to), sckkvo sunt. 


precipice, s^aki'. 

prepare (to,) koshiraeru^ shUaku 

<IuadnipL-d, kcmouo^ kcdamoiio. 

100 sunt. 

quail, uzura. 

prescripilion (doctor's), i 


quandary (to be in a), mayou. 


quantity, kasa, taka. 

present (jjift), miya^t^^ shinjo-motio^ 

quarrel, keuk^va. 


quarter (^), ski-bun no ic/ii. 

president (of a society), h 


queen (regnant), nyotei. 


queer, kitai {no). 

presidcMit (of United States 


question, gimon, tot. 


quick, hayai. 

pretty, kirci {fta\ utsukuskii. 

quiet, shiznka («a). 

l)reveiit (to), samntageru^ sascnai 

quite, ffuittakityjubun. 

(neg. causative of sum, to 


price, fu'dan, ne, atai. 


prickly heat, asemo. 

l)riest (Buddhist), bdzu. 


race (horse-), keiba. 

(polite), shukke, osho. 

railroad, tetsudd. 

priest (Shinto), kannushi. 

railway carriage, kisha. 

prince (Imperial Jap.), 


rain, ame. 


rainbow, niji. 

prince (iji p;eneral), kozoku. 

raise (to lift), ageru. 

prison, roya. 

rare, mare (««). 

probably, tabun. 

rascal, berabo, waru-mono. 

profit, rieki, moke. 

rat, nezumi. 

promise {\.<S) yakusoku suru. 

rather (somewhat), zuibun ; (on the 

proper, sod (/w), sdtd {ltd). 

contrary) kaettc. 

property, tnochimono ; (immovable) 

raw, namii {ua). 

fluid sail. 

reach (intrans. verb), todoku, oyobtt. 

proportion, uHiri-ai. 

read (to), yomu. 

Protestantism, Yaso-kyo. 

ready (to be), shltaku shltc oru. 

provide (to), sonaeru. 

ready money, genkin. 

provided, see p. 242. 

real, vmkoto {no\ honto (no). 

pudding, {0) kwasJii. 

reason (of a thing), wake, dari. 

pull (to), hlkn. 

rebel, choteki, muhon-nin, zoku. 

punish (to), tsttjui sum, bassuru. 

receipt, tike-iori. 

pupil, dt'sJu. 

receive (to), nke-toru. 

purple, mu7-asaki. 

red, akai. 

purpose (on), zvaza-waza. 

refuse (to), kotoiuam. 

purse, kanc-ire, kinchakii. 

relations (kinsfolk), shinmi. 

push (to), osu. 

religion, skukyo, shushi, oshie. 

put (to), oku^ SHtn'u, 

remain (to), itokoru, amaru. 

put away (to), katazukcru. 

remainder, nokori. 

put in (to), ireru. 

remember (to), oboeru. 

put off (to), uohasii. 

rent (house-), yacht n. 

put on ( clothe ^), kirn. 

rest (to), ynsimiu. 

put out (a light), kt'sn. 

rfes ta u ra n t , r 1 ' ori-) 'a . 

put up witli, korii.-ru. 

return (intrans.), kacru. 


return (trans.), kaesu. 

revenge, katakUtichi, 

rice (boiled), mcshiy gozeii^ gohan, 
o mamma, 

rice (growing), hie. 

rice (hulled), kome^ hakumai. 

ricn, kane-mocH {no), 

ride (to), noru. 

ridiculous, okas/ui, 

right (hand), migt. 

right (proper), it, honto {no), 

ring (for finger), yubi-iva, 

ring (intrans. verb), naru, 

ring (trans, verb), narasu, 

river, kanva, 

road, miclii, 

roast (to), yaku, 

rock, iwa. 

roll (intrans. verb), korobu, 

roll (trans, verb), korobasu, 

roof f^ane, 

room (a), /^<?y/z, zashtki. 

root, (i^* w<?) «^. 

rope, naiva. 

rotten (to be), kusatic iru, 

rough, arai. 

round, viarui, 

row (to), kogu, 

rub (to), kosuru, 

rub out (to), /&i'j7/. 

rudder, kaji, 

rude, shikkei {na\ shitsvrei Qta). 

rug, ^^^^<?. 

ruins, kosekl. 

rumoiu*, hydban, fusetsu^ uwasa, 

run (to), kakeru, Jiashiru, 

run away (to), nigeru, 

rush (to), same as the preceding. 

Russia, Orosha. 

rust (to), sabirn. 

sacrament, scirciten, 

sad (to be), kanaskhnu, 

saddle, ktira. 

safe, daijobu {na). 

sail, ko, 

sail (to start), shuppan sitfu, 

sailor, Sc-m/i^ suifii. 

saint (Buddhist), sJidnin, 

salary, gekkyu. 

salmon, sake, shake (more colloq.). 

salt, sMo, 

same, onaji. 

sample, mihon, 

sand, suna, 

sandals (used indoors), zdri, 

sandals (used out-of-doors), ivaraji, 

sash, obi, 

Saturday, Doyobi, 

saucepan, nabe, 

saucer, skiia-zara. 

save (to), tasukent. 

say (to), in, hanasu, 

school, gakko, 

science, rigaku, 

screen, bydbu, 

screw, ngi. 

sea, umi. 

sea-sick (to be), fune ni yon, 

second a motion, (to) sansci sum, 

secret, naisho {no)^ himiisn {na). 

secretary, slwki, 

sect, shushi^ shumon, 

see (to), mirn ; but see p. 251. 

seed, tane, 

seem (to), mieru, 

self, jibun, jiskin, onorc, 

sell (to), nru, 

send (to), tsukawasu,yaru, 

send hither (to), yokosn, 

separately, Jianarete, betsu-betsu ni, 

September, kn-gwatsu, 

sermon, sekkyo, seppo, 

servant, hokdnin, meshi-tsukai, 

seven, nanatsn ; but see p. loi. 

seventeen, y«-j///<:///. 

seventy, shichi'jn, 

sew (to), nun. 

shade, shadow, kage, 

shampooed (to be), mondc vwrait, 

sharapooer, amma, 

shape, katachi, 

share (a), ivari-mac) — in banking 

business, etc., kal?it. 
share (to), 7oakern^ biimpai sunt, 
shareholder, kabu-nusJii, 
shave (to), higc 7V0 su7'u (or soru), 
she, ano ki/o, ano onna. 



sliclf, tana. 

shell, kai, 

shiiie (to), tent. 

ship, ///«*'. 

shipwreck, hasm, fuwsrn, 

shirt, s/uUsu (from English). 

shoe, han-gutsUf kutstt. 

shoe- horn, kutsu-bera, 

shoemaker, kutsu-ya, 

shoot (to with a gun), /<//<' 

wo tttsti. 
shooting (sport),yi/r)'J, kari, 
shop, imsc. 

short (not long), mijikai. 
bhort (of stature), sci fw Jiikui, 
shoulder, hit a. 

show (to) mis cm ; but see p. 251. 
shut (trans, verb), sJiimcrit, 
sick (to feel), vnnie ga ivartii. 
sick (to be ; vomit), Jmku^ nwdosu, 
side, hi\ katii. 

sights (of a place), incisho koseki, 
sign, shirushi, 
signboard, kamban, 
silent ^to be), damaru, 
silk, kinu. 
silkworm, kaiko. 
filly, Inika (fia), 
silver, gin. 

simple, ti'giirni, -iLuikari-yasm. 
since, kaiui, 
sing (birds), Jiaku. 
sing (human beings), utau. 
singing-girl, gcisJux. 
sir, see p. 258. 
sister (elder), am\ 
sister (yoimger), iindto. 
sit on a chair (to), koshi 7vo kakejit. 
sit (to squat a la Jap,), sinvnru. 
six, mutsu ; but see p. lOi. 
sixteen, ./?<-/'<?>('//. 
sixty, 7-okii-ju. 
size, okisa. 
skin, kimm. 
sky, Jf;r</. 
sleep (to), iiirii. 
sleepy, ncmui, 
slide ( to), siibi'ni. 
slippei*, iru^a-giitsii. 
slow, osoi. 

small, chiitai^ chiisa {fid). 

small-pox, //^jJ, tcnncnti. 

smell (a), ttioi. 

smelly, kusai. 

smoke, kcmuri. 

smoke (to ... ), iiihako ico nontif. 

smoothe, sube-subc shita. 

snail, mtiimai'fsiiburn, 

snake, /u^bi, 

sneeze (to), kushami ico surn. 

snipe, shigi, 

snow, v«/v. 

so, so, sonmi ni. 

soap, shaboni^xsL Spanish /<7/'<^7/). 

socks, kutsu'tabi. 

soda-water, soda-vdzu. 

soft, ycnvarakai^ ymvaraka {jid). 

soldier, heitai, JurisJd^ heisotsu. 

some, no satisf. equiv. 

somebody, dare ka. 

i^omething, nani ka. 

sometimes, ari-fushi^ foki-ori. 

somewhere, doko ka. 

i^on, viusuko ; but see p. 256. 

son-in-law, mttko. 

song, uta. 

Sfyon, jiki ni. 

sorry (for another), kinodoku ; (for 

one's own sake), zannen. 
soup, soppu (from English), 
sour, siippai. 
south, minami : south-east, higasM- 

ininami ; south-west, niski-jnifta- 

sow (to), inaku. 
soy, shoyn shitaji. 
sparrow, snztnnc. 
spectacles, viegane, 
speculator (dishonest), yamashi. 
spend (to), tsukan^ t sidy as u. 
spider, kumo. 
spinach, horensd. 
spine, sebone. 
spit (to), kakii. 
spittoon, iaiuJiaki. 
spoil (to), sofijiru. 
spoon, saji. 
spring (jump), tobit. 
spring (of water), izumi. 
spring(-time), ham. 

S — ^T 


springs (of a carriage, etc.), ham\ 

summer, mitsu. 

square, shikakti {no). 

sun (the actual luminary), /«, taiyd. 

stable, ufttaya. 

tcnto sania (vulgar). 

staircase, /Mslago-dan, 

sun (i.e. sunlight), hinata. 

stand (intrans. verb), tatsu. 

Sunday, nichiyobi, dontaJiu (a vulg. 

star, /ufski. 

corrupt of Dutch Zotidag], 

start (to depart), tcUstt, shnttaisu 

sunrise, /«" no dc. 


sunset, hi no iri. 

state (condition), ^'<5jw, anscu/M, 

su^^ger, yufneshi. 

station, tdsha-ba. 

suppose (to), no satisf. equiv. 

steal (to), nusumu. 

sutra (Buddhist), bnkkyd, kyd. 


sweep (to , kaku. 

steamer, /J^?j^«. 

sweet, amai. 

steel, Jiagane, 

swim (to), oyogu. 

stepmother, mamxi-Jiaha^ kcibo. 

sword, katana. 

stick (to adhere), kuttsuku. 

stiff, katai. 


still (quiet), skizuka {na). 

still (yet), ma^h, nao^ 

table, tsTikue, dai, tcifuru (from 

still (even more), motto. 


sting (to), sasu. 

tack (nail), byd. 

stink (to), kusai (adj.). 

tail, s hippo. 

stomach-ache (to have a), kara ga 

tailor, shitate-ya. 


take (to), torn. 

stone, ishi. 

take time (to), tevm-doru. 

stop (intrans. verb), tottiaru. 

talk (to), hanasti, hanaski wo suru* 

stop (trans, verb), tomeru. 

tall (of stature), sei no takai. 

store (.shop), nus€. 

taste, ajiwai. 

store-house, kura. 

tax, 2W, ncngu. 

storm, arashi, shtke. 

tea, cJia, 

story (narrative), hafuishi. 

tea- cup, clia-nomi'jaivan. 

straight, viassugu {no). 

tea-house, cha^'a. 

strange, /iis/iigl {ftd). 

tea-pot, kibisho. 

stranger, shiranai hito. 

teach (to), oshiern. 

straw, ivara. 

teacher, sfiisho, kyoshi, sensei. 

strawberry, icJiigo, 

tear (trans, verb), saku^yahtiku. 

street, machi, tori. 

tears, tianuda. 

strength, ckikara. 

telegram, defnpo. 

strike (heat), utsit, butsu. 

telegraph-office, denshin-kyoku. 

string, ito. 

telegraphy, dettshin. 

strong, tstiyoi. 

telephone, demva. 

student, shosei. 

telescope, to-vieganCy boenkyo. 

stuff (for clothes, etc,), kire-ji. 
stumble, tstwmzuku,fumi'Iuiztisu, 

tell (to), «/, hanasu, kaiaru. 

temple (Buddhist), tera. 

stupid, baka {fia). 
suck (to), stni. 

temple (Shinto), yashiro, jiaja. 


sugar, satd. 

ten, 'to ; but see p. 101. 

sugar-plum, {0) kivas/u. 

Testament (New), Shiny aku Zefisfio, 

suit (to) kanau, ki ni iru. 

Testament (Old), Kyuyaku Zensho. 

sum (total), shime-daka. 

than, yori. 



tlKink (lo), rci wo iu. 

too (also), yahari^ mo ; (excess). 

tliaiik yoo, arigato. 


til at, ari\ ano, etc.; sec p. 52. 

tool, dogu. 

tlieatrc, sHbai, 

tooth, ha. 

til en, sono toki. 

toothache rto have a), haga itai, 
tooth-brasn, ydji. 

tliCic, soki\ asTiko^ achira. 

tLerefore, da kara^ <Usu kara (polite). 

tooth-pick, koyoji. 

tliermometer, kaudankei. 

tooth-powder, ha-migaki. 

tliey, kort'-ra, a/to AVo-facki. 

top, lu (no hi)^ 

thick (of solids), a/sui. 

torch, tainuUsu. 

t).ick (of liquids), koi. 

tortoise, katne {no ko). 

thief, doroho. 

tortoise-sheU, bekkd. 

thimble, yuhi-miki. 

total (sun), so'daka, tsugo. 

tliiji (to Ix'), yascte irti. 

toudi (\o\fttrerii, saruaru, 
towards, no ho ye. 

tiling, see pp. 38—9. 
tliiftk (to), omou^ zonjiru. 

towel, te-nugui'. 

tiiirsty (to be), nodo ga kmuaku. 

town (capital), miyako. 

thirteen, /w-j/w. 

town (post-), shuku. 

this, korey kono ; but see p. 52. 

town (seaport), minato. 
toy, offwcha. 

though, see p. 186. 

tluce, tniisti ; but see p. loi. 

' trade, akinai, bocki. 

throat, nodo. 

tradesman, akindo. 

through, tdsJntc% totie. 

tradition, ii^tsutae. 

tlirow (to), nageniy horn. 

train (railway), rcssJia, kisha. 

thunder, kaviin^ri, raL 

traitor, cttdteki. 

Thursday, tnoktiydbi. 

tram, tetsudd-bas/ta. 

ticket, ktppn. 

translate (to), hon-yaku sunt. 

ticket (return), ofuku-gippu. 

transport (to), Jiakobu, 
travel (to), ryokd sum. 

tide, shio : high — , micJd^Juo ; 

low — , htki'Skio. 

traveller, tahi-bito. 

tie (to), shibarii. 

tray, bon. 

tiger, tora. 

tread (to), fumu. 

tight, katai. 

treasure, takara-motw. 

tiU, made. 

treat (to), tori-atsukau. 

time, toki; (to take time), tevia^om. 


tin (the metal), sutu. 

tree, kijumoku (learned). 

tin (a), burikki (from Dutch blek\ 

tremble {io\ furueru. 

tinned provisions, kanziwie{'mono). 

triangle, san^kaku. 

tip (to a servant), sakah:. 

trick (habit), kiisc', 
trick (juggler's), teztmta. 

tipsy (to get), sake niyon. 

tired (to get), kutabirertt. 

trick (dog's, etc.),, C'7. 

to^ye, ni. 

trouble, tekazu. 

to-day, -konmcJuy kyd (famil.). 

trouble (to be in), komaru. 

toe, {ashi no) yubi. 

troublesome, tirusai, mendd (fta). 

together, issJio ni. 

trout, ai,ya»Mnie, 

to-morrow, mydnichiy as hit a (famil.). 

trowsers, ztfbon. 

tomato, aka-nasn. 

true, hontd (;/(?), viakoto (fto). 

tomb, haka. 

trust (to), s/nnjirUf shin-yo suru. 

tongs (fire-), Mbashi, 

try {io\yatte rniru, tamesu. 

to-night, kovi'-ban^ kon-ya. 

Tuesday, k^vayobi. 


tumbler (glass), mizii-nofui-goppu. 

usher (school), jokyoshi. 

tunnel, ana. 

usual, tsune {no), /ieizei{iio). 

turkey, shichimcucho. 

turn (intrans. verb), mauhini. 


turn (trans, verb), maivastt. 

tuniip, ka/ni. 

vaccination, ueboso^shutd. 

turret, ;v7^//nz. 

vain (conceited), namaiki (fia), ko- 

twelve, yi/-;//. 

man {no). 

twenty, niju. 

valley, tani. 

twice, Ill-do, futa-tabi. 

value, atai, ne-nchi. 

twilight (evening), kure-gata. 

various, iro-iro {no), ironna. 

twine (intrans. verb), karamit. 

varnish, nrushi. 

twins, /iif ago. 

vary, kawaru. 

twist (to), lujirii, hineru. 
two, fu/atsu ; see p. loi. 

vase, hanadke. 

vegetables, yasai{-mono) . 

typhoon, aras/ii, o-arashi. 

vegetation, somokit. 

vein, myakn. 


velocipede, jHensha. 

velvet, birddo. 

ugly (to see), migiirusJui, 

verandah, engaiva. 

umbrella, kdmori-gasa. 

very, see pp. 147-8. 

unable (to be), dekinai. 

vicG^fU'tnimochi, aknhei. 

wxidiwdiA^X^, yoiidokoronai , 

victory, shdri, kac/d-ikusa. 

uncle, oji. 

victuals, tabemono. 

uncomfortable, /////jj'f/ (w^). 

view (prospect), mi-haraski, keshiki. 

under, no sJuta ni. 

village, mura^ sato. 

under-clothing, shltagi. 

vinegar, su. 

understand (to), wakaru, sJiochi 

violent, te-arai. 


violet (a), sumo-tori {-gusa). 

underwriter, hoken-nin, uke-oi-nin. 

viper, mamnshi. 

undress (to oneself), kimono wo 

virgin, ki-musume. 


virtue (goodness), zen. 

unfortunately, ni-niku. 


u n ha ppy , /// -s/iiawase. 

visit (to pay a), taznnete kttru. 

uniform (military), gumpuku. 

visitor, kyakn. 

United States, Gasshnkokit, 

voice, kot\ 

uiiiversity, daignku, daigakko. 

volcano, {fttn')kwazan. 

unkind, ftminjo, fushinsetsu {na). 

volume (book), satsu. 

unwholesome (to be), doku ni nam. 

vomit, hedo wo haku. 

up, no satisf. equiv. 

vulgar, gehin [na). 

uphill, saka-michi. 

upon, no ue ni. 


upright (erect), utassttgu yna). 

upset (trans, verb), hikktiri-kaesn. 

wadding, wata. 

upside down, sakasama. 

wager, kake{,-mono). 

upstairs, nikai. 

wages, kyukin. 

urine, shdhcn, shom/u-n (vulg.). 

waistcoat, chokki. 

use (to), isiikait, mockiiru. 

wait (to), mafsti. 

useful, ihoho {na),yaku ni tatsu. 

wait (at table), kyitji 7uo sum. 

useless, yakit ni tatanai. 

waiter, kyuji, boy (from English). 



waiting-room, macht-ai-ha. 

wake (intrans. verb), nu- j^a stumrit, 

wake (trans, verb), okosu. 

walk (to), aruht. 

wall (mad), ka/fr; (stone), ishibei, 

want (to), hoshii (adjective). 

war, f>Mjdc. 

warehouse, ktira^ dozo, 

warm, ata/akai, atataka {mi). 

warn (to), iir.ishivieru. 

wash (to), arau, 

washerman, sentaku-ya. 

wash -hand -basin, (hdzii'darai, 

washing (of clothes), snitnku. 

wasp, hachi. 

waste (trans, verb), isuivosu, muda 

ni tstikau. 
watch (clock), tokci. 
watch (to), ban 100 sunt, ki 700 

water (cold), mizn. 
water (hot). (<0 .17/. 
water (mineral spring), onsen. 
water-closet, hcnjo, chozttha^ haha^ 

waterfall, iaki. 
wave, nami. 

way (manner), jj' J, shtkaia, amhai, 
way (road), michi. 
way in, Jiairi-kuchi. 
way out, de-gtuhi. 
we, watakushi'domo^ but see p. 48. 
weak, y<nuai. 
weapon, buki^ heiki. 
wear (intrans. verb), viotsu. 
wear (trans, verb), kirn. 
weather, tenki, ydki. 
weave (to), oru. 
Wednesday, suiydbi. 
weed, 7varu-kTisa, 
week, shukan, 

weigh (trans, verb), hakarii. 
weight, mekata. 
well (a), ido. 
well (bodily),/^//// {no). 
well (to get), naoni: 
well ! jjiazu, satf 
west, nis/ii. 
wet Uo be), nurcid int. 
whale, kujira. 

wharf, ai^eba. 

what? ttam ? do ? 

wheat, komugi, 

wheel, Ti'rt, kitruuta. 

when, toki^ but see pp. 41—2, 84, 

when ? itsu ? 
where, tokoro. 
where ? doko ? 
which ? dore ? 
while; aida^ but see pp. 41—2, 


whip, viucJu. 

whiskers, Jw-Jtige, 

whistle, ktichi-btte wofttku. 

white, shiroi. 

who ? dare ? donata ? (polite). 

whole, fmna, sotai («<?). 

wholesome (to be), kusuri ni miru, 

why ? naze ? do iu wake de ? 

wick, sJtin. 

wicked, ivarui, ahi (in compounds). 

wide, {haha no) hirai. 

widow, goke, yamotne, 

width, haba. 

wife, tsutna; but see p. 256. 

wild, rendered by no oxyama prefix- 
ed to the next word. 

wild-goose, ga^i, 

will (testament), yuigon, ynisho. 

willow-tree, yanagi. 

win, (to) katsu. 

wind, kaze. 

wind (to), tnaht, kuru, 

window, inado, 

wine, biidoshii^ sake. 

wing, hane. 


wipe (to), nnguu^fuku. 

wire, hwigane, 

wisdom, due. 

wise, kashtkoi^ rikd {na) 

wish (to), hosJiii (adjective). 

wistaria, fnji. 

with (by), de^ de matte. 

with (together), to issho ni, 

withdraw (intrans. verb), shirizoku. 

wither (to), shibomu^ karcru, 

witness, shoko-nin. 

without, see i^p. 129, 188. 

w — z 


wolf, okavii. 

wrestle (to), sumo wo tortt. 

woman, omia^fujin (polite). 

write (to), i^aZ'w. 

wonder (to), do satisf. equiv. 

wrong (adj.), warm, mac hi gat t a. 

wonderful, inyd (fta), fiishigi {mi), 



wood (the substance), ki. 

wood (forest), nwri. 

year, tosM. 

wool, ke, rasha. 

yellow, ki'iroi. 

word, kotoba^ 

yes, see p. 233. 

work, shigoto. 

yet (not), t?tada. 

work (to), kataraku. 

yesterday, sakmitsit, kind (less 

workman, sJwkunin, 


workmanship, deki^ saiku. 

you, anata, oinae; but see p. 46. 

world, sekai. 

young, wakai. 

worm (earth-), mimizu. 

worth, atai^ ne^uchL 


worthless, tsitmarmmi. 

wound, kega^ kizu. 

zeal, fU'sshin, 

wrap u]) (to), tstttsumu. 

zinc, toian. 

If 475. 




\AU verbs are of the xst. confugathn, unless marked 2, 3, or irregular. Com- 
pound verbs are given under their first member, as mi-sokonau under 
miru. When several references t> pages are given, the most important 
reference is placed first.) 




agreba, a wharf. 

agreku ni, as a final result, at last. 

a, like that, in that way : a iu, that 

agreru (2), to raise, hence to give 

kind of, such as that. 

to a superior. For honorific use 

aa ! or a ! ah ! 

of (igeru, see pp, 250—1. 

abayo, goodbye (in baby lan- 

ago, the chin. 


ahiru, a tame duck. 

abiru (3), to bathe. 

ai, a verbal prefix ; see p. 73. 

abu, a horsefly. 

ai, indigo, dark blue. 

abunai, dangerous. 

ai (properly ayu\ a kind of trout. 

abura, a general name for all oil, 

aida, an interval, time, while (see 

grease, and fat. 

p. 41): aida-gara, connection, 

acbi or achira, there. 

relationship: aida ga ori-aimastrfi^ 

aete, venturing (the present aeru 

do not get on well together. 

is not in use) ; but sometimes a 

ai-kawarazu, without change. 

mere expletive belonging to the 

the same as heretofore. 

written style. 

aikokCi-shiii, patriotism. 

agari, ascent, produce. 

ai-nikui, coming inopportunely, 

agraru, to rise ; to get clear (said 

happening at an unlucky mo- 

of the weather) ; also to take, to 


eat or drink (honor.) : agarikoviu^ 

aisatsu, salutation, acknowledg- 

to force one's way up into; 

ment, response, answer ; aisatsu 

agari'Sagari sttru, to go up and 

surtt, to salute, to answer. 

down. For agani honorific, see 

aisuman, to be unpardonable. 

PP 251,202. 

there is no excuse to ofier. 


[ 475 ] 



aisuru (irreg.), to love. 

akuru, the Classical form of 

aita ! or aitata ! oh t how painful; 

akeru, to open, still used colloqu- 

see p. 237. 

ially in such expressions as akuru 

aite, a party (to a transaction), an 

Jtiy the next day. 

antagonist (at a game), a com* 

akato, a villain. 


ama, a (Buddhist) nun. 

ajiwai, taste, flavour. 

amai, sweet. 

akagane, copper. 

amami, a tinge of sweetness. 

akai, red, brown : ako-nasii^ a 

amari, too much, too ; (with a 


negative) not very, see p. 148. 

akambo, a baby. 

amaru, to exceed, to remain 


akari, alight. 

ambai, way, manner, bodily 

akacui, light (not dark). 

feelings : amhui ga warui, I fed 

ake-gata, dawn. 

unwell ; do in anibai ? how ? yoi 

akeru (2), to open (trans.) ; to 

anibai ni, fortunately. 

begin (intrans.),— said of the New 

ame, rain ; amc ga furn, to rain ; 


ante ni nam, to come on to rain. 

aki, autumn. 

ame, a kind of sweetmeat made of 

aki-mekura, one who is blind, 

fermented grain. 

but has his eyes open. 

Amerika, America, the United 

akinai, trade, commerce. 

States ; Anterika-jin, am Ame- 

akinau, to trade. 

rican ; Amn-ika no, American. 

akindo, a merchant, a dealer. 

ami, a net: ami too «/j«. to net 

akippoi, easily wearied, fickle. 


akiraka (na), clear, evident : 

amma, a shampooer. 

a/ciraka ni, clearly. 

an, an opinion, a case, a point, 

akke ni torareru (2), to be 

a draft, a bill. 

amazed, thunder-struck. 

ana, a hole, a cave, a tunnel. 

akko, l)ad or scurrilous language, 

anadoru, to jeer, to revile. 


anata, you ; see pp. 46—8, 239. 

aku, evil, vice. 

aku, to open (intrans.), to 

Japanese style with paper sides). 

become vacant: aiu t'rtf, to 

ane, an elder sister. 

be open, to be unoccupied, not 

ani(ki), an elder brother ; conf. 


p. 256. 

aku-hei, vicious habits. 

ani, a negative particle ; see p. 169. 





anjiru (3), to be anxious. 

ari, an ant. 

anna, that kind of, sach as (hat. 

ari-awase-mono, anything that 

annai, guidance, knowing one*s 

there may happen to be. 

way about, a guide: afuiai sunt. 

ari-gachi, apt to be. 

to guide. 

ari^tai, thankful (said both of 

ano, that (adj.) ano hifo, he, she ; 

the person who feds thankful. 

ano ne ! see p. 239. 

and of the thing for which he 

anshin, mental ease : tmshi$i sum. 

is thankful); hence sometimes 

to feel at easei 

beneficent: arigatd {^ozainM5u\ 

an-yo, the feet, to walk (in baby 

thank you ; conf. p. 255. 


arimastl, see pp. 221-2. 

anzu, an apricot. 

arisama, a state, a condition. 

aoi, green, blue. 

ari-tei, the facts of a case. 

aoru, to Blam backwards and for- 

aru, (irreg.) to be; see pp. 170, 

wards (intrans.) ;— said of a door. 

190,221, 129, 210,223: lU aru. 

ao-BUji, blue lines, e. ^. , on the 

seep. 216 : ari no niaffia, see p. 


76. Sometimes aru means a cer- 

ara ! see p. 237. 

tain, some, as in aru toki, on a 

arai, rough. 

certain occasion, sometimes. 

arare, hail. 

aruji, the master of a house, a 

araserareru (2), to be, hence to 


go (very honorific) ; conf. p. 150. 

aruku, to walk. 

arashi, a storm, a typhoon. 

aru-nashi, seo p. 34. 

arasoi, a dispute. 

asa, the morning: asa-gao, the 

arasou, to dispute. 

morning glory, or convolvulus ; 

asii-/ian, breakfast. 

hauled, altered, rectified. 

asagi, light blue, light green. 

aratameru (2), to renew, over- 

asatte, the day after to-morrow. 

haul, examine, alter, rectify. 

ase, i^erspiration : asc ga dern, to 

arau, to wash. 

perspire ; ase m fiaru, to get into 

arawareru (2), to show or reveal 

a perspiration. 

oneself, to appear. 

asemo, prickly heat. 

arawasu, to show, to reveal. 

ashi, the foot, the leg ; as hi tio 

arayuru, see p. 407, note 9. 

yubi, the toes; mi asJd, see 

are, that (subst.); see pp. 53, 48 : 

p. 249. 

are hodi\ as much as that; are 

aslilta, to morrow ; as/uta no asa. 

kara, after that. 

to morrow morning. 


[477 ] 



ascbasu, an honorific equiv. 

of the verb surtt^ to do; see 

p. 250. 
ssobi, a game, 
asobu, asubu, to play, to amuse 

as&ko, there: asuko kara, thence ; 

asuko ye^ thither. 
asCLkoera, thereabouts. 
ataeru (2), to give, to grant. 
atai, price, value. 
atama, the head: atama-kalmse^ 

and atania kara kogoto ivo iu^ see 

p. 406, note 6. 
atarashii, new, fresh. 
atari, neighbourhood, hence near, 

on or about. 
atarixnae, ordinary, generally : 

atariviae fto, usual, proper. 
ataru, to hit the mark, also to 

be near, as hi ni atartf, to sit near 

the fire: ni atattc^ just at; 

dochira ni ataite ? where ? 
atatameru (2), to warm (tians.). 
ate, reliance: ate ni naru^ to be 

reliable ; ate ni stiru^ to rely on. 
ateru (2), to apply one thing to, 

or use it for, another ; to liit : ate- 

/latncrtt, to allot, to assign ; kaze 

'li'o ateru, to have it windy. 
a to, traces, effects, a sign, behind, 

afterwards, the rest : ato df, or 

sono ato, afterwards ; ato no, the 

remaining, other : ato-saki, the 

context, circumstances. 
atsui, hot 
atsui, thick (said of solids). 

atsHkau, to manage, to under- 

atstica, heat, the degree of heat. 

atsiisa, thickness, the degree of 

atsuxnaru, to collect (intrans.). 

atsumeru (2), to collect (trans.). 

atsuraeru (2), to order (e. g. 
things at a shop). 

au, to meet, to agree, to suit ; see 
also p. 251 : ame ni au, to get 
rained upon ; hidoi me ni att, to 
experience cruel treatment: /»*- 
doi me ni artvasem, to treat 

awa, millet. 

awase-mono, something artifi- 
cially joined together. 

awaseru (2), to cause to meet, 
hence to add, to join. 

awatadashii, flurried. 

awateru (2), to be flurried, — 
especially from fright. 

ayaxnatsu, to make a mistake. 

ayu, a species of trout, 

a2sa]ia, a nickname. 


ba, a place ; — used only in com- 
position, as fwO'ba^ a bath-place. 

ba, (auxil. numeral), see p. 1 10. 

ba, (conditional suffix) see p. I67. 

baba, an old woman (rude). 

bai, double ; see also p. 118. 

baishu, purchase : kiiskn sunt, to 


[478 1 


baka, a fool ; btiku tid^ or baka- 
rashii^ foolish, absurd ; hUa wo 
baka ni sitru, to make a fool of 
a person. 
bakarashii, absurd, foolish. 

bakari, a1x>ut, only. 
bake(-ziiono), any supernatural 
and uncanny creature, a ghost, 
a goblin. 

baktlchi, gambling. 

bambutsu, all things, nature. 

bamme, a word used to form 
ordinal numbers ; see p. 115. 

bam-xneshi, supper, (late) dinner. 

ban, a myriad, ten thousand ; also 
used as a pluralising prefix, as 
han-Ji, all things. 

ban, an evening, a nig>jt. 

ban, number (so-and-so); see p. 

ban, watch, guard : ban wo sttruy 
to keep watch. 

bancbi, the number (of a house 
in a street). 

bane, the springs (of a carriage, 

banji, all things, everything. 

bankoku, all countries, inter- 
national ; bankoku ko/io, inter- 
national law. 

banto, a head clerk or manager, 

banzuke, a programme. 

bara, a thorny bush, hence a rose- 

bara-bara, helter-skelter. 

bari, an insult, abusive language : 
bari suru, to revile, to slander. 

baaha, a carriage. 
baBho, a place. 
bassuru (irreg.), to punish. 
bata, butter (from English). 
baya, an old lady, grandmamma 

(in baby language). 
bebe, clothes (in baby language). 
bei (vulg. for beslii), see p. 122. 
Beikoku, America, the United 

States (learned style), 
beki, see pp. 121-2, 132. 
bekk6, tortoise shell. 
bemmei, elucidation, explanation: 

bemmti suru^ to elucidate. 
benjiru (3), to discuss. 
benjo, a water-closet. 
benk5, eloquence : betiko no yoi^ 

eloquent, glib. 
beaky 5, diligence. 
benri, convenience : benri no yoi 

or benri {na\ convenient, benri 

no tvarui^ inconvenient. 
bents, food carried with one, e. g. 

luncheon for a picnic.- 
beppin, lit. another quality ; 

hence a superior article, (hence 

metaph.) a pretty girl. In this 

last sense the word is familiar 

or slangy. 
berab6(-me), a scoundrel. 
besbi, see p. 122. 
betsu, a difference ; betsu ni, 

differently, specially; betsu no, 

different, other; betsu-znmai, 

living apart. 
betsudan (no,) special. 
bettaku, a villa. 


[ 479 ] 



betto, a groom. 

budo, grapes : btidd-sku, wine. 

biiru, beer (from English). 

buji, no accident, safe and sound. 

bjjin, a belle. 

buki, a weapon. 

bijutsu, the fine arts. 

bukku, a European book, conf. 

bimbo, poverty : bimbo mi, poor. 

p. 6. 

bin, a bottle. 

Bakkyo, Buddhism. 

birr, the Japanese cue. 

Bukkyo, a Buddhist sutra. (The 

birddo, velvet. 

kyo of this word is written with 

b6, a bludgeon, a stick. 

a different Chinese character 

boeki, trade. 

from the kyo of the preceding 

boenkyo, a telescope. 


bokiy book-keeping. 

bumznei, enlightenment, civi- 

boko, violent conduct. 

lisation : bummei na^ civilised, 

boku, a servant, hence I. 


boktishi, a pastor, a clergyman. 

bumpai suru, (irreg.; to distri- 

boktito, a mock sword made of 



bumpO, grammar. 

bon, a tray. 

bun, a part. 

bonten-obi, cheap striped belt 

Buppo, Buddhism. 

worn by coolies and servants. 

bura-bura, in a sauntering man- 

bon-yari, an onomatope for 


obscurity, tedium, dullness : bon- 

burei, rudeness; burei na, rude. 

yari sJiita dull, dazed, obscure. 

impertinent ; go bm-ei^ see p. 247. 

bosan, a Buddhist priest. 

buri, a suffix signifying gait, de- 

bosM, a hat, a cap. 


botan, a peony. 

busata, failure to give notice, re- 

botan, a button (from English). 

missness in paying a visit : go 

botankyo, a species of large red 

btisata, see p. 247 ; watakushi ni 


busata de, without letting me 

botcban, a little boy ; see p. 240. 


boy, a house- servant, a valet 

bushi, a warrior. 

(from English). 

busbo (na), indolent, slovenly, 

bozu, a Buddhist priest (rude). 


bu, a copy of a book. 

buta, a pig. 

bu, a part, see pp. 118- 119. 

butsu, to beat, to strike: btichi- 

buchoho, awkwardness : buchdhd 

horosti, to beat to death ; ^//rA/- 

ua^ awkward. 

taosit, to knock down. 





butUukeru (2), (for buchi-tsuke' 

m) to bump. 
buttsuri to, slashingly. 
byO, a tack (nail). 
byObu, a screen. 
byOizi, a hospital 
byOki, a disease: bydH{fM\ ill, 

byOnin, an invalid, a patient. 
byOshio, a weakling. 

cba, tea ; cha-nomi-jawan, a tea- 
cup ; cha-ya, a tea-house ; chn 
1V0 irt'ru, to make tea. 

cha, (termination of the em- 
phasised gerund), see pp. 166, 

chaklifturu, (irreg.) to arrive. 

cban, baby language for San, Mr., 
Mrs., or Miss. 

chanto, quietly : chanto shiti\ 

cbawan, a tea-cup, a bowl. 

chaya, a tea-house. 

Chij blood : chi ga deru, to bleed 
(in trans.); cki-gatana, a blood- 
stained sword. 

cb.i-banare, weaning (of an in- 

chichi, a father; but see p. 256. 

chichi, the breasts, hence milk. 

chie, intelligence, wisdom. 

chifusu, typhus ; see p. 26. 

chigai, a difference, a mistake : 
chigai nai, there is no doubt. 

chigau, to differ, hence to be mis- 
taken, to be the wrong one. 

chihO, a direction, a district, a 

chiisai or chiisa xia, small: 
chiisaku nam, to crouch. 

chikagroro, recently. 

chikai, near : chikai uchi, soon. 

chikara, strength : chikara wo 
isukusn, to do one's best, to 

chikazuki, friendship, an in- 
timate friend* 

chikuba, a sort of toy stick on 
which children ride a-cock- horse: 
chikuba no tomo, a friend from 
childhood upwards. 

chikushO, a brute animal, a 

chin, a Japanese pug. (Pugs are 
not included undei the generic 
term inu, dog.) 

chira-chira, flutteringly. 

chirasu, to scatter (as the wind 
does dead leaves). 

chiri, dust 

chirimexL, crape. 

chiru, to fall (as leaves or as the 
petals of flowers). 

chishlki, talent, wisdom. 

chishitsu-gaku, geology. 

chiso, (generally with the honor- 
ific go prefixed) a feast. 

chi(t)to, see choito. 

chizu, a map. 

cho, an auxiliary numeral; see 
p. 108. 

■T ^ 




chQ, a butterfly. 

cho, a measuxe of distance equiva- 
lent to about 1 20 yards English. 
There are 36 cho in the official ri 
or league. Cho also means street 
or ward : ni-cho-nie^ the second 
V ard (of such and such a street). 

cho, a million. 

choai, love: chdai stirii^ to love. 

ch.obatsu, punishment: chobatsu 
swii, to punish. 

chochaku suru (irreg.), to give 
a thrashing, to beat. 

dLOChixL, a lantern. 

choclid, a butterfly. 

cho-olio, an onomatope for the 
sound of beating. 

cho-cho, garrulously. 

chodai suru (irreg.), to receive 
respectfully ; conf. p. 251. 

ch5do, just, exactly. 

choho, convenience : ckd/w na^ 
convenient, useful. 

choi-choi (to), little by little, just 
a little. 

choito, chotOy chotto, cliito, 
or chitto, just a little, a trifle : 
ckoito sktta, slight, trifling ; 
cliotto is also used to signify 
about, as in chotto ichi-nen^ just 
about a year. 

chojo, the summit of a mountain. 

cbokki, a waistcoat. 

Chosen, Korea. 

chdteki, a rebel, a traitor. 

cho-tsugai, a hinge. 

cho(.t)tOy see thoito. 

choyd, age ; see p. 415, note 5. 

chCza, sitting long, paying an 
interminable visit : chdza snm^ to 
pay too long a visit. 

chozu, water to wash the hands 
with: chozu-ba, a water-closet ; 
chozU'bachi or chozn-darai ^ a 

chu, in ; conf. p. 146. 

chu, loyalty (to a superior) : chu 
wo isukiistif to behave with per- 
fect loyalty. 

chugren, a samurai's retainer ot 
the lower sort. 

chugi, loyalty ; conf. chit. 

chui, attention, care: chui swu^ 
to pay attention. 

ohujo, a lieutenant-general, a vice- 

chuko, the Middle Ages. 

chumon, an order (e. g. at a 
shop : chumcn-dori^ as ordered. 

churyaku, see p. 430, note 7. 

chu(shaku,) commentary. 

chushi, cessation, stoppage. 

cbushin, the centre. 

chiishin, a loyal retainer. 

chutO, second clasfi, middb'n^. 


da, see pp. 62, 222. 

dai, great, big, very. Used in 

compounds, as dai^kiraiy greatly 

dai, a word used to form ordinal 

numbers, see p. 11$; dai iehi fti, 

in the first place. 





dai, a table. 

dan, a step : dan-dan, gradually ; 

dai, a reign, a generation. 

see also p. 326, note 23. 

daiy the auxiliary numeral for 

dangi, a speech, a sermon, advice. 


dango, a kind of dumpling. 

daibUy a good deal. 

daichi, the ground. 

to take counseL 

daidai, an orange (hard-skinned 

dazgiru (3), to consult. 


danki, heat 

dai-dokoro, a kitchen. 

daigakkO, a university. 

times means you or he, see p. 47. 

dano, a postposidon ; see p. 80. 

dai-gennin, a lawyer. 

danahi, a male child, a man. 

datii, importance: daiji fia, im- 

darake, a suflfix meaning smeared 

portant ; daifi ni suru, to take 

or covered with, as cM-darakc^ 

great care of. 

blood-smeared ; doro-darake, all 

da^iiiy a minister of state. 

covered with mud. 

daijObu (na), all right, safe and 

dare P who ? — dare ka, dare mo. 


dare de mo^ see p. 52; dare-dakef 

daikai, the ocean. 

exactly who ? 

daikon, a large species of radish. 

darO, see p. 222. 

daikUy a carpenter. 

dasu, to take out, to put outskle ; 

daimyO, the title of a class of 

see also p. 218. 

nobles in feudal times; conf. 

dashi-monOy something put forth. 

p. 7. 

a show. 

dairiy a substitute : dairt-imnjo, a 

datta, see p. 222. 

power of attorney. 

dattel see p. 406, note 4. 

dai-sUki, very fond. ^ 

de, a postposition ; see p. 62 : <i^ 

daitaiy the general character of a 

aru, de arintasu, and de gozai- 

thing, its main features. 

masu, see p. 222 ; de gozaimasu 

daitOryO, a president,— of the 

no, see p. 80 ; d5? mo, see pp. 55, 

United States, etc. 

95 ; de motte, see p. 73; de wa. 

dajaku (na), indolent. 

see pp. 64, 97. 

dake, only, about, as as. 

de-guchi, an exit, the way out 

de-iri, the e^itrce to a house : de- 

damasuy to cheat 

iti no isha, a family physician. 

dampan, deliberation, consulta- 

d»-kakeru (2), to start oif. 


de-kata, a troupe of actors. 


[483 ] 


deki (generally with honorific 
prefix {o\ or dekimono, any 
thing which comes out on the skin, 
as a boil, a sore ; deki also means 
workmanship, produce. 

dekiru (3), to come out, etc. ; see 
p. 202: deki-agaru^ to be finished, 

dempata, landed property. 

dempO, a telegram. 

densexnbyd, an infectious disease. 

denslxin, telegraphy : denshin- 
kyoku, a telegraph-office. 

deru (2), to come out of, to issue 
forth, to go out : de-au, to meet 
out of doors, to encounter ; de- 
kakeru^ to go out 

de-slxabaru, to stick out, to ob- 
trude (intrans.). 

deshi, a pupil, a disciple. 

deshita, see p. 223. 

deshO, see p. 223. 

desii, see pp. 64, 223 : desu ga, 
see p. 286. 

dx>| (concessive suffix), see p. 167. 

do, a time {unefois): icH-do, once. 

do, same, e.g, ddjitsu, the same 
day ; ddyo, the same manner. 

do P how ? — do de mo, anyhow ; 
do itashiviasHte, see p. 285, No. 
3 ; doiu ? what kind of? what 
like? do {ni) ka, ko {ni) ka, see p. 
301, No. 7 ; do sttruP what shall 
you do ?dd shite ? how ? do shite 
fiw, do what you will, in any 
case; dd skita moti dot see bottom 
of p. 301. 

doba, a ditch. 

dObutsu, an animal. 

docMP or dochira, where? 
sometimes which ? — ^for this word 
with ka, moy or de mo added, see 

p. 52. 

dodoitsu, a kind of popular song; 
seep. 451. 

dOgi, a motion (at a public meet- 
ing, etci). 

dOgru, a utensil; ddgti-ya, a second- 
hand shop, a dealer in second- 
hand wares. 

dOi, the same opinion. 

Doitsu, Germany ; Doitsu-jin, a 
German ; Doitsu no, G^man. 

dOka, please ; but see p. 255. 

dokkoisbo ! see p. 237. 

doko P where ? doko ka, doko mo^ 
doko de mo, see p. 52; doko kara f 
whence ? doko made ? how far ? 
doko made mo, see p. 71. 

dokoera P whereabouts ? 

dokoro, see p. 43. 

doku, poison : dokti m naru^ to be 

doklishin(-mono), a bachelor. 

domo, a plnralising suffix ; see 
p. 29. 

do(ino), (concessive suffix), p. 167* 

dOmo I see p. 237. 

don, bang : don to, with a banging^ 

donata P who ? — dotuUa ka^ donata 
mo, donata de mo, see p. 52. 

donna P what kind of? what like? 
donna ni.,.m0, however much. 




dono P which ? (adj.): ^iono kurai? 

how much ? 
dono, Mr. (in book Unguage). 
dore P which ? (subst): dorc-dakc ? 

IV hat amount ? dore ka, do re nu\ 

d ;\- dc ffWf see p. 52 ; dorr /wdo ? 

Iiow much? 
dori, reason. 
doro, much : dorihashi^ muddy 

feet ; doro-darakc, all muddy ; 

doro-ntichi^ a muddy road. 
dorobd, a thief, 
dosuru (irreg.), to be agitated. 
dote, an embankment, a bank. 
ddtoku, morality : ddtoku-tctsu^H' 

ku^ moral philosophy. 
doya-doya, tumultuously. 
doyObi, Saturday. 
dOzO, a mud godown. 
dOzo, please ; but see p. 255. 

e! eh! eh? 
e, a picture. 
e, an inlet with a stream running 

into it. 
ebi, a prawn. 

eda, a branch of a tree, river, etc. 
e^aku, to paint (pictures). 
«i ! ah ! oh ! 

£igo, the English language. 
£i{koku), England, 
ekaki, a painter, 
embi-fftku, a swallow-tail coat. 
empitsu, a pencil 
empo, a long way off: empd na, 

distant, far. 

en, a yen or Japanese dollar => 

about fifty cents of American 

endan, a rostrum. 
endO-mame) peas. 
enfiTftwa, a verandah. 
engumi, marriage. 
en*kin, distance, how far ? 
enko, to sit (in baby language) ; 

see p. 240. 
ennichi, a festival day ; hence a 

enryo, diffident : emyo sunt, to be 

ensoku, an excursion, a picnic. 
enzetsu, a lecture, a speech : en- 

zctsu sur/t, to lecture. 
erabu, to choose, 
erai, wonderful, able, very. 
eri, a collar. 

eru (2), to get ; conf. p. 199. 
eru, to choose : cri^dasu, to select 

from among several. 
eshaku, an apology, a bow : 

eshaku ivo suru, to bow, to 

Ezo, the island of Yezo. 

fu, a negative prefix. 

fa, two (in enumeration). 

fa I oh! 

fU-annai, ignorant of, unac- 
quainted with. 

fuben, inconyenience : fi^bm mi^ 

fuda, a ticket. 


L 4«5] 



fudan, the ordinary rou^ei/udan 

no, asual, common, 
fude, a pen : ftide-sasJd, a pen- 
fudosan, immovable property (for 

instance, land), 
fueru (2), to increase (intrans.). 
fdfu, husband and wife : futa- 

fiefn, two married couples, 
fuhai, putrefaction: fulMi sum, to 

luji, the wistaria plant. 
fujin, a lady. 
Fuji(-8an), Fusiyama. 
ftijiyu, inconvenience, discomfort: 

fujiyn na^ inconvenient. 
filkai, deep. 
f&keiki, hard times, depression of 

f&keru (2), properly to deepen, but 

scarcely used except in yo gafuke- 

rit, to become late at night ; iosfd 

gafukerut to grow old. Also to be 

steeped in (e.g, in wine and lust). 
f&ku, an auxiliary numeral; see p. 

f&ku, to blow (e.g. the wind):/«^/- 

maii^asu, to blow round. 
iUku, to wipe. 
fUku-biki, a species of lottery or 

raffle in which every one draws 

some prize, 
f flkuxnu, to contain, to include. 
itikurasu, to distend, to swell 

fttkurOy a bag: ofukuro, a mother, 

but see p. 256. 

flikuzatsu, a medley, a complica- 
tion : fukuzaisu fia^ disorderly, 

faxnbetsu, discrimination. 

fa-mimoclii, vice, immorality. 

famu, to tread (on) \ fund'Jiaznsu^ 
to stumble ; fttmi-sMvieruj to 
tread fii-mly. 

fun, a fraction, a tenth part, a 
minute : ju-go-fun^ a quarter of 
an hour. 

funa-watashi, a ferry. 

ftine, any kind of boat or ship : 
fune ni you, to be sea-sick. 

funinjo, unkindness. 

funkwazaxL, a volcano. 

Fiiransu, France: Furamu-jin, 
a P'renchman ; Ftiransu «(?, 

fiireru (2), to touch ; hence to in- 

fari, a fall (of rain or snow). 

fori, airs, gait, pretence. 

ftiro, a bath: furo-ba, a bath-place. 

farokku-koto, a frock-coat (from 
the English word). 

furoshlki, a cloth used to wrap 
up parcels. 

faru, to fall, — said only of rain, 
snow, hail, etc.: furUdasUj to 
come on to rain, etc. ; furi-konie" 
rarcru, to be kept indoors by 
rain or saovr; furi^komuy to come 
into the house (said of rain, etc.). 

faru, to brandish, to vizse\ fuH^ 
tmikUf to turn and face. 

fiurue-groe, a quivering voice. 




ftaraern (2), to quiver, to tremble. 

f&toru, to grow fat ; fUtotta^ fat 

furui, old (said only of things): 

fatsa (no), usual, general. 

furtt-dogu, an old utensil or curio. 

fataugO, inconvenience : /f#/jf(f^ 

fUrau, to shake (trans.). 

tia, inconvenient ; less often im- 

fOsagaru, to he obstructed, to be 


quite fuU. 

fatsftka, two days, the second 

fiiteru (2), to lie down, to go to 

day of the month : futsuka^me'^ 


the second day ; futsuka-yai^ the 

fOsetsu, rumour, report. 

day after a carousal 

fa-Bhi-awase na, unhappy. 

Futsftkoku, France. 

f&Bhigi, a strange thing, a mir- 

fuyasu, to increase (trans.)- 

acle : fuskigi na, strange. 

fuyu, winter. 

fuzai, not at home, absent. 

consider suspicious, to doubt. 

fuzoku, manners, customs. 

fftshin, buflding: /iisAin-cku, 

while building, while undergoing 



f)l-shinset8u (na), unkind. 

ga, a postposiUon ; see pp. 65, 89- 

fiishOclii, dissent, objection : /w- 

91, 140-1. 

s/i3cki wo tu, to object. 

firachO, a tame goose. 

fiistike, whisky (from English). 

gaitan, lamentation. 

flisura, to submit (trans.), to 

gake, a talus, a precipice. 

hand over. 

gake, while, during, as kaeri-gake^ 

ftita, a lid. 

while returning, on the way 

f&tago, twins. 


f&tari, two persons : futarumac^ 

gakkari, a sort of onomatope for 

portions for two. 

bodily exliaustion. 

f&ta(t8u), two : futatsu'ine. 

gakkO, a school. 

second; futatsu tnitsu^ two or 

gakkwa, a subject, or line of 

three : futatsu oki, every thurd 


(lit. leaving out two). 

gaku, science, learning. 

ftito, suddenly, accidentally. 

gaku, a tablet, a picture (oblong 

fatodoki (na), insolent. 

and hard). 

f&tokoro, properly the bosom of a 

gakumon, study, learning : ga-- 

^ress, but used to signify a breast 

kuvion sum, to study. 


gakiislia, a learned man. ^ 

fttton, a bed-quilt. 

gakHshi, a graduate 




gakiitai, a band of mnsic. 

getsuy a month ;— used only in 

iraman, patience: gaman suru. 

compounds, as ik-ka^getm^ one 

to be patient. 


gan, a wild-goose. 

getsuyobi, Monday. 

gara, a suffix ; see p. 312, foot- 

gi, duty, signification, aflfair. 

note 18. 

gichO, a chairman, a president. 

garasu, glass (from the Dutch). 

gidai, a subject of discussion. 

Sraru, a verbal suffix ; see p. 

gijo, also gi-jid6, the hall in 


which the Diet meets. 

Qasshukoku, the United States. 

giin, a member of an assembly. 

gasii, {tor gozaimasu) see p. 64. 

gikwai, a public assembly, the 

grata, a pluralising particle; see 

Imperial Diet. 

p. 29. 

gimon, a question. 

gaten, comprehension, acquies- 

gimu, duty, an obligation. 

cence : gaien suru, to compre- 

gin, silver. 

hend, to acquiesce ; gat en no 

ginen, doubt, suspicion. 

ikanu, incomprehensible. 

ginkO, a bank, (for money) : gin- 

gatera, while, as, by way of. 

ko-shiheij a bank-note. 

gedai, a title ; con! p. 333, foot- 

giri, duty, right or proper feeling. 

note 31. 

giri, only ; see kiri. 

gehin (na), vulgar, base. 

giron, argument. 

gei, an accomplishment, a trick. 

giyaman, glass (the material). 

Sreislia, a singing-girl. 

go, five. 

gejo, a maid-servant. 

go, an honorific prefix ; see pp. 

Srenan, a man-servant 

143. 245-7. 

gen-an, the draft of a document. 

go, after : sono go, since then. 

gen-in, cause, origin. 

go, the game of checkers : go wo 

genkin, ready money, cash. 

utsu, to play at checkers. 

genkotsu, the knuckles. 

go, a designation, a name, a num- 

genkwa(n)y the entrance to a 


house, a porch. 

go, a district. 

genroxiy speech, discussion. 

gobu-gobu, an onomatope for 

gensOy an essence, an element, 

tbe gurgling sound made by a 

a factor, an atom. 

liquid when poured out. 

genzai, the present time. 

gochisG, a feast 

gerOy a (low-dass) man-servant. 

gogo, the afternoon. 

gaail, iSor gozaimasu) see p. 64. 

go-gwatsu, May. 




gohan, rice, food. 

go-isliiy a coanter at checkers. 

go-j6 (S^lt), the five cardinal 
virtues according to Confucius, 
viz., //'//, A'*/, reij cAi, sAin, i.e., 
benevolence, righteousness, pro- 
priety, wisdom, and sincerity. 

gro-ja, fifty. 

g^oke, a widow. 
gokxif extremely, very, 
grokuraku, paradise. 
Oo-kyd, see p. 408, note 10. 
gromen, (properly ^o men), lit. 

august pardon ; ^tfomen nasai, 

please excuse me. 
gomi, dust (on things). 
gondayii, the title of a high 

official of former times, a kind of 

Go-on, see p. 7. 
groran nasaru (irreg.), to deign 

to look; conf. pp. 1 1 and 251. 

Occasionally^(£?rfl«7ir«< (3) occurs 

in the same sense. 
go-ri muchu, great perplexity 

(seep. 123). 
g^oro, time, about, as Aono goro, 

now ; saU'/i'^orOf about three 

go-roku, five or six. 
gosho, a palace. 
grostl, see p. 64. 
groten, a palace, 
grotoki, like, such as ; see p. 121. 
groto (ni), a suffix meaning each, 

Ootto, God ; see p. 6. 

groza, msh«matting. 

to be; see pp. 64, 

171, 221-3, 242: 

(le gozaitfMsu, see 

(,pp. 64, 138, 222. 

rice, (hence) a 

grozen, boiled 

gozen, the forenoon, 
g^, stupid : s^nfu^ my father (see 

p. 257). 

grujin, a dolt, an ignoramus. 

gnmai, stupid and ignorant 

gumpuku, military uniform. 

giin, a district. 

gankan, a war-vessel. 

g^urai, about, approximately. 

grururi, around. 

grusai, my wife ; see p. 257. 

g^shi, (with honorific prefix o), 
the Court word for hair. 

gutto, tightly, suddenly. 

gpuzu-g^uzu, a word descriptive 
of the soimd or act of complain- 
ing or scolding. 

grwaikoku, foreign countries, 
abroad ; giuaikoku-j in, a foreign- 
er ; gwaikoku no, foreign. 

grwaimuBhO, the foreign office. 

grwaitO, an overcoat. 

gwanko (na), obstinate, inve- 
teratcly prejudiced. 

grwan-yaku, a pill. 

g^appi, the day of the month, 
a date. 

gHMratsu, a month ; see p. 116. 

g^5, work, business. 

gyosha, the driver of a carriage. 

gyu(-niku), beef. 






bai, ashes. 

bai ! same as /id I 

ha, a leaf (of a tree). 

baiken auru (irreg.), to look re- 

lia, a tooth : ha-niigaki, tooth- 

spectfully at something belong- 

powder ; ha xa itaiy I have a 

ing to a superior ; conf. pp. 1 1 


and 251. 

haba, width : haba no Mroi, 

bairi-k&cbi, an entrance, the 


way in. 

habakari, shamefacedness, diffi- 

bairu, to go in, to enter: /uutie 

dence, (hence) a water-closet. 

iruy to be inside, to be contained. 

babakaru, to be ashamed, to 

ba-isha, a dentist. 


baiabaku sum (irreg.), to bor- 

biabikoru, to spread (intrans.); 

row, see p. 251. 

to get disseminated. 

baitatsu-nin, a postman. 

b.abiiku, to abridge, hence to 

baji, shame, humiliation : /mji wo 


kakii^ to be put to shame. 

bachi, a bee, a wasp. 

baji, the edge, ledge, or end of 

bachi, a pot. 


biacbi, eight. 

bajimari, the beginning. 

bacbi-gr«ratsu, August. 

bajimaru, to begin ^intrans.). 

bacbi-ju, eighty. 

bajime, the beginning. 

bacbimaki, a handkerchief tied 

bajixneru (2), to begin (trans.) ; 

round the head: — ivo surtiy to 

conf. bottom of p. 92. 

tie handkerchief, etc. 

bajimete (gerund of hajimeru\ 

badaka (na), naked. 

for the first time, never before: 

hadaxL, breaking off: /uidan sum. 

conf. p. 324, No. 21. 

to break off (e.g. intercourse). 

baka, a tomb. 

liaeru (2), to grow (intrans.). 

bakama, a kind of wide trowsers 

biagaki, a post-card. 

worn in half full dress. 

bagrane, steel. 

bagi, the lespedeza shrub. 

plot: kakarazu, unintentionally. 

liaba, a mother; but see pp 

baki-dame, a dust-heap. 


bakkiri (to), clearly. 

ba-ba ! ho ! ho ! I see. 

bakk5, issuing, publication : 

bai, the auxiliary numeral for 

bakko-teisbi, suspension (of a 

capfuls of liquid. 

newspaper by the authorities). 

bai, a fly. 

bako, a box. 




hakobu, to transport, to convey. 

baku, a count (noble). 

haku, to spit, to vomit: tan wo 

hahi-tsukeru^ to spit on a 

haku, to sweep. 
haku, to wear or put on the feet 

or legs. 
hakubutsu-kwan, a museum. 
hakumai, hulled rice, 
hakurai, imported from abroad: 

hakurai»hin^ an imported article, 
hakurankwai, an exhibition. 
haktishaku, the title of count 
hakiishu, clapping of hands. 
hama, the sea-beach, the strand: 

hama-be, ditto. 
hambiin, half: hamlnm'cUgai^ a 

diflference of half. 
ha-migaki, tooth-powder. 
hamono, a blade. 
han, a clan (in feudal Japan). 
han, half : Jian-tnchi^ half the day, 

ftaiu-nigori, see p. 22 and cont 

p. 20 ; ju-ichi-ji han, half-past 

han, rice, a meal. 
hana, a flower, a blossom : hana- 

ike or hana^tate^ a flower-vase ; 

hana-mi, going to see the blos- 
soms ; hancMnuko a bridegroom ; 

luam-yome^ a bride. 
hana, the nose: ftana-ftiki^ a 

pocket-handkerchief ; fiana no 

saki, the tip of the nose. 
hanahada, very; hanahada motte, 

see p. 73. 

hanahadaahii, excessive, ex- 

hanare-mono, a separate or 
separable thing. 

hanareru (2), to separate from,, 
to part with. 

hanashi, a story, a talk, some* 
thing said or told : hanasM na 
tsuide^ apropos of something said. 

hanasu, to speak, to tdl : hanashi' 
kakerUf to break off in the middle 
of saying something. 

hane, a feather, a wing. 

han-eri, a kind of kerchief used 
by women to trim the firont part 
of a dress near the neck. 

haneru (2), to splash,— as mud 
(intrans.) ; to cut off, — ^as a head 

hankyO, an echo. 

hanshi, a common kind of writing- 

hanshO, a fire-bell. 

hantG, a peninsula. 

haori, a sort of coat worn by the 
upper and middle classes as half 
full dress. 

happi, a kind of cheap livery-coat 
worn by servants and coolies. 

hara, a moor. 

hara, the abdomen : hara ga heru^ 
to be hungry ; hara ga itait to 
have a stomach-ache ; hara wo 
htm, to commit Jiarakiri; hara 
wo tateru, to get angry. 

harai, a payment. 

hara-kiri, see p. 34. 


[491 ] 


haran, surging billows, hence any 
tumultuous scene. 

harau, to clear away (trans.); 
hence to pay. 

hara-wata, the intestines; hara- 
wata gafuhai suru^ (lit. the intes* 
tines rotting), metaph. for insince- 
rity and inconsistency. 

liareiru (2), to clear (intrans.), — 
said of the sky or clouds. 

liari, a pin, a needle. 

hari-gami, a paper lable ; hari- 
ganU 7V0 suruj to paste on a 

harigane, wire. 

hari-tsiike, crucifixion : hari- 
tsuke ni suru, to crucify. 

haru, to stick (trans.). 

Ixaru, spring(-time). 

haruka, afar. 

hasami, scissors. 

hasamu, to cut with scissors. 

liaseii, shipwreck: hasen tti au, 
to be shipwrecked. 

hashi, chopsticks. 

hashi, a bridge. 

hashigo, a ladder : futshigo-dan^ 
a staircase. 

hashira, a post; also the auxi- 
liary numeral for Shinto gods 
and goddesses. 

hashirU) to run. 

hasu, a lotus. 

hasu ni, obliquely. 

bata, the side, — e.g. of a canal 
or of a well 

hata, a flag. 

hatachi, twenty years of age. 

liatake, a vegetable field. 

hatamoto, one of a rank in 
feudal Japan which came next 
to that of dcdmyd. 

hataraki, work, action. 

Ixataraku, to work. 

hatashlte, after all, really. 

hate-na ! well I never ! how 
extraordinary ! 

liateru (2), to finish (intrans.). 

hato, a pigeon. 

hatsubo, a blister. 

hatsugen, speech: hatsugen fu^ 
kenri^ the right of speech ; haisu- 
geii'ja^ a speaker, a propounder. 

hatsCika, twenty days, the twen- 
tieth day of the month. 

hatsumei, an invention, a dis- 
covery, inventive genius. 

hattatsu, development, pro- 
gress : hattatsu suru, to develop 

hattOy an onomatope for starting,. 
— as with fright or sudden recol- 
lection of something forgotten. 

haya-goshi, see koahi, 

hau, to creep. 

bayai, quick, early. 

hayari, a fashion : hayari no^ 
fashionable ; hayari-gi, a fashion- 
able craze. 

hayaru, to be wide-spread (e.g. 
a disease), to be fashionable. 

hayashi, a forest. 

hayasu, to grow (trans.), — &g. 2l 


[492 1 



haya-tsttkegi, a lacifer match. 
bazu, necessity, should, oaght ; 

conf. p. 41. 
Iiazuka4iliii, bashful* 
liazuka4ihimeru (2), to put to 

shame, to insult. 
liazukaAliiBa, bashfulness. 
hazure, the end (eg. of a village). 
liazureru(2), to come out of its 

proper place, to miss, to fail. 
he ! hei ! or hai ! yes ; but sec 

bottom of p. 234. 
hebi, a snake. 
liedo, vomit : hcdo li'o haku^ to 

hei ! same as he ! 
liei, a hedge, a fence. 
hei, broken down, effete ; see p. 

Heika, Your, His, or Her Majesty. 
lieiki, a weapon. 
lieikin, an average. 
lieislia, our firm ; see p. 257. 
lieishi, a soldier, troops. 
heisotsu, a common soldier. 
lieitai, a soldier, troops. 
lieizei (no), usual. 
liempi, out-of-the way. 
liempo, requital ; kempo-gaeshi, 

tit for tat. 
lien, a change : hen na^ odd, queer. 
lien, a neighbourhood, a locality. 
hen, a time {tme fois). 
hen, a section of a book, a 

henji, an answer. 
henkwa, a change. 

hentO, an answer : henio sum, to 

herasu, to diminish (trans.). 

heru, to diminish (intrans.). 

heru (2), to pass through. 

heta (na), a bad hand at, un- 

heya, a room, a cabin. 

hi, the sun, hence a day : hi ga ku- 
reru, the day is waning, dark- 
ness approaching ; H no de, sun- 
rise ; hi no iri, sunset. 

hi, fire. 

lu, one (in enumeration). 

hibachi, a brazier. 

hibashi, fire-tongs. 

hldari, the left (side). 

hidoi, harsh, cruel: hidoi me ni 
atty to experience harsh treat- 
ment; hidoi me ni awasertt, to 
treat harshly. 

hieru (2), to be cold. 

higasa, a parasol. 

higrashi, east : higashi-kiia, north- 
east; higashi-minami, south- 

hige, the beard : hige wo hayasu, 
to grow a beard. 

hiji, the elbow. 

hij5 (na), unusual, extraordinary. 

hlkari, light (in the abstract). 

hikaru, to shine, to glitter.! 

hiki, an auxiliary numeral ; see p. 

hlki-dashi, a drawer. 

hiki-fada, a circular, an adver- 


[ 493 ] 


hiki-shio, low tide. 

hikkomu, to retire inside. 

hikkonuki suru (in-eg.), to draw 
(a sword). 

hikkuri-kaesu, to upset. 

hlku, to pull, to draw, to with- 
draw, hence to quote : hiki-dasuy 
to draw out ; Mku>nuku, to draw 
(e.g. a sword) ; hiki-ntsuru, to re- 
move (intrans.), to change house. 

Mkuiy low. 

hikutsu, servility : Jiiktitsu mi, 

hikyaku-sen, a mail steamer. 

blkyd, cowardice : hikyd ita, cow- 

hima, an interval, leisui'e: hiina 
ivo yarn, to dismiss, also to al- 
low to go on leave. 

himashi no abura, castor-oil. 

bixnitsu (na), secret. 

hinata, the sun (only in the 
sense of sunlight) : hinata ye 
hosu, to dry in the sun. 

liineru, to twist (trans.). 

1iink5, conduct : hinkd no ii, well- 
conducted, moral. 
'/Hiragana, the cursive form of 
the Japanese syllabary. 

birakeru (2), to be opened out, to 
become civilised. 

hirakUy to open, to civilise. 

kirattai, flat. 

hiroi, broad. 

biroi (with prefix o\ see p. 241. 

biroi-mono, something picked 
up, a find. 

biromaru, to spread (intrans.). 

biromeru (2), to spread (trans.). 

birou, to pick up, hence to find. 

biru (3), to dry (intrans.). 

birUy day-time, noon; hiru\^go^ 
zcn\ the midday meal, luncheon. 

biru-sug^i, the afternoon. 

bisasbii, long (of time). 

biso suru (irreg.), to guard 
jealously, to treasure up. 

bisuru (irreg.), to compare. 

bissori to, quiet, deserted. 

bitai, the brow, the forehead. 

bitOy (I person, a human being; 
conf. p. 48: hltO'gara, personal 
appearance, a distinguished air; 
JiitO'goroshi , murder, man* 
slaughter, a murderer; Jiito-me, 
public notice ; htto^rnezurashiif 
rare (of visitors, etc.) ; ano htto, 
he, she. 

hitoe, properly one fold ; hence 
single. Httoe ni, sometimes 
means earnestly, only, please. 

bitori, one person, hence alone: 
Jiltori'dc fu, of itself, spont£^- 

bito(tsu), one ; sometimes whole, 
all, same: ktfO'ban^ all night 
long ; htio-me^ one look ; Hto- 
tori, generally ; htiotsu micM, the 
same road ; httoisu cki, alternate. 

bitsuyO (Ba), indispensable. 

hiya, cold; hence, with the honor- 
ific prefix o, cold water (so- 
called at Court and by women). 

biyo, the Court word for a shirt. 





hiyori, the weather. 

biza, the knee ; htMa wo isHku, to 
fall on one's knees. 

hisuke, a date (of the month, etc.)* 

hO) a sail : ho*baskira, a mast. 

liO, a law, a role, a usage. 

Ii6, side ; bat see p. \^\ hd ga yoi 
(or it), see pp. 177, 255. 

liOy the cheeks. 

hOM) on all sides, everywhere. 

bOchO, a knife. 

hodo, degree, quantity, proper 
limit, about, as nan-ri hodof 
about how many miles? — ^AIso 
as much as, conf. pp. 113, 145, 
147 ; hodo naku, forthwith. 

lioeru (2), to bark : hoe-kakam, to 
spring at with a bark. 

liOgaku, a direction (point of the 

bG-higrOy whiskers. 

hohO! oh! 

Ii0li5, manner, way, rule. 

lio-ho-lio ! the sound of laughter. 

^oka, another place, besides, 
except: no hoka ni, besides; ... 
suru ni hoka wa not, there is 
nothing for it but to; ...koka de 
mo ttai ga, see p. 287, No. 26. 

-bokenniii, an underwriter. 

liokku, a stanza of seventeen 
syllables ; see p. 449. 

hoko, a fork (from the English). 

liGkG-nin, a servant. 

hokori, dust (in the air). 

homburi, regular rain,— not a 
mere shower. 

homey praise. 

homera (2), to praise. 

bon, a book. 

bon, an auxiliary numeral ; see 

p. 109. 
bone, a bone : hone ga oreru or 

hone wo oru, to take a great 

deal of trouble. 
boxLgoku, one's native country. 
bon.-ixi, lit. the present member, 

used by members of the Diet iye 

other assemblies in the sense of 

I, me. 
bonO, a flame. 
bonsbG, the original and true 

bontd, truth: honfo fw, true^ 

bon-ya, a book-store, hence a 

bon-yaku, a translation: AotB- 

yaku sum, to translate. 
bonzon, see p. 422, foot-note 12. 
b05, a phoenix. 
bOpeta, the cheeks. 
bora(-ana), a cave. 
bOrenso, spinach, 
boreru (2), to be in love. 
bori, a canal, a moat. 
borimono, a carving. 
bSritsu, a law : hdritsu^gaku^ 

legal studies, 
borobiru (3), to be overthrown 

or ruined. 
borobosu, to overthrow, to ruin, 
boru, to dig, to excavate, to carve. 
bOru, to throw. 





hoshi, a star. 

ichi, one: icAi-ftimMki, ^xiUed by 

hosliii, desirous ; see p. 65, and 

one man; icM-nin^ori, accom- 

conf. oshii. 

modating one person.— /<r^' is 

liospi, narrow: hoso-nagai, slen- 

used idiomatically, e.g. in tcAi- 


ban, number one, but also first, 

hOso, small-pox. 

most (see p. 145) ; ichi-^tichi^ one 

liossuru (irreg.), to wish. 

day, but also the first of the 

liOSUy to dry (trans.). 

month, all day long ; ichp-nicki 

hotaruy a fire-fly. 

oki, alternate days. 

hOtoke, a Baddha. 

ichi(-ba), a market(-place), a 

hotondo, almost; (with a nega^ 


tive) hardly. 

ichi-ban, number one, first; 

hototogrisu, a cackoo. 

hence used as a prefix to indicate 

Myu, a friend. 

the superlative. 

hozai'-gaki, a doctor's prescrip- 

ichi-gai, altogether. 


icliigo, a strawberry. 

hozu, an end, a limit. 

ichijiku, a fig. 

hyaku, a hundred : hyaku-man, a 

iclii-5, once, once for all. 


ido, a well. 

hyaku-xnanakOy a sort of game 

ie, a house: ie tw uchi, indoors. 

or show in which a namber of 

ie, no ; see p. 234. 

masks are used. 

iedomOy though; sometimes eyen* 

hyakiisliOy a peasant, a farmer. 

iezuto, presents brought to those 

hydban, rumour, report : hyoban 

at home by one returning from a 

7V0 sunt, to gossip. 


hyogi, a conference. 

ifd.kUy a garment 

hyoro-hyoro, an onomatope for 

Igirisu, Enlgand : Jgirisu-jin^ 


an Englishman ; Igirisu tta, 

hyorotsttku, to stagger. 


hyOtan, a gourd. 

igo, henceforward. 

ii, a corruption oiyoi, good. 


iin, a committee, a committee-man. 

ii-tstttae, a tradition. 

ii-wake, an excuse : ii-iuake wo 

i (oftener ido\ a wdL 

iu, to excuse oneself. 

i,^ signification, intent. 

ii-yo, a way of saying. 

iii, vulg. ioryiibi, a finger. 

ijiru, to meddle, to tease. 





ijd, from thence upwards, that and 

want to go; iki-i^doktt^ to reach, 

upwards (the Japanese generally 

to be effectual; ittc skhfuin, to go 

recktining inclasivdy). 


ika P an interrogative word foond 

ikura P how much ? ikttra ka, iku* 

in f/:.r^\f, the compoonds f^<z- 

ra mo, ihttrij dc iiu\ pp. 52, II3 ; 

// •' * ', etc. : lia na koio / what 

ikttra mo ;/<//, there are hardly any. 

.-ort ^f? what? 

iktlsa, war: iktisa 7iv> j//n/, to 

ika^a ? how ? 

make war. 

ikahodo P how mach ? 

ikuCtsu) P how many ? — ikutsu 

ikan? or ikaniP how? 

ftu\ i!::(lsit do mo, see p. 52. 

ikanimo, yes, certainly, p. 235. 

ikari, an anchor. 

now ; iwii mottc, see p. 73 ; ima- 

ikasu, to vivify, to free. 

Sara, now again ; ima m iiatte. 

iken, opinion : iken zoo nobcru, to 

by this time. 

s^i\ c ( 'nes opinion. 

ikenai (ncg. potential of iku, to 

imashimeru (2), to reprove, to 

go), *' is no go," won't do. 

warn (conf. p. 213). 

iki, the act of going, the way 

imi, signification, meaning. 


imo, a potato. 

iki-gake, while going, on the 

imOto, a younger sister. 

way to. 

ina! nay! inii viu yes or no: arn 

iki-nari, abruptly. 

ka ifui ya or ya ina ya, whether 

ikioi, strength, force. 

there is or not. 

ikiru (3), to live: ikite im, to be 

inabikarif lightning. 


inai, within the limits of; towards 

ikka P what day ? such and such 

the interior. 

a day. 

inaka, the country (as opposed to 

ik-kon, a glass (of wine). 

the town). 

iku? how many? iku bun ka, 

ine, rice (growing). 

rather, more or less; iku»hon? 

Indo, India. 

iku-mai ? ikU'tUn ? iku-iabi ? 

inkyOy see \>. 352, note ii. 

etc., see p. 113. 

inochi, life. 

iku (irrcg.), to go; see pp. 171,251- 

inoriy prayer: iuori wo surUf to 

iki-au, to chance to meet; iki- 


chigau, to cross and miss one 

inoru, to pray. 

another; iki-kaerUy to go and 

insbi, a stamp, especially a post- 

conu' back again ; ikUagaru^ to 



[407 ] 



inu, a dog. 

isogri, a hurry. . 

ip-pai, one cupful, full : ip-pai 

isogu, to make haste. 

fw, full ; ippiU ni suru^ to fill. 

issakujitsu, the day Ijefore 

ippan (no), general, universal. 


ira, see p. 193. 

is-shin, one person: jibtm is- 

irai, henceforth, Since, after. 

sUn, oneself only. 

iraserareru (2), see pp. 171, 

issho, a whole life-time. 


issho ni, together. 

irasshai or iraserare, imper- 

is-shU) one kind, a sort. 

ative of irasskarUt see pp. 171, 

is-so, a pair (see p. 114). 


isn, a chair. 

irassharu (irreg.), see pp. 171, 

itadaku, to receive ; see pp. 203, 

251 ; 223. 


ireba, an artificial tooth. 

itai, painful, hurting. 

ireru (2), to put in, to insert ; to 

itameru (2), to hurt (trans.). 

make (tea); conf. pp. 228 — 9. 

it ami, pain. 

iri-kunda, complicated. 

itamu, to hurt (intrans.). 

iri-mame, parched peas. 

itaru, to reach: tti itartt made. 

iri-umi, a gulf, a bay. 

down to; tti itatte, at. 

iriyo (na), needed, necessary. 

itasu, to do ; conf. p. 195. 

iro, colour,: iro-iro {no), all sorts. 

itatte, very. 

ironna, all sorts, various. 

itchi, union, unison. 

iru, to enter ; conf. p. 228—9: ?W- 

ito, a string, thread. 

komu, to enter. 

itoma, leave (of alwence), dismis- 

iru (3), to be; see pp. 191, 223, 

sal : mo itoma itashimasu (or 

228—9, 251 \..iraretiai (pre- 

moshimasu), I must lie saying 

ceded by a negative), cannot do 



itou, to avoid, to shun, to mind. 

iru (3), to shoot. 

itsu, same as ichi, one. - 

irui, garments, clothing. 

itsuP when?— fVj« ka, itsu mo. 

isha, a physician. 

itsu de mo, see p. 52 ; itsu made 

iehi, a stone. 

{tatte) mo, see p. 71 ; itsu no ma 

ishibax, lime. 

ni ka, some time or other. 

ishi-bei, a stone wall. 

its^ika, five days, the fifth day of 

iflhi-ishi, the Court word for 

the month. 

dingo, a dumpling. 

its^Ctsu), five. 

iBOgashii, bu^y. 

itsuwari, a lie. 




ittai, altogether ; but sometimes 
almost an expletive. 

it-tan, once. 

it-toki, one hoar, once. 

iu, to say, see pp. 185, 251 : 
io itie^ see p. 83 ; to iu, see pp. 
58, 69, 82 ; to ka iu, see p. 69 ; 
to itte mo, see p 187; to wa 
iedo{mo)t see p. 187; ii-dasu^ 
to say, to express, to enounce; 
ii'kakeruy to address (in speak- 
ing); ii-kikaseru, to tell; iV- 
tsukerUf to order ; iu made mo 
ftai, needless to remark. 

iwa, a rock. 

iwaba, see p. 185. 

iwakUy a Classical form of iu, to 
say ; see p. 417, note 10. 

iwayuru, see p. 41 1, note 20. 

iya ! nay ! no ! iya na, objection- 
able; iya desu yo ! see p. 288, 
No. 31, and foot-note. 

iyagaru, to dislike. 

iyashiku-mo, see p. 438, note 10. 

iyo-iyo, more and more. 

izumi, a spring, a fountain. 

izureP which? in any case; but 
often a mere expletive : izure no, 
some... or other. 

ja, a contraction of de wa; see pp. 
64* 97 • j^ «^ -*«» see pp. 64, 
1 89 ; at the beginning of a sen- 
tence, well then. 

ja, to be; see p. 223. 

jama, obstruction, impediment: 
jama wo suru, to be in the way ; 

ojatna, see pp. 247, 290 (No. 49). 
jano, the Kyoto equivalent of 

jari, gravel, 
ji, earth, ground. 
ji, time, hour, as in nan-ji ? what 

o'clock? roku'ji han, half-past 

six o'clock, 
ji, a written character, specifically 

a Chinese ideograph. 
jibeta, the ground. 
jibiki, a dictionary. 
jibun, a time, a season, 
jibun, self: jibun no, one's own. 
jigi (generally with <?), a bow — of 

the head and body. 
jigoku, hell. 
jihaku, confession : jihaku suru^ 

to confess, to own. 
jijitsu, a fact 

jikan, a period of time, an hour, 
jika-ddchaku, self-confutation, 
jiki (ni), immediately. 
jiklsan, a vassal of sufficiently 

high rank to be allowed personal 

access to the Shogun. 
jikken-shitsv, a laboratory, 
jikken-tetstigaku, the positive 

philosophy, Comtism. 
jiko, temperature, the state of the 

jikoku, an hour, time, period, 
jimbutsu, people, figures (as 

opposed to scenery), etc. 
jimen, a plot of ground. 


[499 1 



jinunin, the people (of a country). 

jimuBho, an office. 

jin, a person, a man. 

jinja, a Shinto temple. 

Jinkay a human habitation, a house. 

jiiiriki(sb.a), a jinrikisha, i.e., a 
species of bath-chair pulled by 
a man. 

jinryoku suru (irreg.), to en- 
deavour, to do one's very best. 

jizuBlLU, a race of men. 

jiro-jiro, furtively, by snatches. 

Jird, a man's name; see p. 37. 

jiron, an opinion, a contention. 

jisan suru (irreg.), to bring 

jisatsu, suicide: jisaisu suru^ to 
commit suicide. 

jisetsu, a season, a time. 

jishin, self. 

jisliin, an earthquake. 

jishimban, a ward-office, a 
warden, — a kind of police-office 
and of policemen, under the 
Tokugawa regime, 

jisho, a dictionary. 

jissai, practice (as opposed to 

jisuru (irreg.), to refuse. 

jiten, a dictionary. 

jitensha, a bicycle. 

jitsu, (ruth : jitsti no, true. 

jitsu-getsu, the sun and moon. 

jiyu, freedom, liberty: jiyu na, 
free : jiyu-seido, sl free govern- 
ment ; jiyU'Seido-rotty radical 

jizai, freedom, — ^rather in private 
than in political matters. 

j6, passion, tenderness. 

j6, a lock : jo wo orosu, to lock, 

jd, the auxiliary numeral for matst 
hacfd-jo ni roku-jo, one room 
of eight mats and another of six. 

j5, on, with regard to, in the 
matter of. 

j5bu (na), sturdy, solid, strong. 

j5bukuro, an envelope. 

jochu, a maid-servant 

jddan, a joke : jadan wo iu, to 
joke ; jodan-majiri ni, half-jok« 

jogaku, female education. 

jdki, steam. 

jokTsen, a steamer. 

jdklsha, a railway- 

jokyoshi, a school usher, 

jorei, an official regulation or bye- 

joriku suru, to land (intrans.). 

joro (commonly, but less correct- 
\yJdro), a courtesan. 

jdsama (generally with o pre- 
fixed), a young lady. Miss, a 
daughter (honorific). 

josan, short iorjosama, 

Jotei, God (lit. the supreme Em- 

jo to, first-class ; jotoskakwai^ 
aristocratic society. 

joyaku, an agreement, a treaty. 

jozu (na), a good hand at, skilful. 

ju, the nigorred form of ^Am ; see 
p. 146. 





jH, ten : ju-man, a hondred th<m- 

ssind;ji* ni hak-ku^ eight or nine 

out of ten. 
juteii) a shirt. 
jUbon, plenty, ample, quite. 
jQ-^, fifteen : ju-go-mchi, fifteen 

days, the fifteenth day of the 

month ; ju-go-rokti^ fifteen or 

ju-gwatsu, October. 
ju-hachi, eighteen ;/i^-^ar^'-»iVi^', 

eighteen days, the eighteenth day 

of the month, 
ju-ichi, eleven : ju-ichi-nichi, 

eleven days, the eleventh day 

of the month, 
jil-iclii-gwatsu, November. 
ju-ju, over and over again, 
ju-ku, nineteen :y«->b<-«/Vifo', nine- 
teen days, the nineteenth day of 

the month. 
jumoku, a tree. 
juxnpil, a fair wind. 
jun, the regular order or turn, 
ju-ni, twelve : ju^i-nicM, twelve 

days, the twelfth • day of the 

ju-ni-gwatsu, December, 
junjo, order, sequence, turn. 
juQsa, a policeman. 
jurai, hitherto. 
jtl-roku, sixteen : j'tt-^roku-nicfd, 

sixteen days, the sixteenth day of 

the month. 
ju-sas, thirteen : ju-san-nichi^ 

thirteen days, the thirteenth day 

of the month. 

ja-flhi, fourteen. 

ja-shlchi, seventeen: ju-stnchi^ 
nichi^ se\enteen days, the seven- 
teenth day of the month. 

jCl«yokka, fourteen days, the 
fourteenth day of the nkonth. 


ka, a mosquito. 

ka, an auxil. numeral; see p. 109. 

kaP an interrogative postposition; 

see pp. 68, 55 : ka mo, see p. 72 ; 

ka mo shiran, perhaps. 
kabe, a mud wall. 
kabe, (with honorific prefix o\ the 

Court word for tcfu, bean-curd. 
kabu, a stump, used as the auxi* 

liary numeral for shrubs. 
kabu, capital, stock, shares: ka- 

bu-nushij a shareholder. 
kabu, a turnip. 

kabuseru (2), to put on to an- 
other's head, to impute. 
kachi-ikttsa, a victory. 
kachin, the Court word for 

mochiy 2l rice-cake. 
kado, a corner. 

kado, a gate, sometimes an item. 
kaeri, the way back; kaeH-gake 

ni, on the way back. 
kaeru, a frog. 
kaeru, to return (intrans.), hence 

to go away, 
kaeru (2), to change (trans.), to 

kaesu, to give back, to send back, 

to return (trans.). 


[ 501 ] 


kaesu-gaesu, over and over 

kaette, contrary to what one 

might have expected, rather: 

kan-chu yori^ yo-kan no ho ga 

kaette hiemasuy you mightn't 

think so, but one feels the cold 

more in early spring than in 

kagami, a mirror. 
lutge, shade, shadow, reflection, 

hence influence: no kage ni^ in 

the shadow of, l^hind: o kage 

sania, see p. 293, No. 84—5. 
kagen, amount, hence flavour, 

also the bodily feelings ; conf. p. 

288, No. 32, foot-note. 
kagi, a key. 
kagiri, a limit: kagiri no nai, 

kagiru, to limit, to \yc limited : . . . 

ni kagirazuy is not restricted to 

..., not only. 
kago, a kind of palanquin. 
kahe, cofiee (from the French). 
kai, a shell 
kai-ageru (2), to buy up (said of 

the government) ; also to buy at 

a higher price, 
kaigun, the navy. 
kaihen, the sea-shore. 
kai-inu, a pet dog. 
kaijo, the surface of the sea : kai- 

jd-hoken, marine insurance. 
kaiko, a silkworm. 
Jcaikwa, civilisation: kaikiva su- 

ru, to become civilised. 

kaimono, a purchase, shopping. 
kaisan, dispersion, adjournment: 

kaisan suru^ to disperse. 
kaisei, amendment, revision : 

kaisei suru^ to revise, 
kaishin, reform : kaishin sum, 

to reform. 
kaji, a rudder, 
kajiy household affairs : kajUmii- 

kif the state of a household. 
kakari-ai, implication,— e. g. in 

a crime. 
kakaru, to hang (intrans.), to be 
in place, e.g. a bridge ; see also 
p. 218: o me ni kakaru, seep. 
74. Sometimes kakaru means to 
cost, also to take time. 
kakato, the heel. 
kake, a broken fragment, a bit. 
kake-au, to discuss, to bargain, 

to arrange about. 
kakemono, a hanging scroll. 
kake(niono), a wager. 
kakene, an overcharge : kakene 

wo iu, to make an overcharge. 
kakeru (2;, to run. 
kakeru (2), to be flawed or nick- 
ed, to wane. 
kakeru (2), to hang (trans.), to 

put ; see also p. 219. 
kakeru (2), to be able to write; 

conf. p. 2o6. 
kake-hiki, bargaining. 
kaki, an oyster. 
kaki, a persimmon. 
kaki-tsUke, a note, a memo- 
randum, a bill. 


[ 502 ] 



Sakka, Your or His Kxcellency. 

kakkoku, all countries, foreign 
countries in general : kakkoku 
kosM, the corps diplomatique. 

kakUf an angle: kaku'zatd^ loaf- 

kaku, each (in compounds). 

kaku, thus: kaku no gotoki^ 
such ; kaktt made^ to such an 

kaku, to scratch, to write : kaki- 
oivaru, to finish writing; kaki- 
sokonau, to make a mistake in 
writing ; kaki-isukcru, to jot 

kakubetsu (no or na), differ- 
ent, special. 

kakujitsu, every other day. 

kakuxnei, a revolution (in go- 
vernment, etc.). 

kakureru (2), tohide (intrans.). 

kakUshaku, see p. 414, Note 3. 

kakushi, pocket. 

kak^BU, to hide (trans.). 

kamau, to have to do with, to 
meddle with, to matter : kamai. 
mas en, it doesn't matter. 

kambez), forbearance, forgive- 
ness : kambat'zuyoi, patient. 

kaxne, a tortoise: kame-no-ko, ditto 
in Tokyo colloquial (probably 
a corruption of kame no ko, a 
tortoise's carapace). 

kaxne, a European dog ; see p. 

kaxni, the'hair of the bead : kami- 
hasamif hair-cutting. 

kaxni, above, upper: o ketmi, the 
government ; o kami son, see- 

kami, a Shintd god or goddess. 
M».st of the Protestant mis- 
sionaries use this term to denote 
the Christian God. 

kaxni (no ke), the hair of the 
head : kami-yui, a hair-dresser. 

kami, paper: kami -ire ^ a pocket- 
lx)ok ; kanU-maki-tabakOy a 

Kami gat a, a general designa- 
tion for the old capital Kyoto 
ftiid its neighbourhood. 

kami-hasami, hair-cutting. 

kaminari, thunder. 

kamo, a wild -duck. 

kampan, the deck of a vessel. 

kampeki, the temper (of a per- 
son): kampcki ni sawaru, to 
irritate one's temper. 

kampuku, see kanshin, 

kamu, to bite. 

kan, interval ; see p. 118. 

kan, heating : kan wo tsukerUy ta 
heat sake. 

E^ana, the Japanese syllabic 
writing ; see p. 9. 

kanagu, metal work, metal fast- 

kanai, inside a house, all the 
members of a household ; hence 
a humble word for wife. 

kanarazu, positively, certainly. 

kanau, to correspond, to agree 
with, to eventuate, to succeed. 


[503 ] 



kan-dan, cold and heat, tempera- 

kandankei, a thermometer. 

kane, metal, money : kane-ire, a 
purse ; kane-mochi, a rich man. 

kane, a bell. 

kaneru (2), to be unable ; see p. 

kanete, beforehand, together. 

kangae, consideration, reflection, 
a thought, an intention : kangae 
ga tsukti^ to hit on an idea ; 
kangae no ue, on consideration. 

kaugaeru (2), to consider, to re- 

kani, a crab. 

kanji, a feeling: kanji ga okoru^ 
to begin to feel. 

kanjiru (3), to feel. 

kanjd, an account, a bill : kanjo 
•wo surUf to do accounts. 

kannin, patience : kannin suru, 
to be patient. 

kannuslii, a Shinto priest. 

kano, Classical for ano^ that. 

Kan-on, see p. 7. 

kanro, lit. sweet dew, hence 
delicious, — said of liquor. 

kanshaku, a quick temper : kan- 
shakti-mochi^ quick-tempered . 

kanshin, admiration, astonish- 
ment ; kanshin stiru, to admire, 
to be astonished at. 

kanshu, hot sake. 

kantei, criticism : kantei stiru^ 
to judge critically. 

kanzuru, see kanjiru. 

kanzashi, a hair-pin. 
kanzume(-niono), tinned pro- 
kao, the face: kao-zoroi, everybody 

being present, the full troupe. 
Kara, China, 
kara, a postposition ; see pp. 70, 

275 : kara shite ^ see p. 70; kara 

to itte^ see p. 83. 
kara, a collar, (from the English). 
kara (na), empty. 
karada, the body (of any living 

karakane, bronze. 
karamu, to twine (intrans.). 
karashi, mustard. 
karasu, a crow: karasu-mugi, 

kare, Classical for are, that : kare 

kore, this, that, and the other ; 

more or less, pretty well. 
kari, the chase: kati sum, to 

hunt, to shoot. 
kari (in compounds), temporary. 
kari-nushi, a debtor. 
kariru (3), to borrow, to hire; 

conf. pp. 164, 251 : kari'kiru, to 

hire the whole of. 
karonjiru (3), to think lightly 

karui, light ; hence soft (in speak- 
ing of water). 
karuta, a playing card (from the 

Spanish carta), 
kasa, a broad sun-hat, a parasol, 

an umbrella. 
kasa, quantity, amount. 





kasanaru, to Ik: piled up, to be 

kasaneru (2), to pile up, to 

kaaanete, several times, ag;ain. 
kashlkoi, awe-inspiring ; also 

kashikomaru, to receive orders 

respectfully : kaskikomarima- 

shita, all right. Sir ! 
kashikomu, to reverence. 
kasMkosa, sublimity, cleverness. 
kashi-nagaya, a tiagaya to let. 

(conf. p. 281, foot-note 3.) 
kasbi-BLUBhi, a creditor. 
kashira, the head, a chief, a 

kaslii(wa), an oak-tree. 
kassai, applause. 
kasu, to lend, to let (e.g. a 

kasiiteira, sponge-cake, conf. p. 

kata, the side of anything, a 

direction, hence one side, one: 

kaia-ashi, one foot ; kata-te^ one 

hand : {p) kata, a gentleman, 

a lady. Kono kaia sometimes 

means since. 
kata, a shoulder : kaia-saki, ditto. 
katacbi, shape, form. 
kata-gata, at the same time as, 

on the occasion of. 
katai, hard, siifT; hence strict, 

kata-kage, sha<lc on one side of 

the road. 

Bjita-kana, the square form of 
the Japanese syllal^ry. 

katakif an enemy (private). 

katamaru, to grow hard. 

katana, a swonl : kaiatm-ya, a 
sword-shop, a dealer in swords. 

katazukeru (2), to put away. 

katchiri, a word expressive of 
the sound of clicking. 

katd, low dass, third class (on 
railways, etc.). 

katoku, a patrimony, 

katsu, to conquer, to win. 

katte, will, choice, (hence) con- 
venience, (hence) kitchen ; anata 
no go katie desti^ you can do 
as you like; katte narete iru, 
to know one's way about a 

katto, an onomatope for sudden- 

kau, to buy : kai-kiru, to buy up 
the whole of ; kai-niono, a pur- 
chase; kai'toru^ to buy. 

kau, to keep (domestic animals). 

kawa, a river. 

kawa, the skin, rind, or bark of 
anything ; leather. 

kawai, pet, dearlitde, poor little. 

kawaisd, worthy of pity, in dis- 

kawaku, to get dry : kanoaite iru, 
to be dry ; nodo ga ka^vaklma- 
shita^ I am thirsty. 

kawari, a change, — especially for 
the worse : no kcnoari ni^ instead 
of ; sono kanvari ni^ on the other 




hand, see also p. 99 ; kanvari no 

keishoku, scenery. 

; otoko, another man (instead of 

keizai-gaku, political economy; 

the usual one). 

keizaugakushay a political econo- 

^awaru, to change (intrans.). 


kawase-tegr&ta, a bill of ex- 

kekko (na), splendid. 

change, a draft. 

kembutsu, looking at, sight-see- 

Jcawazu, a frog. 

ing, sometimes spectators : kern- 

kaya, a mosquito-net. 

butsu sum, to go to see (sights. 

kayasu, vulg. for kaestt. 


kayo, ^from kono yo), this kind, 

kemmaku, the countenance. 


kemono, a quadruped. 

kayou, to go backwards and 

kemuri, smoke. 

forwards, to attend (e.g. a 

kemushi, a caterpillar. 


ken, the auxiliary numeral for 

kaza-kami, (to) windward. 


kazari, an ornament. 

Kenchd, see pp. 344—5' 

kagr®, the wind : ka?^ wo htku, to 

kenjutsu, swordsmanship. 

catch cold. 

kenkwa, a quarrel : kenkwa suru, 

kazoeru (2), to count. 

to quarrel. 

kazu, a number. 

kenkyu, investigation, research: 

ke, a hair, hairs on the human 

kenkyu suru, to investigate. 

body, the wool of animals. 

kennon, danger: kennon na. 

ke ! an expletive ; see p. 234. 


kedamono, a quadruped. 

kenri, a right, a privilege. 

kega, a wound : kega suru. 

kerai, a retainer, a follower. 

to be wounded, to hurt one- 

keredo(mo), though, but ; see p. 



kegasu, to defile. 

keru (2), to kick, rarely to 

keiba, a horse-race. 


keiben (na), easily to be used, 

kesa, this morning. 


keshikaran, outrageous, absurd. 

keiko, practice : keiko wo sunt, to 

keshiki, a view, scenery, appear- 



keikwaku, a design, an inten- 

kessbite, positively, certainly; 

tion, a plan. 

(with a neg.) never. 

keisatsQsho, a police-slatton. 

kessuru Cirreg.), to decide. 

keisatstikwaii, a police officer. 

kesu, to extinguish. 





ketchaku, decision, final resolve : 
keUhaku no, positive, lowest 
(in price). 

ketsu, decision, a vote: keisu wo 
torn, to take a vote. 

kettei sum (irreg.), to decide. 

ketto (from Engl. blan^*/\ a 

ki, the spirits (of a person), some- 
times intention : ki ga tsuku, 
to have one's attention called to 
something ; ki ni iru, to be 
agreeable to one ; ki no kiita, 
quick-witted ; ki wo kikaseru, to 
show wit or tact ; ki wo oiosu, 
to let one's spirits droop ; ki wo 
tsukeru, to pay attention. 

ki, a tree, wood (the material) : ki 
no mi, a fruit, a berry. 

ki, an honorific prefix, see p. 143. 

ki, the indef. form of kttrti^ to come. 

ki, a termination of adjectives ; 
see p. 121. 

kibisho, a tea-pot. 

kibo, a desire: kibd sum, to 
desire, to request. 

kibun, the bodily feelings : kibun 
ga warui, to feel unM ell. 

kichigai (no), mad. 

kichi-nichi, a lucky day. 

kido, a small door, a wicket. 

kifu, a disposition of the mind. 

ki-gae, a change of clothes. 

kigeii, the bodily feelings: go 
kigenyo, I wish you good health; 
see also p. 333, foot-note 32. 

ki-iroi, yellow. 

kiji, a pheasant. 

ki-jdbu, of good cheer, not 

kikai, a machine. 

kikaseru (2), to inform. 

kiki-gurushii, unpleasant (to- 

kiki-me, cflRcacy, acting (as a 

kiko, climate, temperature. 

kikoeru (2), to be audible, to be- 
able to hear. 

kikoku, (your) august country. 

kiku, a chrysanthemum. 

kiku, to hear, to listen ; (conf. p. 
251); hence to ask, to enquire,, 
as kiki ni yarn, to send to en- 
quire ; less often to have an effect 
to act (e.g. as a drug) : kiki-soko^ 
nau, to hear wrong; kiki-tsukeru, 
to happen to hear, to notice. 

kikwanshi, an engineer. 

kimari, a fixed arrangement : 
kimari ga ncd, there is no rule. 

kimeru (2), to decide, to fix. 

kimi, a prince, a sovereign ;. 
hence you. 

kimi, feelings : kimi ga warui, to 
feel unwell, to feel frightened. 

kimo, the liver : kimo wo tsubuski' 
mashlta, lit. burst the liver, i,e. I 
was astounded. 

kimono, clothes, specifically the 
long upper rol)e worn by the 
Japanese : kimono wo kiru, to 
dress ; kimono wo migu, undress. 

kimpen, a neighbourhood. 


[ 507 ] 



ki-mustime, a virgin. 

kiri, a suffix derived from kiru^ to 

kin, gold, money. 

cut, and meaning only. It is 

kin, a pound (in weight). 

also pronounced kkiri and^rf':. 

kinchaku, a purse : kinchaku- 

fuiari-giri, only two people, tSte- 

kiri, a pickpocket. 


king^yo, a goldfish. 

kiri, mist. 

kinjiru (3), to forbid. 

kirido, a garden-gate. 

kinjitsu, a few days hence. 

kiri-doku, see end of pp. 384-5. 

kinjo, neighbourhood. 

kiritsu, standing up. 

kinju, birds and beasts. 

kiriritto shlta, sharp, well- 

kinki, joy : kinki ni taezu^ to be 


overcome with joy. 

kiru, to cut, (hence) to kill, see- 

kinkyu, urgency : kinkyu-dogi. 

also p. 219: kiri-komu^ to cut 

an urgency motion. 

into; kiri-korosu^ to cut to 

kino, yesterday. 

death ; kirl-suiern, to kill and do 

kinodoku (lit. poison of 


for ; kiri-tsukeru, to cut at. 

spirit), regret or concern felt for 

kiru (3), to wear, to have on or 

others : kinodoku sama, see p. 

put on (clothes) : ki-kaeru, to 


change one's clothes. 

kinsatsu, paper-money. 

kiryd, countenance, looks. 


kisaki, an empress or queen^ 


kinu, silk. 

klsama, you ; see p. 47. 

kin-yobi, Friday. 

kiseru, a pipe (for smoking). 

kinzai, a suburb. 

kisha, an abbreviated form of 

ki-o (no), past, former. 

jokisha, a railway train. 

kippu, a ticket. 

kisho, spirit, temper, kisho na^ 

kirai, averse to ; fee p. 65. 


kirare-zon, see end of 


klsoku, a law. 

■ 384-5. 

kissaki, the point of a blade. 

kirashite, see p. 216. 

kita, north. 

kirau, to dislike. 

kitai (na), queer. 

kire, stuff (for clothes, etc.) 

, n 

kitaku, returning home: suru,. 


to return home. 

kirei (na), pretty, neat, clean. 

kitanai, \a-\. 
kitanarashii, ) "^ ^ * 

kireru (2), to cut (in trans.), 


snap ; see p. 206. 

kitaru, same as kt4rn, to coms.^. 




kitsuen-jO, a smoking-room. 

kitoune, a fox. 

kitto, positively, without fail 

kiwamaru, to be settled, finish- 
ed ; to be carried to an extreme. 

ki-yO (na), handy, clever. 

kisetsu suru, (irreg.) to faint. 

kke, an expletive, see p. 237. 

kkiri, see^W. 

ko, an auxiliary numeral ; see p. IC9. 

ko, |K>wder. 

ko, a child, (he young of any 
animal ; hence used as a pretix 
to form diminutives, as kirei^ 
pretty ; ko-girei^ rather pretty ; 
see also p. 143. 

kOy archaic for Hy a tree, still used 
in ko no ha, the leaves of trees. 

k5, merit, great deeds, a feat. 

ko, a duke. 

ko, a marquis. This word is 
written with a different Chinese 
character from the preceding. 

kd, thus, like this, in this way : ko 
tUy this kind of, such as this; id 
sum io^ if one does this. 

ko or kdkO) filial piety : ko wo 
tsukusu, to be very filial. 

koban, an obsolete gold coin of 
an oval shape. 

kdbanslio, a minor police-station, 
or rather police-box, such as are 
found in Japanese streets. 

koboreru (2), to get spilt. 

kobosu, to spill (trans.). 

kobune, a boat 

kocM, orkochira, here. 

kOdai (na), gigantic, immense. 

kOdan, a lecture. 

kOdankwai, a leciurc society. 

kodomo, properly the plural 
children, but also used for the 
singular child ; kodomo ga dekiru, 
children are bom. 

koe, the voice : koe wo kakerUy to 
cry out. 

kOenchi, a public park. 

ko-gatana, a penknife. 

kdgO, an empress or queen con- 

kogoe, a low voice. 

kogoto, scolding : kogoto wo iu, 
to scold. 

kogu, to row. 

ko-gusuri, powders (medicine). 

kdhei (na), fair, just. 

kOhi, see ka/ie, 

kohd, public law. 

koi, (sexual) love : kot ito michiy 

koi, strong, thick (said of liquids). 

koi-gucbi, tlie joint where the 
sword-handle and scabbard of a 
sword meet : koi-guchi wo kirUy 
to loosen a sword for use. 

koin, time. 

ko-ishi, a pebble. 

koitsu, a contraction of kono ya^ 
tsuy this fellow, this rascal. 

kojiki, a beggar. 

kokkwai, a parliament. 

koko, here : koko niy here, but 
sometimes thereupon, well. 

kokd, filial piety. 


[ 509 ] 


kokoera, hereabouts. 

kOkoku, an advertisement (espe- 
cially in a newspaper). 

kokonoka, nine days, the ninth 
day of the month. 

kokoxio(tsu), nine. 

kokoro, the heart (metaph.) : 
kokoro-arige^ the appearance of a 
tender passion ; kckoro-gake, in- 
terest taken in or attention paid 
to something : kokoro-mochi, the 
feelings (especially bodily ones); 
kokoro yasui, inornate, great 
friends : kokoro-yoi, comfortable, 
well ; kokoro-zuku, to notice. 

koku, a country ; used only in 
compounds, as kt-koku, (your) 
august country. 

kokumin , the people of a country. 

kokuO, a king. 

kokwai, repentance, regret : kd- 
k%vai sunt, to repent. 

kokyO, lit the old village, i.e., 
home, one*s native place. 

komakai or komaka (na), 
minute, small: komaka rti, in detail. 

koman, pride, conceit, koman na, 

kotnaru, to be in a quandary, to 
be in trouble ; conf. p. 149. 

komban, to-night : komhan wa ! 
see p. 289, No. 42. 

kome, hulled rice. 

koxneru (2), to stuff into. 

komori, a nurse, a governess. 

kOxnori, a liat (animal): komori^ 
{gasa\ a European umbrella. 

komoru, to be inside something 

else, to be shut up. 
komu, to stuff into ; see also p. 219. 
komugi, wheat. 

komuru, to receive from a superior. 
kon, dark blue, 
kona, fine powder, flour. 
konaida, a short while ago, re- 
konata, hither. 
konda, a contraction of kondo wa^ 

this time, now. 
kondate, a bill of fare. 
kondo, this time. 
kong^d, the Court word for zdri^ 

kon-i, intimacy; friendly feelings: 

kon-i na, intimate. 
kon-in, marriage, 
konna, this kind of, such as this. 
konnichi, to-day; kormichi wa, 

see p. 289, No. 44. 
kono, this (adj.): kono nochi, 

kdnO) a good result, efHcacy. 
konomu, to like, 
konrei, a wedding. 
kODzatsu, confusion. 
koppu, a glass (from the Dutch 

kop, a cup). 
koraeru (2), to endure," to bear : 

korae-kiretufi^ cannot endure any 

kore, this (subst): kore kara or 

kore yoriy henceforward ; kore 

made, hitherto. For the inter- 

jectional use of kore, see p. 239, 


[ 5«o J 



korera(-by5>, cholera (from the 
English word). 

kOri, ice. 

koro, a period, a time. 

korobasu, to roll (trans.). 

korobu, to roll (intrans.), to fall 

korosu, to kill. 

kOru, to freeze (intrans.): kori- 
tsuku, to stick together through 
freezing, to freeze over. 

korya ! see p. 239. 

kosaeru (2), a vulgar contraction 
of koshiraeru. 

kosakunin, a farm labourer. 

koseki, old remains, ruins. 

koseki, efficiency, merit: koseki 
no aril, efficient. 

k5sen, brokerage, commission. 

kOshaku, the title of duke. 

koshaku, the title of marquis. 
This kd is written with a different 
Chinese character from that of 
the preceding word. 

koshaku, a lecture. 

koshi (with honorific prefix nu\ 
the Court word for sleeping. 

kosbi, the loins : koshi ivo kakeru, 
to sit down ; kos/ii ga nukern^ 
lit. the loins getting put out of 
joint, hence to be crippled, — es- 
pecially through fright ; haya- 
goshi ga nukenty to become 
unable to move through fright. 

Koshi, Confucius. 

koshi, a minister (plenipotentiary 
or resident). 

kOshlkwan, an embassy, a lega- 

koshi-nuke, lit. one whose loins 
areout of joint, hence a coward. 

koshiraeru (2), to prepare. 

koshO, pepper. 

kOshO (na), exalted, sublime. 

kOshu, the public. 

koso, see p. 237. 

kosu, to cross (a mountain). 

kosui, a lake. 

kosuru, to rub. 

kotae, an answer. 

kotaeru (2), to answer. 

kotchi, vulgar for kochi^ here. 

kotei, an emperor. 

koto, a kind ot harp or lyre with 
thirteen strings. 

koto, an (abstract) thing, — not to 
be confounded with mono, a (con- 
crete) thing; see pp. 38-9; 79, 
178 : koto no hoka, extraordinary, 

kotoba, a word, a language: 
kotoba wo kaesu, to retort. 

kotogotoku, all, completely. 

ko-tori, a small bird. 

kotoshi, this year. 

kotowari, a refusal, also an excuse. 

kotowaru, to refuse, to excuse 
oneself; less often to explain, to 
kotozuke, a message, 
kotsu-kotsu shita, pig-headed. 
kotsun to, with a thump or thud* 
kowagaru, to be frightened. 
kowai, afraid, aUo frightful. 


[511 ] 



koivareru (2), to break (intrans.). 

kowasu, to break (trans.). 

koya, a hut. 

koyashi, manure. 

koyo, red (autumn) leaves: kdyd 
surut to turn red (said of the 
leaves of trees). 

koyoji, a tooth-pick. 

koyomi, an almanac. 

ko-zashiki, a small room. 

koz5, originally a Buddhist aco* 
lyte, now applied to any little lad 
or urchin. 

kdzoku, a member of the Imperial 

kozukai, a low-class servant, a 
house-coolie ; small expenses ; 
kozukai-zeni, pocket-money. 

ku, nine, 

ku, the indefinite or adverbial 
termination of adjectives ; see 
pp. 120, 122. 

kubetsu, a difference ; kubeisu 
sunif to discriminate. 

kubi, the neck, the head. 

kubiwa, a dog collar. 

kUchi, the mouth, an opening: 
kuchi'benkd (na), glib; kucH- 
bue wo fukUf to whistle ; kuchi* 
fuki, a napkin ; kuchi-nukiy a 
corkscrew ; kuchi-yakusokuy a 
verbal promise ; kiuhi-yusugiy a 
finger-bowl ; kuchi ga kiku, to be 
able to speak (e.g. a young child). 

kuclubira, the lips. 

kudakeru (2), to break into 
pieces (intrans.). 

kudaru, to descend. 

kudasai, orkudasare, impera- 
tive of kudasaru ; see pp. 171, 
242, 253. 

kudasaru, to condescend ; conf. 
p. 171. 

kudoi, verbose, tedious. 

k&fu, a contrivance, a dodge, a 

kugi, a nail (to fasten things 

ku-g^watsu, September. 

kujira, a whale. 

ku-ju, ninety. 

kuki, the air, the atmosphere. 

kukon, the Court word for sake^ 

kuma, a bear. 

kuxui, a set, a clique; also an 
auxiliary numeral ; see p. 112. 

kuxno, a spider ; ktimo no su, a 
spider's web (lit, nest). 

kuinO) a cloud. 

kumoru, to get cloudy ; kumotU 
iru, to be cloudy. 

kun, a prince, a lord, also Mr.; 
see p. 258.— Used chiefly in com- 
position, as shffkun^ gentlemen, 
lit. all (you) princes. 

kun nasai, see p. 254. 

kuni, a country, a province; o 
kuni^ your (honourable) country. 

kunju, a crowd ; kunju sunt, to 
crowd (intrans.). 

kunto, instruction ; kutUd suru^ 
to instruct. 

kura, a saddle. 





kurs, a godown ; see p. 13, foot- 

kurabu, a dub (from English). 

kurai, rank, hence quantity, 
about, such as to ; dotw kurai ? 
how much ? 

kurai, dark. 

kurasa, darkness. ' 

kurashi, a livelihood ; kuraski 
wo iaUru (or tsukeru\ to gain a 

kurasu^ to spend time to live. 

kure-gata, twilight (evening). 

kureru (2), to give ; see pp. 171, 

kureru (2), to grow dark ; hi ga 
kureru^ the daylight is waning, 
it is getting dark. 

kuri, an empty fancy, a mere hy- 

kuro, trouble, pains ; go kuro 
sama^ see p. 247. 

kuroi, black. 

kuro-xnegane, black goggles. 

kuru (irreg.), to come ; see pp. 
158, 193; »33. 198, 2121 fd-kaka- 
ru, lo happen to come ; ffiotte 
kuru^ to bring ; totte kuru^ 
to fetch ; konaku naru^ to leave 
off coming. 

kuru, to wind. 

kunuua, a wheel, anything moved 
by a wheel, specifically z.jinrikt- 
sha : kuruma-ya, a jwrikuha- 

kurushii, painful, in pain : kuru- 

. shi-tnagire^ distraction caused 

by pain, terrible throes; mtf 

kumshJku naif there is no harm 

in, may 

kQsa, a plant, a herb. 

kttaai, stinking. 

kQsari, a chain. 

kttsaru, to rot. 

kttse, a bad habit or trick. 

ktishami, a sneeze: kushanU wo 

surUf to sneeze. 
ktlshi, a comb. 
ktlsturi, medicine : kusuri ni nart/, 

to l.e good for one's health. 
kUtabireru (2), to get tired: 

kutabirete iru, to be tired ; conf. 

p. 104. 
kutsu, a boot, a shoe : kutsu-^ 

bera, a shoe-horn ; kuisu-4abi, 

socks ; kuisu-ya^ a bootmaker's 

shop, hence a bootmaker, 
kuttsuku, to stick close to. 
kuu, to eat : kui-taosu, to cause 

loss (e.g. to an innkeeper) by 

eating food and not paying for 

it ; kui-isuktif to bite (as a dog, 

kuwaeru (2), to add. 
kuwashiiy minute, exact. 
kuyashigaru, to feel sorry. 
kuzureru (2), to crumble, to 

break to pieces (intrans.). 
kwadan, a flower-bed. 
kwai, an association, a society, 

a meeting, a church (metaph.). 
kwai, a chapter. 
kwaichG, a chairman, the pre« 

sidentjof a^society. 


[513 ] 


kwaid5, a meeting-house, a 

kyodai, brothers; hence sometimes 

church, a chapel. 

brothers and sisters : kyodai-naka. 

kwaiin, a member (of a society, 

the terms on which brothers stand. 


kyogen, a play, a drama. 

kwairaku, joy, pleasure. 

kyogii, environment, surrounding 

kwaiwa, conversation. 


kwaji, a conflagration, a fire. 

kydh5, a method of instruction. 

Kwampo, the " Official Gazette." 

(hence often) religion. 

Ewampo, see p. 366, Note 2. 

kydiku, education. 

kwan-in, an official. 

kyoka, a species of comic poem ; 

kwankei, connection, relation, 

conf. p. 450. 

having to do with something 

kyoku, a bureau or subdivision of a 

else : kwankei suru^ to depend ; 

government department, an office. 

kwankei wo tsukeru, to pay heed. 

kyokUtan, the acme, ne plus 

kwankoba, a bazaar (properly 


one established for the encourage- 

kyokwai, a church (metaph.). 

ment of industry). 

kyokwaido, a church, a chapel, 

kwan-zume, tinned (provi- 

a meeting-house. 

sions) ; conf. p. 22. 

kyonen, last year. 

kwashi, any svi^eetmeat, such as 

kyoshi, a teacher, a missionary. 

a bonbon, cake, or pudding. 

a clergyman. 

kwayaku, gunpowder. 

kyu, rare for kti, nine. 

kwayobi, Tuesday. 

kyu (na), sudden. 

kwasai, calamity caused by fire : 

kyuji, waiting at table, a waiter: 

kwasai-hoken^ fire insurance. 

kyuji wo suru^ to wait at table. 

kwazan, a volcano. 

kyujitsu, a holiday. 

kyaku, a guest, a customer, a 

kyukin, wages. 

fare : kyakurai, the advent of 

kyuto, last year; see p. 327, 

guests, a visit, a party ; kyakuma. 


a drawing-room. 

Eyuyaku-zensho, the Old 

kyaku, the auxiliary numeral for 


chairs and tables. 

kyuyo, urgent business. 

kyan-kyaii, the soand which 


dogs make in yelping. 

kyo, to-dy: kyo-Ju, during to- 

ma, quite ; see p. 228. 

day, by to-night. 

xna, in the first place ; see p. 233. 

kyo, a SQtra. 

ma, space, interval, hence a room : 


[514 ] 


ma ni au, to be in time, to do 
well enough (altliough not pre- 
cisely what is required) ; nta s;a 
wartn\ to be a bad opportunity 
for doing something:, to feel 

ma ! see Iwttom of p. 237. 

mabusliii, dizzling, 

xnaclli, the mercantile quarter of 
a town, a street : luachi-uaka^ 
the whole street (or town). 

machi-ai-jo, a waiting room. 

niaclii-d5i, long to wait, tediously 
long in coming : o machido sama^ 
see p. 247. 

machigai, a mistake, misunder- 
standing : machigai nakit^ without 
fail ; machigai-rashii^ npparently 
a mistake. 

machigau, to make a mistake, 
to mistake. 

machin, nux vomica, strychnine. 

mada, still ; (with a negative) not 

made, a postposition, see p. 71 : 
made ni, see p. 95 ; sore made no 
koto, see p. 95. 

mado, a window : mado-kake, a 

mae, in front, before: viae kara 
beforehand ; hUori-mae, a portion 
for one ; san-nin-maef portions 
for three. 

mae-kake, a bib, an apron. 

magaru, to bend (intrans.) : ma- 
gatte iru, to be bent, crooked . 

mageru (2), to bend (trans. \ 

magirakasu, to confuse, to 

mag^O, n grandchild, 
mai, an auxiliary numeral ; see 

p. 109. 
mai, a verbal termination (neg. 

future), see pp. 168-9, ^'•, each, every, as in mai-do, 

each lime, always ; ntai'ftichi, 

every day. 
maimai-tsuburu, a snail, 
mainai, a bribe. 
m.airu, to come, to go ; conf. p. 

maji, majiki, majiku, see p. 

majiri, a suffix meaning partly, 

majiwaru, to mix with, to 

makaru, to go, to come (hum- 
ble) : makari-deru, ditto, also to 

meet with, 
makaru, to go down in price 

make-oshim.!, unwillingness to 

give way ; see also p. 31. 
makeru (2), to lose, to be l)eaten 

(in war or at a game), to yield : 

to lower a price : o make ni, into 

the bargain. 
maki, fire-wood. 
maki-tabako, a cigar, some- 
times a cigarette. 
makka (for ma-aka\ very red. 
makoto, truth : makoto no, true ; 

ma koto ni, really. 


[ 515 ] 


maku, to sow. 

maru de, quite. 

marui, round. 

makura, a pillow. 

masaka (with a negative), hardly, 

xuakuwa-uri, a musk-melon. 

surely not. 

mama, step, as in manm-haha. 

ma-seba, insufficient space. 

a step-mother. 

massao, perfectly green, livid. 

mama, way, manner : sono mama 

massugu (na'), straight. 

ni shite oku, to leave in statu quo. 

masii (irreg.), an honorific verbal 

m.ama-h.alia, a step-mother. 

suffix; see pp. 160, 170, 249 ; also 

mame, beans. 

19, 67, 198, 212. 

mamma, (generally with honor- 

masu, to increase (trans.). 

ific 0), rice, food. 

masu*masu, more and more. 

mamoru, to guard, to keep, to 

masuru, see p. 160. 


mata, again; (with a negative), 

mamiishi, a viper. 

no more. 

man, a myriad, ten thousand. 

matsu, a pine-tree. 

mana, (with honorific prefix 0), 

matsu, to wait. 

the Court word for sakana^ fish. 

matsuri, a festival. 

manabu, to practise, to study. 

matsu-take, a species of mush- 

mana-ita, a board for cleaning 


fish on. 

mattaku, quite. 

mane, imitation : mane wo suru, 

mawaru, to turn (intrans.). 

to imitate, hence sometimes to do 

mawasu, to turn (trans.). 

(in a bad sense). 

mayou, to stray, to be in a 

maneku, to invite. 


mannaka, the middle. 

mazaru, to be mixed. 

manzoku, contentment : manzoku 

mazeru (2), to mix (trans.). 

suruy to be content. 

mazu, in the first place, well, 

mappira, quite; only used in 

anyhow, at all events. 

such apologetic phrases as that 

mazui, nasty to eat. 

in p. 291, No. 57. 

me, the eyes, a mesh, an open 

mari, a ball (for throwing, etc.). 

space: me ga sameru, to wake 

(intrans.) ; me ni kakaru, to 

maru, a word helping to form 

have the honour to meet you ; 

the names of merchant ships, as 

me ni kakeru, to have the honour 

" Tokyo Maru:* Its origin and 

to show you ; hidoi me ni au, to 

signification are obscure. 

be harshly treated ; hidoi me m 




awaseru, to treat harshly ; me no 
chikai, shortsighted ; me-tnoto^ 
the part of the face near the 
eyes ; me ni isukanai, not to 
notice; me no tama, the eye- 
balls ; »te wo mawasu, to faint. 
Me is also used to form ordinal 
numbers, see p. 115. 

me, a feminine prefix, see p. 27. 

me, a contemptaoas suffix ; see 
p. 240. 

me-aki, one who can see, not 

medetai, auspicious : o medetd 
gozaimasut I beg to congratulate 

medo, the eye of a needle. 

megane, spectacles. 

meguru, to go round : meguri-au, 
to come across after many 

mei, a niece. 

mei, a name, an inscription ; see 
also p. 109. 

meibutsu, the production for 
which a locality is specially 

meigen, clear speech: meigen 
surti^ to state clearly. 

meigin, a celebrated song or 

Meiji, see p. 116. 

meijiru (3), to command. 

meislio, a celebrated place. 

meiwaku, perplexity, trouble : 
indwaku suru, to be in perplexity 
or trouble ; (/«/<? ///) meiioaku wo 

kakerUf to bring (some one) into 

mekata, weight. 

mekiki, a connoisseur. 

mekki, plated, — e.g. with gold. 

mekura, blind. 

memboku, the countenance 
(metaph.): memboku ga not, to 
feel ashamed. 

memma, a mare. 

men (generally go men), permis- 
sion, excuse. 

m.e]i, a surface ; conf. p. 112 and 
pp. 364-5- 

mendd, trouble: mendd na, 

mendok&sai, troublesome. 

xnendori, a hen bird. 

menj5, a diploma, a passport. 

zaeBhi, boiled rice, a meal. 

mesh.i-m.ono, clothes (honorific). 

meehi-tsukai, a servant. 

messo (na), extravagant. 

mesu (no), female. 

mesu, to employ (honorific); — 
used very widely, e.g., for putting 
on clothes, getting into a jinriH* 
sha : meshi'OgarUf to eat or drink 
(honorific); meski'isureru, to take 
with one (e.g. a retainer). 

metta ni (with a negative), rarely, 
hardly ever. 

mezurashigaru, to think strange, 
to lionise. 

mezurashii, strange, wonder- 

mi, three ; in enumeration nn. 


[517 ] 


mi, an honorific prefix ; see pp. 

I43» 249. 
mi, a fruit (generally ki no mi), 
mi, a suffix used to form nouns ; 

see p. 38. 
miclii, a road, a way : michi-nori, 

mileage, distance. 
michiru (3), to grow full, — e.g. 

the moon, or the tide at flood. 
michi-shio, high tide, 
midari (ni), in confusion ; hence 

rashly, unduly. 
m.idasu, to throw into confusion, 

to deprave. 
midoi*i, a lightish green, 
mieru (2), to be visible, to appear, 

to seem ; hence sometimes to 

come: mienaku naru^ to dis- 
appear ; to miete, see p. 304, 

foot-note 37. 
migaku, to polish, to brush (boots). 
migi, the right (side) : migi'{t)te^ 

the right hand. 
migoto (na), beautiful. 
migrunishii, '.ugly (to look 

mi-harashi, a view (down or 

over), a prospect. 
mihon, a sample. 
mijikai, short. 
Mikado, see p. 35. 
mikan, an orange (mandarin). 
mikka, three days, the third day 

of the month. 
mimi, the ears: mimi ni mo 

kakencd, won't listen to it ; ndmi 

no toif hard of hearing. 

mimizu, an earthworm. Some 
say niemezu. 

mimochi, conduct, morals (good 
or bad). 

mina, all : mitia ni narimashttay 
see p. 292, No. 66 ; mina san, all 
of you, all your people. 

miiiam.i, south. 

minashigo, an orphan. 

minato, a harbour, a port. 

minken, popular rights, de- 

minto, the popular party. 

mini (3), to see, to look, some- 
times to try, also to consider as 
(conf. pp. 193, 251 ; 133): mi' 
ataruy to find ; mi-awasertiy to 
put off ; mi-dasuy to discover : 
mi-komUy to see into or through, 
to estimate ; mi-mawaru, to look 
round ; mi-nogasUy to let out of 
sight ; ini'OtosUy to overlook ; 
mi-sokonaUy to see wrong ; 
mi'tariru, to see enough of; 
mi'tomeniy to notice, to consider ; 
vii-torerHy to be captivated ; «/- 
tsukeruy to notice ; mi-tsukurou^ 
to look out for and get (some- 
thing suitable) ; mi-ukerUy to 

misaki, a cape. 

m.ise, a shop: mise-sakiy a shop- 

miiBeru (2), to show ; conf. p. 251. 

miso, a kind of bean sauce. 

misoka, the last day of the month, 
whether the 30th or 31st. 


[518 ] 



Iiii(t8u), three : mitsu-go, a three- 
year-old child; mitsu-ire-koy three 
boxes fitting into each other. 

mitsiike, a castle-gate. 

xnitsu-me nyud5, a hobgoblin 
with three eyes. 

miya, a Shinto temple, but see 

p. 249. 

miyage, a present, especially one 
brought by a person returning 
from a journey. 

miyako, a capital city. 

mizu, water ; specifically cold 
water as opposed to hot, and 
fresh water as opposed to salt : 
mizu-gwashi^ fruit ; ndzu-nomi- 
goppu^ a tumbler ; mizu-tspgi, a 
water- jug; mizu-umi, a fresh- 
water lake ; mizu ga deru, water 
overflowing, to inundate. 

mizukara, of my (his, etc.) own 
accord ; oneself, personally. 

mo, a postposition ; see pp. 72, 166, 
196, 270: de mo, see p. 55, 

mo, mourning. 
m6, already, still, yet, more ; (with 

a negative verb) no more ; mo 

hitoisu, one more ; mo sukoshi 

de, nearly ; m5 yoroshiiy see p. 

292, No. 72. 
xnoclii, a kind of rice-cake. 
mochiiru (3), to employ. 
mochimasMte, polite for matte, 

both as gerund of motsu and as 

mocliimono,property , possessions. 

mochi-nuslii, an owner, pos* 

mochiron, of course, certainly. 
modosu, to give or send back, to 

mcegi, dark green, 
xnohaya, same as mo. 
moji, or monji, a written 

character, specifically a Chinese 

moji-moji suru (irreg.), to be 

m5karu, to be earned or made, 

— said of money. 
moke, profit, gains. 
mOkeru (2), to make (money). 
mokuroku, a list. 
mokttteki, an object, a motive. 
mokuyObi, Thursday. 
xuomen, cotton. 

mom.iji, the maple-tree, — cele- 
brated for its red leaves in 

mommo (na), ignorant. 
mom.0, a peach.* momo-iro {no), 

pink- coloured. 
m.omu, to rub, to knead, to 

mon, a «* cash '* (a small copper 

mon, a gate. 

mon', short for mono, a thing. 
mondai, a problem, a question. 
mono, a (concrete) thing, — not 

to be confounded with koto, an 

(abstract) thing, see p. 39 : tnon{p) 

desu kara, see p. 70 ; mono-goto. 


[ 519 ] 


each thing (in its turn) ; mono iu^ 
to speak ; mono no, see p. 39 ; 
mono wo, see p. 186. 

mono-oki, an out-house. 

moppara, chiefly. 

xnorau, to have given one, to 
receive ; see also p. 203. 

xuori, a wood, a forest. 

moshi, if ; also used as an initial 
exclamation answering to our 
phrase * * excuse me " . Perhaps it 
comes from mdshimasu, I say. 

Moslii, Mencius. 

xnoslii-bun, an objection. 

xnoshi-wake, an excuse, an 

mosu, to say (see also pp. 249, 
278) : tnoshi-agerit, to say to a 
superior; moshi-age-kaneru, not to 
venture to say ; moshi-awaseru, to 
arrange Ix forehand (e.g. a meet- 
ing) ; moshi-kaneru, not to ven- 
ture to say ; mdifd-tikeru, to 
receive, to take in charge; mbshi- 
watasit, to deliver judgment. 

xuoto, origin, originally, cause ; 
...«<? moto to nam, to cause ; 
moto yoriy of course. 

xnotode, capital (a fund of money). 

xuotomeru (2), to search for, to 
ask for, to get. 

motsu, to hold, (hence) to have, 
also intransitively to last, to wean 
tnocH-ageru, to lift. 

znotte, a postposition : see p. 73 : 
viotte iktt, to carry away ; moite 
kurtt, to bring (things). 

motto, still, more ; conf. p. 146. 

mottoxno, quite, very, (hence) 
quite right or reasonable, of 
course: go mottomo de gozai- 
masu, see p. 246. 

moya, mist, fog. 

moyo, a pattern. 

mu, or mil, 'six ; see p. loi. 

muchu, (as) in a dream. 

muda (na), useless^ 

mug^aku, ignorance: mugakti na 
or no, ignorant. 

mugi, a general name for wheat 
and barley. 

muliitBU (no), illiterate. 

muhon, a rebellion, a mutiny : 
mtthott-nin, a rebel. 

muika, six days, the sixth day of 
the month. 

mujin, a money lottery. 

mukade, a centipede. 

mukaeru (2), to send for, to 
welcome, to marry (a wife). 

mukashi, antiquity, old 


m.ukatte (preceded by td), turn- 
ing to, towards, to. 

mukau, to be opposite to ; ni 
tnukatte, confronting, towards, to. 

muko, a bridegroom, a son-in- 

m.iiko, the opposite side, opposite, 
the other party, he, she, they, 
there: no muko ni, on the other 
side, opposite, beyond. 

muku, pure, solid, unalloyed, — 
said of metals. 


[ 5*0] 



xnumei (no)s anonymous. 
muna-moto, same as the next. 
xnune, the chest: munega warm, 

to feel sick at the stomach, 
miizie, a roof-ridge; see also 

p. 112. 

xniizimtd, an uninhabited island. 

mura, a village. 

xuurasaki, lilac, purple. 

xnuri, unreasonable : go muri 
desUy what you say is unreason- 

xnuryG, incalculable, infinite. 

musai (no), wifeless, a bachelor. 

zmisbi, an insect, any small 
creature that is neither bird, 
quadruped, nor fish. 

mushi, (with honorific prefix <?), 
the Court word for mi so, l)ean 

musUko, a boy, a son ; but see 
p. 256. 

musUme, a girl, a daughter ; but 
see p. 256. 

mu(tsu), six. 

xnutsumasliii, friendly, on good 

xnuyami (na), reckless, helter- 
skelter: tnuyami ttiy recklessly. 

xnuyd (no), useless, 

muzukashii, difficult. 

xnyaku, the pulse : myaku wo 
torn, to feel the pulse. 

xnyocho, to,morrow morning. 

myo (na), wonderful, strange. 

myogonichi, the day after to- 

xnydji, a family name, 
mydnichi, to-morrow. 


n', short for no, of ; see p. 79. 

na, a name, specifically the per- 
sonal name which corresponds 
lo our " Christian name :" na 
wo tsukeru, to give a name. 

na, termination of the positive 
imperative; seep. 167. 

na, termination of the negative 
imperative ; see p. 168. 

na, a particle used to form quasi- 
adjectives; see pp. 135-8; 44» 
142 : na no, 78, 135, 142. 

na I an interjection; see p. 238. 

nabe, a saucepan. 

nada, a reach or stretch of sea 
along a limited portion of the 

nadakai, famous. 

nadameru (2), to pacify. 

naderu (2), to stroke. 

nado, properly etcetera, but often 
used at the end of an enumera- 
tion as a sort of expletive. 
Sometimes it may be rendered 
by such as, or like. 

nafuda, a visiting card. 

nagai, long. 

naga-iki, long life. 

nagameru (2), to gaze. 

nagara, while ; see pp. 242^ 39. 

nagare, a flow . 

nagareru (2), to flow. 

nagasa, length 


C52I ] 



naga-ya, see p. 281, foot-note. 

nag'eru (2), to throw. 

nagi, a calm. 

nagxiru, to beat, to thrash. 

nagrusameru (2), to console, to 

nai, the *' negative adjective;" see 
pp. 129, 137, 139, 140 : nai koto 
wa naif see p. 27 1 . 

nai-nai, private, secret. 

naikaku, a ministry, the cabinet. 

naisho (no), secret, private. 

naka, inside ; hence the relations 
(friendly or otherwise) existing 
between people : 710 naka ni, 
inside ; naka^ a person's inside; 
nako ga sukimashtta, I feel 
hungry. Sometimes naka means 
all, whole, as machi-naka^ the 
whole street. 

nakagai, a broker. 

nakagoro, a middle or inter- 
mediate time. 

nakama, a mate, a comrade. 

naka-naka, very, more than 
you might think: naka-ftaka 
domOf see p. 237. 

nakanzuku, more particularly, 
of all others. 

nakare, see bottom of p. 168. 

naka-yashiki, sce^p. 376, foot- 

nakereba narinaaseii, must ; 
see N.B. at top of p. 175. 

nakCdo, a middleman, a match- 

naku, to cry, to sing. 

naku naru, to die (lit. to become 

nazna, raw, crude : nania^dko, 
see p. 313, No 23. 

namae, a (person's) name. 

naraa-iki (na), conceited, vain. 

namakeru (2), to ijehave idly: 
namakeie iru, to be idle. 

namari, lead (the metal). 

nama-yoi, half-tipsy. 

namban-tetsu, a particular kind 
of i»-on, so called because 
brought to Japan by th^ " south- 
ern barbarians " (naniban)^ i.e., 
the Tortuguese or Dutch. 

nanii, a wave. 

nami (no), ordinary, average : 
nanu-taiteiy ditto. 

namida, tears: namida wo kobo- 
sUf to shed tears. 

nan P abbrev. of nani ? what ? 
nan da ka, somehow or other ; 
nan de mo^ anything ; nan de 
mo ka de mo, anything and 
everything (see also p. 350, note 
1)\nan-doki? QX nan-ji ? what 
o'clock ? nnn-nen ? nan-ri ? see p. 
113; nan to ka^ something or 
other ; nan to naku, without any 
assignable cause. 

nan, emphatic, see foot-note to p. 

nana(tsvi), seven, 
nanda, nandari, nandard, 

neg. verbal suffixes, see p. 169. 
nando, same as tiado, 
nani ? what ? nani-bun, somehow, 


[522 ] 


please, indeed, bat often a mere 
expletive; nam-gasH^ such and 
such a person, so and so; nan no 
nanigashi^ Mr. so and so ; nani- 
hodo f what amount? nam ka, 
nan{n)i mo, nan{i) de mo, see p. 
52; nam-nam, such and such, so 
and so, nam shiro or nan ni itase, 
see p. 189 ; nam yori, more than 

Nankin, China (valg.). 

nanni, popular for nani,* nanni 
mo nat\ there is nothing at all. 

nan-nyo, men and women, sex. 

nanoka, vulgar for nanuka, 

nansen, a shipwreck : nansen ni 
au, to be shipwrecked. 

nanuka, seven days, the seventh 
day of the month. 

nanzo, something, how? what? 
also u?ed for nado and for naze, 

nao, still more ; see p. 146. 

naoru, to get well, to recover 
(intrans.) : naori-kakaru^ to be 
on the road to recovery. 

naoru, to amend, to rectify, to 
cure, to change. 

nara, short for naraba. 

nara, an oak-tree. 

nara, 1 ., , 

' f if, but see p. 1S5. 

naraberu (2), to place in a row. 
narabu, to be in a row, to l^e 

narai, a habit, a usage. 
narasu, to ring (trans.). 
narau, to learn. 

nareru (2), to get accustomed: 
narete iru, to be accustomed. 

nari, or; see p. 224. 

nari (with honorific prefix o\ see 
p. 241. 

narimasen, see p. 224. 

narS koto nara, if possible. 

naru, to ring (intrans.). 

nam, to be, see pp. 224, 136, 
175» '^5 :...'«" naru, 249. 

naru, to become, sometimes to 
ripen. For such phrases as o 
tanomi ni naru, see p. 249 : nari- 
kawaru, to replace. 

naruhodo I see p. 238. 

narutake, as... as possible, if 

nasai or nasare, imperative of 
nasaru \ see pp. 171, 242, 253. 

nasaru, see pp. 160, 171, 249. 

nasareru (2), seep. 171. 

nasas5 na, apparently non-exis- 

nashi, (there) is not; see pp. 122, 

nashi, a pear. 

nasu, to do. 

natsu, summer. 

nawa, a rope. 

nazeP why? naze to iu to, be- 
cause, but see p. 351, foot-note 8. 

ne, a root. 

ne, price : ne wo tsukeru, to price. 

ne or ne ! an important interjec- 
tion ; see p. 238. 

neba, termination of the negative 
condit. present; see p. 169. 


[ 523 ] 



nebeya, a bedroom. 

half-polite half-familiar style of 

nedai, a (European) bed. 

address in talking to girls. 

nedan, a price. 

nesshin, zeal. 

nedoko, a bed. 

netsu, fever. 

n6do(mo), termination of the 

ne-uchi, value, price. 

negative concessive present ; see 

neziimi, a rat : nezumi-iro, grey. 

p. 169. 

ni, a postposition ; see pp. 74 ; 45, 

negoiy a request, a desire. 

80, 94, 98, 99, «oo. 169, 213 : ni 

negau, to request, to beg ; some- 

itatte, ni taisHte^ ni yotte, see p. 

times (in the mouths of the lower 

100 ; ni suriif see p. 227 ; ni wa^ 

classes) to have to do with, to 

see pp. 88, 94 ; ni oite^ in. 

sell to : negawaku wa, please. 

ni, two : ni-bai, double ; ni-ban. 

negi, an onion. 

number two; ni-bamme, the 

negiru, to bargain. 

second; ni-do, twice ; m-do-me^ 

neji, a screw. 

the second time ; ni-ivari^ twenty 

nejiru, to twist (trans.). 

per cent ; ni-wari go-bit ^ twenty - 

neko, a cnt. 

five per cent. 

nema, a bedroom. 

nichi, a day (in compounds), as 

nemaki, night-clothes. 

nichi-nichiy daily. 

nembutsu, a kind of Buddhist 

nichiyobi, Sunday. 

prayer or litany. 

nigai, bitter. 

nemui, sleepy. 

nigeba wo usbinau, to lose the 

nen, a year ;— used only in com- 

power of flight. 

pounds, as tonm, this year. 

nigeru (2), to run away: nige- 

nen, a thought, a wish, heed paid: 

dasn, to begin to run away. 

nen wo okosu, to have a thought 

nigiru, to grasp. 

enter one's mind. 

nigiyaka (na), lively. 

nengo, a «* year-name ;" see p. 

nigorf, see pp. 20, 29, 32, 143, 163. 


ni-gwatsu, February. 

nengu, the taxes. 

Nihon, (less elegantly Nippon), 

nennei, a doll (in baby language). 

Japan: Nikon-go^ the Japanese 

nenrei, age, years. 

language; Nihon-jin, a. Japanese; 

neru (2), to go to bed, to lie down. 

Nihon-koku^ Japan ; Nihon no, 

to sleep : nete iru, to be asleep ; 

Japanese (adj.). 

netstikarettai, cannot get to sleep. 

niji, a rainbow. 

nesan, lit. Miss elder sister 

ni-ju, twenty. 

{ane san), and hence used as a 

ni-ju-yokka, twenty-four days, 


C 5H] 



the twenty-fourth day of the 

nikai, a second storey, upstairs. 

xiikawa, glue. 

niku, flesh, meat : mku-sashi, a 
fork ; nikuiai, the flesh (religi- 
ously speaking, as opposed to 
the spirit); niku-ya, a butcher's 
shop, hence a butcher. 

ni(-mot8U), luggage, cargo. 

nin, a person ;— used only in com- 
pounds, as go-nin^ five people. 

ningen, a human being. 

ningyO, a doll. 

ni-nim-biki, pulled by two men. 

ni-nin-nori, accommodating two 
persons ; — said of a jinrikisha. 

ninjin, a carrot. 

ninsoku, a coolie. 

nioi, a smell. 

Nippon, see Nihon. 

niraxnu, to glare at with the eyes. 

niru (3), to boil (food, not water) : 
ni'tatte irn, to be at boiling point. 

nishi, west ; nishi-kita^ north- 
west ; niski-tmnami, south-west. 

nishiki, brocade. 

nite, the Classical form of the 
postposition de, see p. 62. 

ni-t5-bikl, pulled by two horses, 

niwa, a court-yard, a garden : 
ftiwa-guchi^ the entrance to a 

niwatori, the barndoor fowl. 

ni-zukuri, packing : ni-zttkuri 
wo suru, to pack. 

no, a moor : no-hara, ditto. 

no, a postposition ; see pp. 76, 96, 
97, 99, 102, 142, et pass. : no ni, 
pp. 96, 186 ; for no followed by 
other postpositions, see p. 96 ; no 
nan no, see p. 81. 

nO I an interjection : see p. 238. 

nobasu, to stretch (trans.), to put 

noberu (2), to narrate, to express 

noboru, to go up, to climb. 

noboseru (2), to rush to the head 
(said of blood). 

nochi, after, afterwards : nocAi^ 
hodo^ afterwards, by and by : 
nochi-zoiy 2l second wife. 

nodo, the neck, the throat : nodo 
ga kawaku, to be thirsty. 

nokorazu, without exception, all ; 
conf. pp. 230, 233. 

nokorl, a remainder. 

nokoru, to remain over, to be left. 

nokOBU, to leave l^ehind. 

nomi, only : nomi naraztt, not 

nomi, a flea. 

nomu, to drink: nomi-taosu, to 
cause loss to a wine-dealer by 
drinking his liquor and not pay- 
ing for it ; tabako wo nomu, to 

nonoshiru, to revile. 

norite, one who rides (on a horse, 
in a carriage, etc.). 

norou, to curse. 

noru, to ride — on a horse, in a 
vehicle, in a boat, etc.: nori-oku- 


[ 52s 1 



rerti^ to be too late (for the Iraiii, 

6, a king. 

steamer, etc.). Notte iru some- 

0-atari, a great hit. 

times means simply to be on. 

oba, an aunt. 

noshi-kakaru, to spring upon. 

obasan, an old lady, granny. 

nozoxni, a wish : nozomi-dori. 

6-Bei, Europe and America. 

according to one's wish. 

obi, a sash, a belt. 

nozomu, to look forward to, to 

obiyakasu, to frighten. 


oboeru (2), to remember, to feel, 

nugu, to take off. 

to learn : oboe-isukttstt, to learn 

nuguu, to wipe. 


nuibari, a needle. 

ochaku (na), villainous, ochaku- 

nuimono, needlework. 

mono, a rascal. 1 

nukeru (2), to slip out, to get 

ochiru (3), to fall ; see pp. 157, 

pulled out, to get out of joint. 


nuku, to pull out (e.g. a cork). 

odayaka (na), calm, qaiet. 

nureru (2), to get wet; nurete 

odokasu, to frighten. 

iru, to be wet ; conf. p. 204. 

d-doko, a large place. 

nurixnono, lacquer-ware. 

odoroku, to be astonished, to be 

nuru, to smear, to lacquer. 

afraid : odoroki-cnvateru, to rush 

nurui, lukewarm. 

into a panic. 

nusTimu, to steal. 

odoru, to dance. 

nuu, to sew. 

5fiiku, going and returning : 

nyobo, a wife. 

ofttku-gippu, a return ticket. 

nyoshi, a girl. 

6gi, a fan (of the opening . and 

nyotei, an empress or queen - 

shutting kind). 


Ogyo sum (irreg.), lit. to go 

nozoku, to peep. 

through sideways, hence to stalk 

nyuhi, or nyuyo, expenses: 

along through, to traverse in- 

nyuhi wo kakeru, to spend money. 


o-ha uchi-karasu, lit. to wither 

one's tail and wing, i.e., to come 

0, a tail. 

down in the world and have 

c, an honorific prefix; see pp. 143, 

nothing left but rags, to be 

a45-9. 259. 


0, a masculine prefix ; see p. 27. 

chayo (better hayo), good morn- 

0, an. augmentative prefix ; see p. 

ing ; conf. p. 293, No. 82 and 






o-hei, insolence, arrogance. 

okkasan, mamma, a mother ; see 

oi, a nephew. 

pp. 256-7. 

Oi, plentiful ; see p. 275 : oi ni, 

okonai, conduct, behaviour. 

very, chiefly. 

okonau, to practise (e.g. virtue). 

oide (properly ide, i.e., honour- 

okoru, to arise, to take place. 

able exit), conf. pp. 251, 223. 

okoru, to get angry : okori-dasu, 

oi-oi, gradually. 

to liegin to get angry. 

oira, a very vulgar word for we. 

okosu, to rouse, to raise: negai 

oisen, money spent on pursuing 

7i'o okosu, to begin to feel a 

some one. 


oisliii, nice to eat, tasty. 

oku, to put, sometimes to lay 

Oite, in (bookish word). 

aside; conf. pp. 154, 152, 194. 

Oi-yaru, to drive away. 

oku, a hundred thousand. 

oji, an uncle. 

oku, the inner part or recesses of 

ojiisan, an old gentleman, grand- 

anything, — e.g. of a mountain 



ojiru (3), to correspond, to answer, 

okureru (2), to be too late, not to 

to suit. 

lie in time. 

oka, land (as opposed to water). 

okuri-j6, an invoice, a bill of 

oka, a mound. 


okami, a wolf. 

oknri-mono, a present (to an 

okamisan, a married woman of 


the lower or lower middle class, 

okuru, to send, to give, to ac- 

Mrs. It might also be written 

company, to see off; also to 

kami san. 

spend (time). 

okashii or okashi na, absurd, 

oktisama, okiisan, a married 


woman of tiie upper class, my 

Okata, for the most part, probably. 

lady. Lady, Mrs. ; conf. p. 256. 

oki, the offing, out at sea. 

omae, you ; see p. 47. 

5kii or oki na, large, conf. pp. 

omba, a vvel-nurse. 

138, 142 : dH ni, very. 

omma, a stallion. 

okiru (3), to rise, to get up ; oki- 

omocha, a toy. 

agartt, to rise up (e.g. from the 

oxnoi, heavy, important. 


oinoi, thought, (henc«) affection : 

okisa, size. 

offioi no hoka, unexpectedly. 

o-kizu, a severe wound. 

omoi-gake-nai, unexpected. ^ 

okkakeru (2), to pursue. 

omonjiru (3), to esteem greatly. 


[ 527] 


omoshiroi, amosing, interesting. 

omoshiroxni, (a certain amount 
of) fun, or interest. 

omoshirosa, amusement, fun, 
interest, the amount or degree 
of amusement. 

omotai, lieavy. 

oxnote, the front, out-of-doors : 
of?iot€-mon, a front gate ; omote- 
inukiy outwardly, official. 

omou, to think : omoi-dasu, to call 
to mind ; omoi-kiru^ to make up 
one's mind ; omoi-tatsu, to re- 
solve ; omoi-yarti, to sympathize; 
omoi-yoran^ unexpected. 

omowareru (2), to venture to 
think, conf. p. 201. 

o-mugi, barley. 

on, kindness: on wo sidranaiy to 
be ungrateful. 

on, the book language form of the 
honorific prefix 0. 

onaji, the same; see p. 126. 

ondori, a cock bird. 

ongaku, classical music. 

oni, a devil, a goblin. 

onna, a woman : onna no ko, a 
little girl. 

onore, self ; also you (insulting). 

onsen, a hot spring. 

ora, I, but see p. 46. 

Oral, going and coming, a 
thoroughfare: orai-dome^ no 
thoroughfare : conf. p. 22. 

Oranda, Holland. 

ore, see p. 46. 

oreru (2), to break (intrans.). 

ori, an occasion, a time ; ori-ori, 
from time to time. 

ori-au, to be in certain mutual 
relations, e.g. ori-aimasen^ they 
do not get on well together. 

orifushi, on a certain occasiou, 
sometimes, just then. 

oriru (3), to descend. 

Orosha, Russia. 

orosoka (na), remiss. 

orosu, to lower, hence to launch. 

oru, to be ; see pp. 191, 223, 155 : 
. . .ni orarenaiy cannot do without. 

oru, to weave. 

oru, to break (trans.), to pluck. 

osameru (2), to pacify, hence to 
govern, to guide; also to put 

o-sawagi, confusion, a hubbub. 

ose, something said (honor.). 

5serareru (irreg.), honorific for 
to say, see pp. 171, 251. 

oshie, instruction, doctrine, a re- 

oshieru (2), to teach, to show 

oshi-gami, blotting-paper. 

osMi, regrettable : oshii koto (Usu 
ne ! what a pity ! Oshii is 
wrongly but frequently replaced 
by hoshii, as kiru no mo hoshiu 
gozaimasu^ it seems a pity to cut it. 

oshimu, to regret, to grudge. 

oslio, a Buddhist priest 

osoi, late. 

oaoreru (2), to fear : osore-iru, to 
be filled with dread, often used 




as an almost meaningless polite 

oyobu, to reach (intrans.) : sore rd 


wa oyobimasen, there is no need to 

osorosbii, frightful. 

do that. 

OSBharu, to say (honorific), see 

oyogu, to swim. 


oyoso, or oyoso, altogether, on 

OBU (no), male. 

the whole, in the main. 

osu, to push. 

ozara, a dish (large plate). 

OtO, a sound, a noise : oio ga sum. 

ozei, a crowd. 

there is a noise. 


otoko, a man : otoko-buriy a manly 

air ; otoko no ko, a boy. 

pan, bread, conf. N. B. to p. 236 : 

otona, a grown-up person. 

pan-ya, a bakery, hence a baker. 

otonashii, good (of a child), quiet 

patat(t)to, flop, bang. 

in behaviour. 

penki, paint ; conf. p. 26. 

Otono, the Mikado's palace, a 

penshiru, a pencil (from the 

feudal lord. 

English word). 

otoroeru (2), to decline (inlrans.), 

pika-pika, ) with a flash, glit- 
pikatto, ) teringly. 

to grow feeble. 

otosu, to let fall. 

pon-pon, the stomach (in baby 

Ototoi, the day before yesterday. 


ototoslii, the year before last. 


ototo, a younger brother. 

Otottsan, papa, a father ; conf. 

ra, a particle of vagueness or plu- 

pp. 256-7. 

rality ; see pp. 29, 52. 

otto, a husband ; but see p. 256. 

rai, thunder. 

OU, to pursue. 

rai, next (in compounds), as rai- 

0-warai, a good laugh. 

nen^ next year. 

owari, the end. 

raida (na), lazy. 

Owaru, to end (intrans. and trans.). 

rambo, disorderly conduct : reun- 

oya, a parent : oya-ko, parents and 

bo nay wild, riotous ; rambo-niny 

children : oya-ko-rashii, like or 

a turbulent fellow. 

suitable to parents and children. 

rampu, a lamp (from the English 

oyaji, a father ; see p. 256. 

word) : rampu wo tsukeru, to 

oya(-oya) ! an interjection ; see 

light a lamp. 

p. 239. 

ramune, lemonade (from the 

oyobosu, to cause to reach, to 

English word). 

extend to (trans.). 

rasha, woollen cloth. 


1529 ] 


rashii, a suffix ; see p. 133. 

xQ, an upper storey with a gallery, 

rei, ceremonies, politeness, thanks : 

a large hall. 

rei wo iu, to thank. 

rO, trouble. 

rei, ft precedent, an example. 

roji, an alley. 

reifiliiku, full dress, dress clothes. 

rojin, an old man :go rojin, your 

reishu, cold sake. 


rekislii, history. 

roka, a passage (in a house), a 

renga, a brick. 


renju, a company, associates. 

Toku, six. 

ressha, a railway train. 

roku-gwatsu, June. 

ri, a Japanese league of nearly 

roku-ju, sixty. 

2j miles English. 

B6maji, the Roman alpha- 

rieki, profit, advantage. 


rigaku, science. 

romei, lit. dew life, hence a scanty 

rikiryo, degree of strength, abi- 

livelihood : romei wo tsunagu, to 


eke out a subsistence. 

rikken-seiji, constitutional go- 

ron, argument, opinion. 


Bongo, the Confucian Analects. 

riko (na), 'cute, inteUigent. 

ronin, a wandering samurai who 

riku, rare for roku^ six. 

ferved no particular lord. 

riku, land ; riku-^ge sum, to land 

ronjiru (3), to argue : ronji-tateru, 


to start an idea. 

rikugun, an army. 

ronrigaku, logic. 

rikutsu, a reason ; arguing (often 

ronshu, a collection of articles. 

in a bad sense) : rikutsu wo iu^ 

lectures, or addresses. 

to quibble. 

rOshi, death in prison : rdshi sttrti, 

ringo, an apple. 

to die in prison. 

rix^ixi) a neighbour. 

rdsoku, a candle. 

rinshoku, stinginess. 

r6(ya), prison. 

rippa (na), splendid. 

ru8U, absent : ntsn-^ant a care- 

rippo, legislating : rippo-fus a hall 

taker ; rusti^chu^ while absent. 

of legislature. 

ryO, a dragon. 

rippuku, anger: rippuku suru. 

ryO, both, as in ryo-hd, both 

to get angry. 

(sides) ; ryd-nin, both persons ; 

risu, the number of miles. 

ryo-te, both hands. 

ro, an imperative termination ; see 

ry5gae-ya, an exchange shop, 

p. 167. 

a money-changer. 


[ 530] 


ryOji, a consul: rydfi-k^van, a 

ryOken, judgment, opinion, in- 
tention, sometimes excuse. 

ryokd, joMmey : {fyoko-)mtw;d, a 
passport ; ryoko surtt, to travel. 

ryOri, cooking : ryori-ninf a cook; 
rydri-ya, a restaurant ; rydri wo 
suntf to cook. 

ryOshixLy conscience. 

ryOshin, both parents. 

ryukO, prevalence, fashion : ryuka- 
hyd^ an epidemic disease ; ryuko 
surUf to be in fashion, to prevail. 

Byukyu, the Luchu Islands. 


sa, a suffix used to form abstract 

nouns ; see p. 37. 
sa ! or sa ! anjnterjection ; p. 239. 
sabaki, a judicial decision. 
sabaku, to manage, to decide the 

merits of. 
sabiy rust. 

sabishii, lonely/duU. 
sadamaru, to be fixed, settled. 
sadaxneru (2), to fix, to settle. 
sadameshi, or sadamete, 

positively, surely, 
sae, even (adverb), if only. 
saeru (2), to l)e clear and cold, 

hence calm and skilful. 
sagaru, to descend, hence to go 

sagasu, to seek, to look for. 
sag^eru (2), to lower, to hang 

down (trans.). 

sai, a humble word for wife : sai- 

shi^ wife and children, 
sai-chi, intelligence. 
saiketsu, decision, verdict : sau 

ketsu surn^ to take a vote. 
saiku, workmanship, a ware. 
saikun, an honorific word for 

wife, conf. p. 256. 
sairei, a religious festival. 
saisho, the beginning. 
Baisoku, urging on : saisoku suru, 

to urge on, to hurry up (trans.). 
saiwai, good luck, happiness. 
saizen, the very beginning, before. 
saji, a spoon: sq/i wo toru^ to 

practise as a physician, conf. p. 

388, note 6. 
saka, the hilly part of a road, an 

ascent : saka^michi^ ditto, 
sakan (na), prosperous : saknn 

niy greatly. 
sakana, anything taken with 

sake^ hence more especially 

sakarau, to resist. 
sakasama, upside down. 
sakate, a tip (to a servant, etc.). 
saka-ya, a grog-shop. 
sakazuki, a sake-c\y^, 
sake, rice-l)eer, also alcoholic 

liquors in general : sake-zuki, 

fondness for strong drink, a 

toper; scike niyou, to get tipsy. 
sake, a salmon. 
sakebu, to yell. 
saki, front, before, on ahead, 

further, a cape : o saH^ see 


[531 ] 


p. 248 ; saki sama, the gentleman 

at the other end. 
saki-hodOy previously, a short 

while ago. 
sakki, emph. for saki, 
sakkon, yesterday and to-day. 
saku, to blossom, 
saku, to tear (trans.). 
saku, last (in compounds), as 

saktdan, last night ; sakujitsu, 

yesterday ; sakunen, last year. 
sakura, a cherry-tree. 
sama, way, fashion ; also Mr., 

Mrs., Miss ; see pp. 246-7, 258 : 

sama-zama, all sorts. 
samasu, to cool (trans.). 
samatag^e, a hindrance : saniatage 

wo suru, to hinder. 
samatageru (2), to hinder. 
sam-'bai, treble. 
8aiiL-l)u(]i) no ichi, one-third. 
sameru (2), to cool (intrans.), to 

fade : me ga sameru, to wake, 
samisen, a sort of guitar with 

three strings. 
samui, cold ; — said only of the 

weather or of one's own feelings. 
samurai, a gentleman of the 

military caste under the feudal 

system, a warrior. 
samusa, coldness, the degree of 

samushiiy lonely, dull, 
san, three : sam-bu^ three per cent ; 

san-do, thrice ; san-do-me^ the 

third time ; san-mn-mae, portions 

for three; san-wari, thirty per 

cent ; san-wari go-bu, thirty-five 

per cent, 
san, short for sama ; see p. 258. 
san, a mountain (in compounds), 

as Fuji-san, Mount Fuji. 
san-gwatsu, March, 
san-ju, thirty. 
sankaku, a triangle. 
sankei sum (irreg.), to go to a 

temple for worship. 
sansei, approval, seconding (a 

motion) : sansei suru, to support, 

to second; sansei-sha, a seconder, 

a supporter. 
sappari, quite ; (with a negative) 

not at all. 
sara, a plate, 
saru, a monkey. 
saru, to leave (a place), hence to 

bejdistant from. 
sasa, bamboo-grass. 
sasai, a trifle : sasai na (or no\ 

sasayaku, to whisper. 
saseru (2), to cause to do, to let. 
sashitaru, a word of the Written 

Language meaning special, par- 
sashizu, a command, dictates, 

sasou, to take along with one, to 

invite : sasoi-dasu, ditto. 
sasshiru (3), to guess. 
sassoku, immediately. 
sasu, to thrust, to sting ; to carry 

(e.g. a sword): sasH-agerii, to 

present (to a superior) ; sasld' 


[ 532 ] 


dasu, to thrast forward ; sasM-irt- 

aei, a family name. 

guchiy the opening (of 9 posUbox, 

sei, cause, effect. 


sei, stature : sei tio Jiikui, short (of 

•asuga (ni), even so, even such. 

stature) ; sei no iakai^ tall. 


sei, pure (used chiefly in com- 

sata, an order, a decision, infor- 



sei, make, manufacture: scisuru. 

Bate, well ! (at the beginning of a 

to manufacture. 


seibanaaxL, the eucharist 

0ato, a village. 

seibutsu, a living being. 

0at5, sugar. 

sei-daku, surds and sonants ; see 

satori, comprehension, discern- 

p. 20, second N.6. 

ment of (religious) truth : satori 

sei do, government, political forms 

wo hiraku, to come to a know- 

or constitution. 

ledge of the truth (Buddh.). 

seifu, a government. 

satsu, a volume. 

seigen, a limit : seigen sttru, to 

satsu, paper-money : satsu-ire, a 



seiji, a government. 

Satsuma-imo, a sweet potato, 

seijin, a sage, a philosopher. 

so-called because first introduced 

seiki, a century. 

from Luchu into the province of 

seinen, the prime of life, youth. 


seireiten, a sacrament. 

sawagasu, to disturb, to make 

seiryoku, strength. 


seishin, the stars (and constella* 

sawagi, a fuss, a row. 


sawaru, to strike or clash against. 

sei-shitsu, character, disposition. 

to touch. 


sayd (a contraction of sono yd. 

Seisho, the Holy Scriptures. 

that way), so : setyd de goiaitnasu 

sei-sui, see p. 34. 

(p. 64), that is so, yes ; sayd de 

sei-u-kei, a barometer. 

gozaiffiasm, no ; say 5 so, oh ! yes. 

Seiyo, Western or European 

of course. 

countries generally, Europe, 

saydnara, goodbye ; confl p. 230. 

America : Seiyo-jin, a European, 

sazo, indeed, surely, doubtless. 

sebone, the spine, backbone. 


segare, a humble word for son ; 

seizo, manufacturing : seizd suru. 

conf. p. 256. 

to manufacture. 


L 535 ] 



seizon, existence ; seizon suru^ to 

senro, a line of railway. 


sensaku, research : sensaku sum. 

seji, flattery. 

to make researches. 

sekai, ) the world : seken narete 
seken, ) «>«, to be used to the 

sensei, an elder, a teacher, hence 

you, he ; see p. 47. 

ways of the world. 

sensu, a fan, see ogi. 

seki, a cough : S€ki ga deru, to 

sentaku, the washing of clothes : 


sefttaku-ya, a washerman ; seft* 

seki, a barrier : seki-mori, a guard 

tnku sum, to wash (clothes). 

at a barrier. 

senzo, an ancestor. 

sekitan, coal. 

seppo, a sermon. 

sekkaku, special pains, signal 

seppuku, the same as liara-kiri. 

kindness, on purpose. 

see p. 35. 

sekken, thrift, economy : sekken 

seri-uri, an auction. 

wo okonaUf to be thrifty. 

seshimeru (2), to cause to do, see 

sekkyo, a sermon : sekkyo sunt, to 

p. 212. 


sessha, I, lit. the awkward person. 

semai, narrow, small. 

setomono, porcelain. 

semete, at any rate, at least, at 

setsu, an occasion, a time. 

most ; conf. p. 230. 

setsu, an opinion. 

semeru (2), to treat with rigour^ 

setsu, awkward ; conf. 257. 

to press upon. 

setsiunei, an explanation: setsu- 

semmon, a specialty (in learning). 

vm sum, to explain. 

sempo, the other party, they, he. 

setta, sandals soled with leather: 

sen, a thousand. 

setta-baki, wearing such sandals. 

sen, a cent. 

settaku, my house; see p. 257. 

senaka, the back (of the body). 

sewa, help, trouble : sewa m nam. 

Sendai-bushi, a kind of poem. 

to be helped by ; sewa ga yakertt. 

see p. 452. 

to be busy and anxious : setva wo 

sendo, the master of a junk, hence 

sum, (or yaku\ to help ; sewa 

a boatman. 

sania, see p. 295, No. 96, 

senjitsu, the other day. 

ska, a company, a society, a firm. 

senkoku, a little while ago. 

shaberi, chatter, a chatter-box. 

senkyosiii, a clergyman, a mis- 

shaberu, to chatter. 


shabon, soap (from the Spanish 

senrei, baptism : senrei wo nkeru, 


to be baptised. 

shafu, a jinrikisha-man. 





sliain, a partner in a firm, a 

member of a society. 
Bhaka Sama, the Buddha Sakya 

0liake (properly sake), a salmon. 
Bhakkin, a debt. 
ahaku, a foot (measurement). 
ahakwai, a society ; also used 

in such phrases as gakusha sha- 

kwaif the learned world. 
ahamisen, see aamisen. 
abampan, champagne (from the 

shappo, a hat, a cap (from the 

French chapeau), 
sharei, a fee, a salary. 
ahasetsu, a leading article. 
shashixL, a photograph : skashin- 

basami, a photograph-holder or 

frame ; shasHn-ya^ a photo- 
aliatsu, a shirt (from the English). 
alii, death : shisuni^ die. 
alii, four. 

alii, a Chinese poem. 
alii, Mr. 
ahi, a viscount. 
ahi, a postposition ; see p. 81. 
ski, a Classical termination of 

adjectives ; see pp. 12 1-2. 
ahi, the indefinite form of sum, 

to do, 
ahi-awase, good fortune, lucky. 
akiba, turf, grass. 
akibaraku, some time (whether 

short or long) : tJiakoto ni shi' 

barakUf see p. 269. 

akibaru, to tie. 
akibaski, a short while. 
akibomu, to wither.^ 
8ki-bii(n) no icki, a quarter (J). 
8ki-bu(n)xioaan, three-quarters. 
sklcki, seven. 
aklcki-gwatau, July. 
skicki-ju, seventy. 
aklckimen-ckd, a turkey, 
aklckimotau, something pawn- 
ed, a mortgage. 
akicku, (the middle of) the streets. 
akida, a fern. 
akidai, arrangements, state, 

(hence) according to: shidai ni, 

according to, gradually. 
skiga, the teeth : shiga ni kakenai, 

to pass over as unimportant. 
akigai, a corpse. 
skigei, dense (see p.- 124). 
akigi, a snipe. 
ski-go, four or five. 
akigoku, extremely, very. 
akigoto, work : shigoto wo suru, 

to do one's work. 
Ski-gwatsu, April. 
akikainin, the manager of a 

commercial house, 
ski-ko kap-po, all (^lit. four and 

eight) sides. 
ahikon, capital (a fund of money). 
skii (no ki), a species of live oak. 
skii, an adjective suffix, see p. 128, 
akiiru (3), to urge, to try, to force, 
akiitake, a species of mushroom, 
akiite, urgently, with violence, 
skiju, constantly. 


CS35 ] 



shi-ju, forty. 

sbika (with a neg.), nothing but, 

only. Some pronounce shtkya, 
shika, a deer, a stag. 
shl-kaku, four sides : sht-kaku na 

or no, square, 
shikaraba^if (or as)that is so, then. 
shikaru, to scold. 
shikashi, but (see pp. 242-3): 

shtkashi'imgara, but, nevertlieless. 
shikata, a way of doing : shtkata 

ga nai, there is nothing to be 

done, no help for it ; cont p. 147, 
shikexi, an examination, an ex- 
periment: shtkefi wo ukeru, to 

pass an examination, 
slxiki, a ceremony, 
sliiki-nioiio, lit. a spread thing, 

hence a carpet, a table-cloth, etc. 
sblkiri (ni), perpetually. 
shl-kitari, a custom that has 

been handed down. 
shikkari, firm, tight: sHkkari 

shit a, firm, 
shikkei, rudeness: shikkei na, 

rude, impolite. 
shikken, a regent (in mediaeval 

times) ; see p. 344, note 3. 
shi-komu, to put into, to arrange 

shikwan, an officer. 
shikya, see shlka (i). 
Bhixna, an island. 
shimai, the end : mo skifnai, see 

p. 292, No. 69. 
shimatsu, the beginning and 

end, the whole of any aflair. 

skimau, to finish ; see p. 194. 

shimbun, news, a newspaper: 
sJttvibun-shi, a newspaper ; sJdm^ 
btm-ya, a newspaper man. 

shime-daka, a sum total. 

shixneppoi, damp. 

shimeru, a causative suffix, see 
p. 212. 

shimeru (2), to fasten, to close, 
hence to put or have on round 
the waist : shime-kiru, to close 
up, to shut up. 

shimmitsu (na), intimate. 

shimo, (hoar-)frost ; shimo-dokey 
thaw ; shimo gafuru^ to freeze. 

shixno, below. 

Bhimpai, anxiety, sorrow: shim- 
pat sttrtt, to be anxious or trou- 
bled ; shimpai ni nam, to become 

sbiinpo, progress : shimpo sum, 
to progress. 

shimpu, a father,— by birth, not 
by adoption ; go shimpu {sama), 
your fatlier, 

shin, new (in compounds), as 
s/imneft, the new year. 

shin, the heart ; hence the wick 
of a lamp. 

shin (no), true, real: s/iin ni, 

sbina, a kind, hence more 
frequently an article, goods : 
skitiamono, ditto. 

Sbina, China : Shina-jin, a 

sbin-ai, family affection. 


C536 1 



sbincliCl, brass : shinchu-aukuri, 

arranged or fastened with brass. 
sliindaiy an estate, property : 

shindai'kagiri ni ttarUf to be- 
come bankrupt, 
shixxja, a believer. 
shinjiru (3), to believe. 
shinjd 0uru (irreg.), to present 

respectfully to a superior; see 

pp. II, 251 : skinjo-mono, a 

shinki (na), new. 
shiuk5, belief: sHnkd-sMn^ a 

believing heart ; shinko sum, to 

shinkwa, evolution : shinkwa- 

ron, the doctrine of evolution. 
shinnen, the new year, 
shinrei, the soul, 
shinri, truth. 

shinrui, a relation, a kinsman. 
shinsei, sacredness : shinsei na, 

shinsetsu, kindness : shinsetsu 

tuif kind. 
'shinshi, a gentleman. 
shintai, a new shape. 
Shinto, the name of the aboriginal 

religion of the Japanese prior to 

the introduction of Buddhism. 

It means " the way of the gods." 
shinuru (irreg.), to die ; see pp. 

172, 198, 212 : shini'Sokonau, 

barely to escape death. 
shin-yd suru (irreg.), to believe 

in, to trust, 
shinzo, properly a girl, but with 

honorific go prefixed now used in 
the sense of a married woman of 
the lower middle class, Mrs. 

shinzu-beki, credible. 

sliio, salt, salt water, the tide. 

shira, familiar for shiran, don't 

shiraberu (2), to investigate, to 

sliira-gra, white hair : conf. p. 25. 

shira-g^iku, a white chrysan- 

shirase, an intimation, an an- 

shirajseru (2), to inform. 

sliireta, self-evident. 

sbirimochi wo tsttku, to fall 
down in a sitting position. 

shirizoku, to withdraw (intrans.). 

shiro, a castle. 

sliiro, imper. of suru^ to do : nani 
shiro ^ see p. 189. 

shiroi, white. 

sliiroini, a tinge of whiteness. 

shiroxnono, merchandise. 

sMrosa, whiteness, the degree of 

sliiru, to know : skirenai, can't 

shirushi, a sign, a mark. 

shi-sliaku, the title of viscount. 

Slii-sho, see p. 408, note 10. 

shislio, a teacher. 

sliis5, a thought. 

shisoku, (with honorific prefix 
go) your son; conf. p. 256. 

shison, a descendant. 





shlta, the under or lower part of 
anything, downstairs: no sMia 
ni, below, underneath ; sMta no 
ho, the bottom, beneath. 

shita, the tongue: sMta-nchi 
stiru, to lick one's chops. 

sMtagrau, to follow, to obey : ni 
shltagatte, according to. 

shitagi, under-clothing. 

shltaku, preparations : shltaku 
7U0 surUy to prepare. 

sMtan, sandal-wood. 

shitasbii, intimate, friendly. 

sbitate-ya, a tailor. 

shita-zara, a saucer. 

shita-zubon, drawers (under- 

shitsu, a room, a cabin. 

shitsumon, a question : sfdtsu-' 
mon-sho^ a written question. 

shitsurei, rudeness, impertinence: 
shitsurei na, rude, impolite. 

shiyagaru, equivalent to sum, 
yagaru being a contemptuous 
and vulgar suffix, and 5 (for a) 
adding to the lowness of the 

r cAprca 

I ^ JthiyS . a way of doing: s Myo 
here is no he 

see also pp. 

-H^*^^^ there is no help for It, no- 
' thing to be done ; se 

147, 182. 
Bhi-yu, female and male: shiyu- 

tota, sexual selection (Darwin), 
•hiaen, spontaneity: shizen nOy 

spontaneous, natural ; shizen^ 

tdta, natural selection. 
sbizuka (na), quiet. 

abizuznaru, to quiet down (in- 

shizuxnu, to sink (intrans.). 

sho, many, all ; — in compounds, as 
shokoku or shoshu all countries ; 
sJwnin, people in general. 

shobai, trade, business : shobat' 
gara, the nature of a trade, 
appropriate to a certain trade. 

sboben, urine. 

sbobun, treatment, punishment. 

sbocbi, consent, assent, com- 
prehension : shdchl sum, to 
consent, etc. 

sbogrun, the title (meaning literal- 
ly generalissimo) of the de facto 
military rulers of [apan from the 
end of the twellth century to 
A.D. 1868. 

sbo-gwatsu, January. 

sboji, the wood and paper or'glass 
slides which enclose a Japanese 

sboji suru (irreg.), to possess. 

sbojiki, honesty : shcjiki na, 

sbojiru (3), to produce, to be 
produced, to arise. 

sboken, reading (books) : skoken 
surtt, to read. 

sboki, a secretary. 

sb5ko, a proof: shoko-nin, a 

sbokubutsu, a plant. 

sbokuma, a dining-room. 

sbokumotsu, food. 

sbokun, gentlemen, Sirs, all of you. 





shokunin, an artisan, a work- 

shigin, the master of a house- 



shomben, urine (vulg.). 

•hukan, a week. 

shoxnin, all men, every one. 

shuki, a stench : shukt-donie, a 

shomotsu, a book. 


shonin, a merchant, a dealer. 

shukke, a Buddhist priest. 

shonin, a Buddhist saint. 

shukkin, going to official work ; 

sh5ri, a victory. 

shukkin suru, to go to office. 

shosei, a student. 

shiiku, a post-town. 

shosei, I, lit. junior. 

shukwai, a meeting. 

shosen, after all, at last. 

shukyo, religion, a sect : shufyo- 

shosetsu, a novel. 

ietsugakUf religious pliilosophy. 

shosho, a certificate. 

shUkyu, conservative, a tory. 

shosho, a little. 

shumon, a sect, a religion. 

BhdsbO, a major-general, a rear- 

shurui, a sort. 


shusen, assistance : shusen wo 

shosa, a small number, mino- 

sum, to assist. 


shushi, purport, intention, aim. 

shote, the beginning. 

shu-shoku, wine and lust. 

shdyu, soy (our word comes from 

shusseki, attendance,— as at a 

the Japanese). 

party or a meeting: shusseki 

sliu, a master: Shu no bansan. 

sum, to attend, to go. 

the Lord's supper. 

shussho, birth. 

shu, the auxiliary numeral for 

shutcho, going to business else- 


where : shuichd suru, to go to 

shu, Chin, for sake^ strong liquor. 

business elsewhere, etc. 

shu, rarely shu, also shi, a 

shuto, vaccination. 

pluralising suffix ; see p. 29. 

shuto, a father-in-law. 

shO., a province, a country. 

shutome, a mother-in-law. 

shubiki, a boundary line on a 

shuttatsu, starting, departure: 

map : shubiki-gwai, outside 

shuttatsu surUy to start 

" treaty limits ;" shubiki-nai, in- 

80, rough ; see p. 257. 

side treaty limits. 

so (a contraction of sayo, itself a 

shugaku, giving oneself up to 

contraction of sonoyo)^ like that, 

study : shugaku sttrti, to pursue 

in that way, so : so da or so desu. 

one's studies. 

that is so, yes ; so desu ka ? is 

shui, intention, meaning, purport. 

that so ? indeed ! so ja nai or so 


[ 539 ] 



ja gozaimasen^ that is not so, no; 

Bokoera, thereabouts. 

so iu, that Icind of, such as that : 

sokonau, to spoil, to fail. 

sd ka nto^ so ka to, see p. 296, 

80ku, the auxiliary numeral for 

Nos. 109 and 110: so kd, this, 

all sorts of foot-gear. 

that, and the other ; so sa ! yes 

somatau, coarseness : somatsu na. 

indeed ; so shite, see p. 242 ; so 

coarse, rude. 

wa ikon, that won't do. 

someru (2), to dye. 

S5, the auxiliary numeral for boats 

soxnmei, (your) august name. 

and ships. 

Bomoku, herbs and trees, vege- 

sO (na), a termination of quasi- 


adjectives, see pp. 137 and 183 ; 

son, loss, especially pecuniary loss. 

also used separately, as " it would 

son, lit. a village,— the auxiliary 

seem that " (see pp. 183—4). 

numeral for mura, village. 

soba, alongside. 

sonaeru (2), to provide ; (some- 

80ba, the market price, the current 

times) to be provided with. 


Bonata, you. 

sobieru (2), to stretch up,^to reach 

sonjiru (3), to spoil (trans, and 

up (intrans.). 


Bocba, inferior tea. 

sonna, that kind of, such as that : 

sochi, or Bochira, there. 

sonna ni, so (much). 

soda-mizu,soda-water(from Eng.) 

Bonnara (for so nara\ if that is 

sodan, consultation : sodan sunt. 

so, well then. 

to hold a consultation. 

sono, that (adj.) : sono ho, you (in 

sodateru (2), to bring up. 

legal parlance). 

sodatsu, to be brought up, to 

sonshitsu, pecuniary loss. 

grow up. 

S56, suitability, a fair amount : sod 

sdd5, a row, a tumult. 

na, fit, proper. 

sohan, see p. 257. 

BOppu, soup (from English). 

sOhO, both sides. 

sora, the sky: sora-iro, sky- 

soi, difiference, discordance: sot 


ncd., there is no doubt. 

Bore, that (subst.). see pp. 51—3: 

s5ji, cleansing: sdji wo stiru, to 

sore de wa, that being so, then ; 


sore kara, after that, and then, 

soken (na), healthy, vigorous. 

next ; sore made no koto, see p. 

soko, there. 

194. For the interjectional use 

soko, the bottom (e.g. of a lake) : 

of sore, see p. 239. 

soko-bie, an internal chill. 

Boroban, an abacus. 





soroe, a match, a set : see also p. 

Buberu, to slide, to slip. 


Buberu (2), to unite in one. 

•oroeru (2), to put in order, to 

BUbe-Bube sblta, smooth. 


Bubete, altogether, all. 

sorou, to be in order, to be all in 

Bude ni, already. 

their places. 

BU0, the end or tip of a thing. 

soro-BOro, leisurely, slowly. 

Bueru (2), to set, to place. 

Boru, to shave. 

BUgi, past, after. 

Borya I there now ! see p. 239. 

sugi, the cryptomeria tree. 

B6ry6, an eldest son. 

sugiru (3), to exceed, ...rd sugi- 

BdBlii, a magazine, a journal. 

masm, it is no more than. 

sdBhlki, a funeral. 

Suffixed to an adjective or verb. 

soshiru, to blame, to revile. 

segirUf may be rendered by too or 

soBblte, having done so, and 

too much, as yo-sugiru, to be too 

(then); conf. pp. 242, 225, 

good ; nomi'Sugirti, to drink too 

sOB5, (also corruptly sdsd), coarse- 


ness: soso satna, excuse the 

sugu (ni or to), immediately. 

coarseness of my poor entertain- 

suido, an aqueduct. 


suifu, a seaman, a common sailor. 

sOtai (no), whole. 

suikwa, a water-melon. 

s5taka, the total amount. 

suikyo, intoxication. 

soto, the exterior, out-of-doors : 

suimono, a kind of soup. 

no soto fti, outside of. 

suiryo, a conjecture : suiryd suru. 

s6to;(na), suitable, proper. 

to suppose. 

sotsugyd, graduation: sotsugyo 

suisbO, a crystal. 

suru, to graduate. 

suiyobi, Wednesday. 

sotto, gently ; also used for chotto. 

suji, a line ; see also p. 112. 

a little. 

sliki, fond ; see p. 65 : suki-zuki, 

sozei, taxes, imposts. 

various tastes. 

sOzen, clamour, uproar. 

stlklma, a chink : sukima-kaae. 

85z5, fancy, imagination: sozd- 

a draught (of air). 

ietsugaku, metaphysics (but 

sukkari, quite, completely ; (with 

keijijo'gaku is a better rendering). 

a negative) not at all. 

sozQshii, noisy. 

Silkoburu, very. 

SU, vinegar. 

sakosbi, a little, a bit. 

SU, a numlDcr. 

stiku, to be empty. 

subarashii, splendid, very. 

siikunai, few, scarce ; see p. 274. 


£541 ] 



SUxnai, a residenct'. 

suxnau, to reside. 

suinasu, to conclude (trans,). 

suini, charcoal, Indian ink. 

sumi-jiinen, an open space. 

sumo, wrestling: sumo wo torn, 
10 wrestle : swnd'torH^-gusd)^ a 

sumoxno, a species of small red 

sumpo, dimensions. 

sunu, to dwell. 

sumu, to finish. The negative 
siivian sometimes means to be 

suiuu, to be clear. 

sun, an inch. 

sUna, sand. 

silnawaclii, namely, forthwith. 

sunde-no-koto ni, ahready. 

sunen or sunen, many 

suppa-nuki suru (irreg.), to 
draw ore's sword at random (as 
a swashbuckler does). 

suppai, sour. 

sura, evLi), if only. 

surari to, ) smoothly, with- 

sura-sura to, f out more ado. 

suribi, a mfttch (for striking). 

suru (irreg.), to do, to make ; see 
especially pp. 158, 224 ; also pp. 
92, i33» ^51. I9S» 198,210,211, 
212, 251 : shl'kakcru^ to leave 
half done : sum to, at the b^in- 
ning of a sentence, see p. 352, 
note 10 ; s/iife miru to, see pp. 

352—3, note 1$', ip sureba, see 
p. 412, note 22. 

0uru, to mb; used also incor- 
rectly for soru, to shave, as hige 
WQ soru or suru, to shave. 

surudoi, sharp. 

susugi-sentaku, the washing of 

susugu, to rinse, to cleanse. 

susiiki, the eulalia grass. 

susumeru (2), to urge, to offer, 
to recommend. 

susumu, to advance, to progress 
(in trans.). 

Siitensho, a railway station (from 
the English word). 

suteru (2), to throw away. 

suu, to suck. 

suwaru, to squat (in Japanese 

suzu, tin. 

suzume, a sparrow. 

suzuri-b€tko, an ink-box. 

suzushii, cool, fresh. 

ta, a suffix denoting past time ; 

see pp. 150, 166. 
ta, other : sono ta, besides that. 
ta, a rice-field. 
tabako, tobacco (from the 

European word) : tabako-ire, a 

tobacco-pouch ; tabako wo fiomu, 

to smoke. 
taberu (2), to^ eat : conf. pp. 156, 

tabemono, food, victuals. 




tabi, a time {unefois) : tabi-tahi. 

taiko-iaha, a quack physician. 

often : iku toH ? how many 

taikutsu, tedium, ennui : taikutsu 

times ? iku tabi mo, any number 

sttrn, to feel bored. 

ot times, however often. 

taimatsu, a torch. 

tabi, a journey ; tabi ye deru, to 

taira (na), flat 

go on a journey. 

taisa, a colonel, a post-captain* 

tabi-bito, a traveller. 

taiaetsu, importance : taisetsu na. 

tabun, a good deal, most ; hence 



taisbi, a crown-prince. 

tachi, a pluralising suffix ; see p. 


taishlte, see taisuru. 

tachi-banaslii, a conversation 

taishd, a full general or admiral. 

in the street. 

taisbd, loud laughter. 

tada, only, simply. 

taiso, greatly, much, very. 

tadaclii ni, forthwith. 

tasshiru (3), to reach. 

tadaima, immediately. 

taisuru (irreg.), to be opposite to : 

tadashii, correct, just. 

ni taisJnte, vis-^-vis, to. 

tadasu, to rectify, to examine 

taitei, for the most part, generally. 

into, to warn. 

taiyO, the sun. 

taeru (2), to endure. 

taka, a quantity. 

tagai (ni), mutually: tagai 

takai, high ; hence dear (in 

isama) ni, see p. 405, foot-note 3. 

price), loud. 

tagaru, a verbal suffix ; seep. 134. 

takara, a treasure : takara-fftono. 

tai, a termination of desiderative 

something very precious. 

adjectives ; see pp. 133, 165, 183. 

takaru, to collect (intrans.), to 

taiboku, a large tree. 

breed, — as flies or maggots. 

taigai, for the most part, pro- 

take, a bamboo. 


take, a mountain peak. 

taihen, lit. a great change, hence 

take, length, stature. 

very, awfully, see p. 147. 

taki, a waterfall. 

taiho, a cannon. 

tako, a kite (toy). 

taika, a famous man. 

tako, a corn (callosity). 

taik5, A title of honour, — rarely 

taku, a house, hence a humble 

applied to any but the Taiko 

term for husband (see p. 256): 

Hideyoshi, the militarv ruler of 

taku de, at home. 

rapan at the end of the sixteenth 

taku, to light (the fire), to cook 




[543 ] 



taktisan, much, many, plenty : 

tansu, a cabinet, a chest of 

mo takusan, that U plenty, I don't 


want any more ; conf. p. 65. 

taoreru (2), to fall over. 

tama, a ball, a be:\cl, a jewel. 

tara, a cod-fish. 

tamago, an egg : tamai^o-yaki^ an 

tara(ba), termination of the con- 


ditional past, see pp. 166, 184. 

tamaru (intrans.), to collect (as 

taredo(mo), termination of the 

water in a puddle). 

concessive past, see pp. 166, 187. 

tamaru (trans.), to endure : tamo- 

tari, termination of the frequen- 

ranai sometimes means too, conf. 

tative form, see pp. 167, 189. 

p. 29s, No. 95. 

tariru (3), to suffice, to be 

taxnaslxii, the soul. 

enough, conf. p. 164 :... ni taran, 

tamau, to deign ; conf. p. 253. 

is not worth. 

tame, sake: no tame ni^ for the 

taro, termination of the probable 

sake of, because of, in order to : 

past, see p. 166. 

tame ni nam, to be profitable. 

Tar5, a man's name, see p. 36. 

tamesu, to try, to taste. 

taru, a cask. 

tamochi-kata, the degree of 

taru, a Classical particle con- 

wear or lasting power in an 

tracted from to ane, = is (that), 


as: /msAi taru mono, one who 

tamotsu, to keep (trans.). 

is a warrior. 

tan, saliva, phlegm : tan wojiaktt. 

tasliika (na), certain, sure: 

^ to spit 

tasHka nif certainly. 

tana, a shelf. 

tashlkameru (2), to ascertain. 

tane, a seed, the material for^the 

to verify. 

formation of anything projected, 

tasli5, more or less, hence amount. 

a subject, the wherewithal. 


tan-haki, a spittoon. 

tasslxi, a notification. 

tani, a valley. 

tasshiru (3), to attain to, to 

tanin, another person, a stranger. 


tanjun (na), simple. 

taslikaru, to be saved ; but conf. 

tanomu, to rely on, to apply to, 

p. 204. 

to ask, hence sometimes to hire. 

tasttkeru (2), to save, to help. 

to engage. See also p. 249 : 

tataku, to knock : tataki'tsukeru. 

tanomi mosfUmasu, see p. 309, 

to knock on. 

No 14, 

tatami, a mat. 

tanoshimi, joy, pleasure. 

tatamu, to pile up. 




tate-fuda, a notice-board. 

tateru (2), to set up, to build. 

tateru (2), to be able to stand 

tatoe, a comparison, a metaphor. 

tatoeba, for instance. 

tatoeru (2), to compare. 

tatsu, a dragon. 

tatsu, to stand up, to rise, to sit 
up (of a dog), to depart : tacH- 
kaeru, to go back ; tachi-yoru^ to 
look in at. 

tatta, vulgar and emphatic for 

tattobu, to honour, to venerate. 

tattoi, venerable, worshipful. 

tattosa, venerableness. 

tayori, something to rely on: 
tayori ni sum, to rely on. 

tazuna, a bridle. 

tazuneru (2), to ask, to enquire, 
to visit. 

te, the termination of the gerund, 
see p. 165 : te iru, see pp. 
I55» 192, 141; ^^ »w, see p. 

^ 187. 

te, the hand, the arm, hence 
handwriting. Sometimes in 
compounds it means person, as 
in nori-te, lit. riders, i.e., the 
passengers in an omnibus, 
railway carriage, etc.; see also p. 
340, foot-note. 

te-arai, violent, rough. 

tebukuro, a glove. 

techo, a note-book. 
tefuda, a visiting card. 

tefuru, a table Urom Dutch tafel 
and Engl, tahle), 

tegami, a letter. 

tegarui, easy, slight. 

tei, a state (of things). 

teikoku, an empire, specifically 

teinei (na), polite. 

teishi, incorrect for teishu, 

teishu, the master of a house, a 
huslxind ; conf. p. 256. 

teisbutsu suru (irreg.), to brii^j 
in, — as a motion at a meeting. 

teki, an enemy (public). 

teki, a drop. 

teki suru (irreg.), to be appro- 

teklsbu-seizon, the survival of 
the fittest. 

teki, of ; see p. 81. 

tekit5 (na), fit, suitable. 

tema, trouble : tenia ga toreru, to 
take time and trouble (intrans.). 

temadoru, to take time and 
trouble (intrans.). 

temba (with honor. o\ a hoyden. 

texnae, front ; hence you, also I, 
conf. p. 47. 

tenunon-gaku, astronomy. 

texnpen, a sign in the heavens. 

Tempo, a nengd or ** year- 
name," which lasted from A. D. 
1830 to 1844 ; hence an oval 
copper coin with a hole in the 
middle, struck during that period. 

ten, a point. 

ten, the sky, heaven. 


C545 ] 



ten-clii, heaven and earth. 

tengu, a kind of goblin with a 
long nose. 

Tenjiku, India. 

teujo, a ceiling. 

tenka, the world, the empire (of 

tenki, the weather : o ienkif ditto, 
also specifically fine weather; 
tenki-tsugo^ the state of the 

tenkoku, the kingdom of 

texmentd, small-pox. 

tennd, the Mikado. 

Tenshi, the Mikado ; see p. 

TenshQ, see p. 369, foot-note. 

Tenshu, God (of Roman Catho- 
lics); Tenshtido, a Catholic 
church ; Tenshukyd, Roman 
Catholicism ; Tenshu^kyosH, a 
Catholic missionary or priest. 

tensui-oke, a rain-tab. 

tentaku, changing houses: ten^ 
tdku surUy to change houses. 

tento {p tento sama\ the suo 

tenugui, a towel. 

teppo, a gun ; teppo wo utsu, to 
fire a gun ; teppo-tmzu^ soda- 
water (vulg.). 

tera, a Buddhist temple. 

tern, to shine. 

texn, a contraction of the termin. 
te irUf see p. 192. 

tesliki, leisure, nothing to do. 

tete, the hands (in baby language). 

tetsu, iron: tetsubin^ a kettle; 
tetsuddf a railway ; tetsudd^ 
basha, a street^car, a tram. 

tetsUgaku, philosophy ; ietsiu 
gakusha, a philosopher. 

te-tsiike-kiii, bargain-money. 

te-tsuzuki, a procesB, a way of 
arranging matters. 

tezema, the state of being 

tezuma, jugglery, a trick: tezwno' 
isukai, a conjuror, 

to, a door. 

to, ten (in compounds). 

to, a postposition : see pp. 82, 166, 
275 : to iu, see pp. 58, 82, 97 ; 
to iu mono wa, see p. 58 ; ditto at 
beginning of sentence =s what I 
mean is... ; to ka, see p. 69 ; to 
itte^ see p. 83 ; to mo^ see pp. 85, 
187 ; to itte mo, see p. 187 ; to mo 
kaku mOf see p. 298 ; to sum, see 
pp. 227, 421 (note 9) ; to wa iedo^ 
see p. 187. 

to, a pagoda. 

t5, ten. 

t6, that, the; see p. 54, f 78. 

t5, an auxiliary numeral for horses 
and cattle. 

t6, etce,tera. 

toben, a reply, a rejoinder. 

tobu, to jump, to fly : tobi-agaru^ 
to fly up ; tobi-komu, to jump or 
fly in ; tobi-kosu, to jump across. 

tobutsu-ya, a general shop for 
foreign goods. 


[546 J 



tOcliaku, arrival: tdchaku sum. 

tokei, a dock, a watch. 

to arrive. 

tokeru (2), to mdt (intrans.^. 

tochi, a locality, a place, sofl. 

toki, time, hence when (conjunc- 

tocliii, on tbe road, by the way. 

tion), see pp. 41, 184, 27S:ioki^ 

tOdai, a lamp-stand, a light 

doki, often; ^/b'-^W, occasionally; 


toki tU, see p. 42 ; toH to sh$te. 

todana, a capboard. 


todoke, a report. 

tOki, porcelain. 

todokeru (2), to send to destina- 

to(k)kari, a bottle. 

tion, to give notice, to report. 

toko, an abbreviation of tokoro^ 

todoku, to reach (intrans.). 


todomaru, to stop, to stay 

tokonoma, an alcove. 


tokoro, a place, but see pp. 42—3, 

todome, a stop, a pause, the 

179 ; iokoro de, see p. 43 ; tokoro 

coup de grftce : todome wo sasu. 

ga, tokoro ye, see p. 42; for tokoro 

to give the coup de grftce. 

no used as a kind of relative 

todomeru (2), to stop (trans.). 

pronoun, seep. 61: tokoro-dokoro. 

tofti, a city. 

here and there, in many places. 

tOAi, bean-curd : tofu-ya, a shop 

tokoro-gaki, an address (writ- 

for or seller of bean-curd. 


toga, fault, blame. 

toku, to loosen, to unfasten, to 

togame, blame. 

explain : toki-akasu, to explain. 

togameru (2), to blame. 

toku, profit, advantage, efficacy. 

tOgarashi, cayenne pepper. 

toku, to melt (trans.). 

tOge, a mountain pass. 

tokui, a customer. 

tSgetsu, this month. 

tokuiku, moral culture. 

togire, temporary cessation. 

tokukon, a reading book. 

tohoxnonai, outrageous, ex- 

tomai, an auxil. numeral see p. 



tOi, far, distant. 

tomaru, to stop, to stay (intrans.). 

toji, the binding of a book. 

tombi, a kite (bird). 

tOji, the present time. 

tombo, a dragon-fly. 

tojiru (3), to close (trans.), to bind 

tome-bari, a pin. 

(a book). 

to-megane, a telescope. 

t5ka, ten days, the tenth day of 

tomeru (2), to stop (trans.). 

the month. 

tomo, a companion, a follower: 

tokaku, see tomokahutno. 

tomo suruy to accompany. 




toxnodachi, a companion, a 

tomokakii(mo), in any case, be 
that as it may, somehow or 

tGxnorokoslii, Indian com. 

tomiirai, a faneral. 

tonaeru (2), to recite, to pro- 
claim (e.g. opinions). 

tonari, next door. 

tonda, ( absurd, awful, 

tondemonai, ( excessive. 

t5nen, this year. 

tSnin, the person in question. 

tonogt), a [man, a gentleman, a 

tonto (mo), altogether ; (with a 
negative) not at all. Ton io 
sometimes means with a thud. 

tora, a tiger. 

toraeru (2), to seize, to arrest. 

toreru (2), to take (intrans.),Uo 
be able to take. 

tori, a bird, especially the barn- 
door fowl. 

tori, a thoroughfare, a street, a 
way, as ; see p. 243. 

tori-atstlkai, management, 


tori-atslikau, to manage. 

tori-aezu, forthwith. 

tori-ire, ingathering, harvest. 

tori mo naosazu, neither more 
nor less than, just, exactly. 

tori-maki wo sura (irreg.), to 
keep the ball of conversation 
rolling, to entertain skilfully. 

tOrO, a stationary (e.g. a stone) 

toru, to take, but sometimes 
merely expletive in compounds : 
tori m iku, to go for ; tori ni 
kuru, to come for; tori mj^aru,m 
to send for ; tori-^sukau, to un- 
dertake, to manage ; tori-cMga^' 
ru, to confuse ; tori-irerUy to 
gather in ; tofH-isogu, to be in a 
hurry ; toH-kaeru, to exchange ; 
tori'kakomu, to surround, to be- 
siege ; tori'tnoisuy to arrange ; 
tori'sHraberUy to investigate;... 
ni iotie, with regard to. 

tOru, to pass through, to pass by : 
tori-kakarUf to happen to pass 

tosan, the ascent of a mountain : 
tosan surUf to ascend a moun- 

toshi, a year, hence age: tosAi 
wo toru, to grow old ; tosAi no 
yotta, elderly, aged. 

tOshi, the act of doing something 
right through. 

toshiyori (no), old (said only of 

t5su, to put or let through, to 
admit (e. g. a guest) : toshi 
mose, see bottom of p. 294. 

totan, zinc. 

tote, a postposition ; see p. 83. 

totemo, anyhow, in any case; 
(with a neg.) not at all, by no 

t5td, at last. 





tou, to ask. 

tdzen, right, proper. 

tsuba, the gaard of a sword. 

tflubaki, a camellia-tree. 

tsuben, interpretation, an inter- 
preter : tsubeti wo sttru^ to inter- 

tsubo, a jar. 

tsubu, a g^ain, — e.g. of rice; a 

tsfichi, earth: tsuchi-yaki^ earth- 

tsue, a stick, a staff: tstie wo 
tsuku, to lean on a staff. 

tsugai, a pair (of fowls, etc.). 

tBUgi(no), the next: sono tsugi 
ni, next (adverb). 

tsug5, the sum total, altogether ; 
also convenience, certain rea- 
sons : tsu£^d no yoi, convenient ; 
tsu£^o no warui^ inconvenient ; 
go tsugo shidai, according to 
your convenience ; tsugo ga de- 
kimasu, see p. 301, No. 7. 

tflugu, to join (trans.), to follow, 
to succeed to (a patrimony) ; also 
to pour into : isugi-dasu, to pour 

tsui (ni), at last. 

tsuide, occasion, apropos : tto 
tsuide ni, apropos of. 

tsuitachi, the first day of the 

tsuite (preceded by w), accord- 
ing to, owing to, about: tsuiie 
ikuj to follow. 

tsuiyasu, to spend, to squander. 

tsi:gi, a cross-road. 

tsuji, an interpreter, interpreting. 

tsujiru (3), to understand, to 

speak (a language). 
tstika, a hilt. 
ts^kaeru (2), to serve, 
tsiikai, a message, a messenger: 

isukai no mono, a messenger, 
tsllkai-znichi, a means of em- 
tstlkamaeru (2), to catch. 
tstikamatsuru, to do (a self- 
depreciatory word) ; conf. p. 

285, foot-note 3. 
tslikasadoru, to control, to 

tsUkau, to use, to employ. 
tsUkawasu, to give, to send. 
tsUkegi, a lucifer match, 
tsukeru (2), to fix, to affix,(hence) 

to set down in writing, to add : 

tsuke-agaru, to l>e puffed up 

with pride. 
tsiiki, the moon, a month : tsuki 

hi, the San and moon, a date ; 

tsuki-zue, the end of the month ; 

tsiiki ga agaru, the moon risjes. 
tsilki-ai, intercourse, 
ts&ki-atari, the end of a road 

where one must turn eitlier to 

the right or to the left. 
ts&ki-ataru, see tsttku. 
tfltikiru (3), to come to an end, 

to be exhausted. 
tsukS, passing through, a 

thoroughfare : tsuko sttru, to pass 

through or along. 





tBiiku, to posh, to shove : tsuki^ 

aiaru, to collide, to come to the 

end (of a street). 
tsiiku, to stick (intrans.), some- 
times to result: isuki-sou^ to 

tstikue, a table, specifically a 

very low Japanese writing-table. 
tsiikunen, listlessness, gaping. 
ts&kuru, to make, to compose ; 

to grow (trans.): tsukuri-dasu^ 

to produce. 
tsiikuSTi, to exhaust, to do to the 

tstlku-ztiku, attentively. 
tsuma, a wife ; but see p. 256. 
tsumaran(ai), worthless, trifling, 
tsuxnari, at last, in the long run. 
tsiunazuku, to stumble. 
tsumbo (no), deaf, 
tsume, a finger or the nail, a claw. 
tsumeru (2), to stuff, pack, or 

squeeze into : tsume-yortt^ to 

draw near, 
tsumetai, cold (to the touch). 
tsumi, a sin, a crime ; tsumi no 

nat\ innocent; isumi sum, to 

tsumi-ni, cargo. 
tsuznori, an intention : tsumori- 

gaki, a written estimate, 
tsumoni, to be heaped up. 
tsumu, to pick, 
tsumuri, the head. 
tsunagu, to fasten, to tie up. 
tsune (ni), generally : tstme no, 

usual, ordinary. 

tsuno, a horn. 

tsunoru, to collect (trans.), to 
levy, to increase or grow violent. 

tsurai, disagreeable, unsym- 

tsure, a companion. NigorVed 
and used as a suffix, it means 
together, as fufu-zure, a hus- 
band and wife together. 

tsureru (2), to take with one: 
tsurete kuru, to bring (a person). 

tsure-datsu, to go together. 

tsiirei, the general precedent, the 
usual plan. 

tstiri (often with honorific o\ 
change, small money. 

tsuru, a stork. 

tsuru, to hang (e. g. a mosquito- 
net) ; tsuri'agent, to hang up. 

tsurii, to angle, to catch fish with 
a line and hook. 

tsurube, a well-bucket. 

tsutsuji, a kind of azalea. 

tsutsuini(-mono), a parcel. 

tsutsumu, to wrap up. 

tsuyo, circulation : tsuyd sum, to 
circulate (as money). 

tsuyoi, strong. 

tsuyu, dew : o tsuyu, soap. 

tsussoku, colloquial, common. 

tte, see pp. 83—4. 

tto, see bottom of p. 82. 


uba, a wet-nurse. 

ubau, to take by force, to rob, 

uchi, the inside, hence a house. 





home, hence a hamble term for 
hasband (see p. 256), taken from, 
an extract : no ucM ni, inside, in ; 
sono uchif meanwhile, soon ; o 
tuhi de^ at home. Uchi ni^ 
sometimes means while. For 
ucH helping to form superla- 
tives, see p. 146. 

uchiki, retiring, bashful 

uchiwa, a fan of the kind that 
does not open and shut. 

ude, the arm. 

uderu (2), to boil,— e.g. an egg. 

udonkOy flour, meal. 

ue, the top of anything ; conf. p. 
260 : no ue m, above, on, after. 
Sometimes ug means circum- 
stances or nature, as kami no mi 
tte, the nature of the gods ; also 
a point of view, with regard to. 

ue-bOso, vaccination. 

ueki, a garden plant: ueki-ya^^ 

ueru (2), to plant. 

ugokasu, to move (trans.). 

Ugoku, to move (intrans.). 

uguisu, a nightingale. 

iijiy a surname, hence Mr. 

ukagrau, to enquire, to ask, to 
listen to, to visit, 

uke-oi-nin, an underwriter. 

ukeru (2), to receive: conf. p. 
25 1 : tike-aUy to guarantee ; uke- 
torn, to take delivery, to receive. 

uketamawaxn, a humble word 
for to hear ; conf. p. 25 1 . 

uketori, a receipt. 

uke-tslike, a sort of enquiry 
office superior in dignity to a 
mere porter's lodge, where cards 
are received, information given, 
etc. There is one at the entrance 
to every public department and 
other large establishments in 

lima, a horse. 

Umai, nice to eat, tasty. 

ttmainxiia, food (in baby lan- 
guage) ; conf. p. 240, footnote. 

timareru (2), to be bom. 

ttxnare-tstiki, by birth ; hence 
the character or disposition. 

umaya, a stable. 

iixne, a plum-tree : ufm'mi, going 
to see the plum- blossoms. 

iiineru (2), to fill up with earth, to 
bury : ume^awaseru, to make up 
(metaph.), see pp. 342—3- 

umi, the sea: umi-be^ the sea- 

umu, to give birth to, to bear: 
umi'dasUf ditto. 

un, luck : un no yoi, lucky ; un no 
waruij unlucky. 

xinagi, an eel. 

unasareru (2), to be troubled 
with nightmare. This verb is only 
used^in this, the passive, form. 

unazuku, to nod. 

uncliiii, freight(-money). 

undo, bodily exercise ; undd* 
dama^ cup-and-ball : undo suru, 
to take exercise. 

unjo, a tax, a tariff. 


[551 ] 



ura, the back or reverse side of 

utsu, to strike, to hit : teppo wo 


utsu, to fire a gun. It is some- 

urayamu, J to envy (not 
uxayamashigraru, in a bad 

times used as a meaningless and 

omittable prefix in compound 

sense) ; also to wish to be like. 

verbs, as {uchi^ysure'datsu, to go 

tLrayamasliii, enviable. 

along together. 

ureru (2), to sell (intrans.), to be 

utsUkushii, beautiful. 

able to sell ; conf. p. 206. 

utsusu, to remove (trans.), to 

ureshii, joyful. 


uresliigaru, to feel joyful. 

uttaeru (2), to go to law about, 

uri, a melon. 

jto appeal. 

uru, to sell (trans.) : uri-sabakuy 

uttoshii, cloudy, dull. 

to sell oflf. 

uwa-gaki, an address (on an en- 

urusai, troublesome, a bother. 

velope, etc.). 

urusagaru, to find troublesome. 

uwagi, an overcoat, a coat. 

uruslii, lacquer, varnish. 

uwagutsu, a slipper. 

uruwashii, beautiful, lovely. 

uwasa, talk about a person, 

usagi, a hare. 

gossip, rumour : uwasa wo surt4^ 

ushi, a cow, a bull, an ox, beef. 

to talk about. 

ushinau, to lose. 

uwo, a fish; uwo wo tsuru, to 

ushiro, the back or hinder part of 

fish with a rod and line. 

anything : no ushiro ni, at the 

uyamau, to reverence. 

back of, behind. 

uya-uyashii, awe-inspiring. 

U80, a lie, a falsehood : uso wo iu, 

uzura, a quail. 

to lie : uso'tsuki, a liar. 


usuberi, rush matting bound 

with a hemp edging. 

wa, a separative particle; seep. 

Usui, light, thin (in colour or con- 

8s; also pp. 94, 166, 193, 195, 

sistence), insufficient: usu-akai. 

238, 260, 261, 274. For its use 

pink ; usu-gurai^ dusk. 

as an interjection, see p. 87. 

uta, a Japanese (as opposed to a 

wa, an irregular auxiliary nume- 

Chinese) poem, a song. 

ral, see p. 1 10. 

utagai, a doubt: utagai wo 

wa, a wheel. 

okosu, to raise a question. 

wabi, an apology. 

utau, to sing. 

wabiru (3), to lament, to apolo- 

utdiaru, to throw away, to dis- 


regard : utcJuUte oku, ditto. 

waboku, peace. 





waga, my own, one's own, see p. 
51 : vfaga mi, myself; waga hai, 

wairo, a bribe : wairo ivo tsukau, 
to bribe; 7vairo wo ukerUy to be 

waka-danna, the son of the 
master of tlie house. 

wakai, young. 

wakareru (2), to part with, to be 

wakari, understanding : o wakari 
ni ftantf to understand (honor- 
ific) ; wakari no hayai, quick- 
witted, sharp; wakari-nikui, 
hard to understand; wakari'- 
yasidf easy to understand. 

wakaxn, to understand: wakari- 
Htte tru, to come to a clear un- 

wakasu, to boil (trans.) ; said of 

wakatsu, to discern. 

wake, a reason, a cause: doiu 
wake de ? why ? so fw wake ni wa 
ikimasen^ it can't be managed in 
that way. 

wakeru (2), to divide, to share : 
wake-ataeru^ to distribute in ajn 
propriate shares. 

wakete, specially. 

waki, the side of anything, some- 
times elsewhere : no ivaki ni, at 
the side of, beside ; waki ye, 

wakimaeru (2), to discriminate, 
to comprehend. 

waki-xnizu, a spring of water. 

W€tku, to boil (intrans.). 

wakiisei, a planet. 

wampaku (na), naughty. 

wan, a bowl. 

wan, a gulf, a^t>ay. 

waniflhi, varnish (from the Eng- 
lish word). 

wan-wan, bow-wow. Children 
call dogs so. 

wara, straw. 

warai, laughter. 

waraji, a kind of straw sandals 
used only out-of-doors. 

warau, to laugh. 

ware, I (in book language) : 
ware-ware, people like me, we. 

wari-ai, proportion. 

wari-bike, discount. 

wari-mae, a share. 

warui, bad, (hence sometimes) 
ugly, see also pp. 128, 139: 
waruku iu, to blame. 

waru-kticlii, bad languge. 

waru-mono, a worthless fellow, 
a ruffian. 

waru-klisa, a weed. 

Wasei, made in Japan. 

washi, a vulgar contraction of 
watakusH, I. 

wasure-mono, something for- 

wasureru (2), to forget. 

wata, wadding. 

wat€tkUshi, selfishness, (hence) 
I: watakushi'domo, we, people 
like me, I ; conf. pp. 48 — 9. 





wataru, to cross (a river). 
wataslii, a somewhat ynlgar 

contraction of watakushi^ I. 
watasu, to hand over. 
waza to, on purpose. 
wazawai, a calamity. 
waza-waza, on purpose. 
wazuka, a trifle: wazuka ni, 

only, nothing but. 
WO, a postposition ; see p. 91 ; 

also pp. 201, 203, 224, 261. 
woba, see pp. 96, 213. 

ya, a termination signifying house, 
see p. 40. 

ya, a postposition ; see pp. 93, 88 
(N.B.), 195: ya nam ka, p. 55. 

ya and ya, eight ; see p. 101. 

yaban, a barbarian : yaban no or 
na^ barl)arous. 

yabo, a clown, a dolt. 

yabuku, to tear (trans.). 

yachin, house-rent. 

yado, a dwelling-place, a hotel ; 
hence a humble word for hus- 
band (see p. z^dy.yado-ya^ a hotel. 

yagrate, forthwith, by and bye. 

yagru, bed-clothes. 

yagura, a turret. 

yahari, also. 

yai ! halloa ! 

yakamasliii, noisy, hence given 
to fault-finding. 

yakedo, a burn. 

yakeru (2), to burn (intrans.). 

yaki, burning, roasting, annealing. 

3rakimoc]ii, jealousy. 

yakkai, assistance; see also p. 
290, No. 54. 

yaku, to burn (trans.), to roast, 
to toast, to bake. 

yaku, usefulness, service; yaku 
ni tatsu^ to be of use. 

yakunin, an official. 

3rakiislia, an actor. 

yakiisho, a public office. 

yaktisoku, an agreement, a pro- 
mise, yakusoku suru^ to promise. 

yakwai, an evening party. 

yama, a mountain, a hill, some- 
times dishonest speculation : 
yama-michi^ a mountain path. 

yaxnai, a disease. 

yaxnaxne, a kind of trout. 

yamaslii, a dishonest speculator, 
a charlatan. 

Yamato, the name of one of the 
central provinces of Japan, 
hence by exteiision Japan itself. 

yameru (2), to put a stop to. 

yami, total darkness. 

yamome, a widow. 

yamu wo ezu, unavoidably. 

yanagri, a willow-tree. 

yane, a roof (see p. 36) \yane-bune^ 
a house-boat 

yaoya, a green-grocer. 

yappari, emphatic ior yahari, 

yara, see p. 452, foot-note 8. 

yarakasu (vulg.), to do; hence 
to perform almost any action, 
e.g. drinking, eating, working. 





yare I (an exclamation of encour- 
agement derived from ' yaru^ to 
give), go on ! halloa I 

yaru, to send, to give, conf. pp, 
196, 25 1 : yatU fftiru, to try (one's 
hand at) ; yaite shitnau, to give 
away; yaru is sometimes used 
instead of suru^ to do. 

yasai(-niono), vegetables. 

yasashii, easy, gentle. 

yaseru (2), to grow thin ; yasete 
iru, to be thin \yaseta^ tbin. 

yashXki, a nobleman's mansion, 
also a " compound." 

yasliiro, a Shintd temple. 

yashoku, supper, (late) dinner. 

Yaso, Jesus: Yaso-kyb or Yaso- 
shUt (Protestant) Christianity ; 
YasO'kydshi, a (Protestant) 
missionary or clergyman. 

yaBui, cheap, easy. 

yasuxni-bi, a holiday. 

yasuxnu, to rest, to go to bed : 
oyasumi nasai, good-night. 

yatou, to hire, to engage. 

yatsu, a (low) fellow ; rarely a 

ya(tsu), eight. 

yawarakai or yawaraka na, 

yaya, more or less, somewhat: 
y(^a tno sureba^ apt to, liable to. 

ye, a postposition ; see p. 93. 

yol an interjection, see pp. 239, 

yo, the night : yo-naka^ midnight ; 
yo fti tru, to become dark. 

yo, the world : yo no naka, ditto : 

yo wo okuru, to spend one's life, to 

make a living. 
yo and y6, four ; see p. lOi. 
y5, business, use : yd wo nasu, to 

be of use. 
y6, appearance, way, kind : yo m, 

to, so that ; see p. 276. 
yo-ake, dawn. 
yobG, a precaution. 
yobu, to call : yodi-dasu, to sum- 
mon ; yoH-kaesu, to call back. 
yofuku, European clothes. 
yohodo, plenty, a lot, very. 
yol, good, (hence) handsome; see 

also pp. 137, 139. 
y5-i (na), easy. 
y6ji, a tooth-brush, less correctly 

a tooth-pick {ko-ydji) \ydji4re, a 

tooth-pick holder. 
yo-jO-han, (a room) four mats 

and a half (in size), 
yoka, eight days, the eighth day 

of the month, 
yokan, a kind of sweetmeat made 

of beans and sugar. 
yokel, superfluity ; (with a nega- 
tive) not very, not much ; see 

p. 148. 
y5ki, the weather. 
yokka, four days, the fourth day 

of the month. 
yoko, cross, athwart : yoko-dio, a 

side street (whether cross or 

yokogriru, to cross, 
yokome, a side glance. 





yokomoji, European written 
characters, Roman letters. 

yokosu, to send hither. 

yoku, well, hence often. 

yome, a bride, a daughter-in-law : 
yofne ni yaru^ to give (a girl) in 
marriage ; yome wo moraii^ to 
marry (a wife). 

yomeru (2), to read (in trans.), 
can read ; conf. p. 206. 

yomu, to read (trans.) : uta wo 
yomu, to compose (Jap.) poetry. 

yomuki, business, affairs. 

yondokoronai, inevitable. 

yo-naka, midnight. 

yone, hulled rice. 

yo (no naka), the world. 

yopparai, a drunkard. 

yopparatte iru, to be intoxi- 

yoppodo, emphatic iox yohodo. 

yoppite, all nightlong. 

yori, a postposition ; see pp. 94, 
145, 260- 

yoroi, armour. 

yorokeru (2), to reel. 

yorokobi, joy. 

yorokobu, to rejoice. 

Yoroppa, Europe. 

yoroshii, good, conf. pp. 128, 
255: md yoroshii^ all right, no 
more required ; yoroshii, . . . 
will do well txiox3i^\yorosf&ku 
moshimasuj see p. 309 ; yoroshl' 
ku negcdmasu, see pp. 324 — 5, 
No. 21. 

yoru, the night. 

yoru, to lean on, to rely, to de- 
pend ; hence to look in at, to stop 
at for a short time : niyotte, ow- 
ing to ; ioshi no yotta, aged. 

yoru, to select : yori-dasu, ditto. 

yoru, to assemble. 

yOBas5 (na), having a good ap- 
pearance, conf. p. 137. 

yOsei suru (irreg.), to foster, to 

yoseru (2), to collect (tarans.). 

yosbi, good, all right; conf. p. 
122 : yosAi-askif see p. 34. 

yOshi, an adopted son : yoshi ni 
iku, to be adopted. 

yoso, elsewhere. 

yosooi, adornment, fine array. 

yosu, to leave off, to abstain 
from, to put an end to, to omit. 

y58U, appearance, circumstances. 

yo-sugiru (3), to be too good. 

yo(tsu), four. 

yottari,.four persons. 

yotte, for that reason : w yotte, 
owing to. 

yowai, weak. 

ySyaku, ) barely, at last, with 

yoyO, ' difficulty. 

yu, hot water, a hot bath : yu xvo 
sasu, to pour in hot water. 

ydbe, yesterday evening. 

yubi, a finger, a toe : yubi^uki, 
a thimble. 

yubin, the post: yttbin-kyoku, a 
post-office ; yubin-zei, postage. 

yudacbi, a (thunder-) shower. 

yue ni, therefore. 





3ni6ii, cause, rationale. 

ya^ta, twilight, evening. 

3ruge, steam. 

yuigon, a last will and testament 

yuin5, gifts exchanged on be- 

yuisho, a last will and testament 

yuka, the floor. 

yukata, seeyugafa. 

yiikei, the evening landscape, 

3ruki, snow. 

jrukkuri, leisurely, slowly. 

3ruky6, pleasure. 

yuxne, a dream ; yume wo fmru, 
to dream. 

yuxneshi, supper, (late) dinner. 

yuxni, a bow (for shooting) : yumi- 
ya, a bow and arrows. 

ytUrei, a ghost. 

yiireru (2), to shake (intrans.). 

jniri, a lily. 

yurui, loose. 

yururi (to), leisurely: go yuniri 
to, see p. 143. 

yurusu, to allow, to grant. 

yosan, a picnic. 

yusei, a planet. 

yfUshi, a brave warrior. 

yushoku, supper, (late) dinner. 

yushS-reppai, the survival of 
the fittest (in the struggle for ex- 

yu-tampo, a foot-warmer. 

yuu, to bind up or do (the hair). 

yClyiL to, nonchalantly. 
yuzu, a lemon. 

za, a seat, in compounds some- 
times a theatre : za ni tsiiktiy to 
take a seat ; za wo tatsu, to rise 
from one's seat. 

zaisan, property ; zaisan-kagirt\ 

zaxnpatBU, hair-cutting. 

zannen, regret (for one's own 
sake) : zannen-garu, to regret. 

zashlki, a room. 

zasshi, a magazine, a review. 

ze, same as zo. 

zehi, right 5 wrong ; (hence) 

( or 

positively : zehi mo nai, nothing 

more to be said, unavoidable, 

zei, a tarif}, an impost. 
zeikwan, a custom-house, 
zen, (generaly with honorific 0), 

a kind of tray ; see p. 248. 
zen, before (in compounds), as 

sH'go-nen-zeft, four or five years 

zen, virtue. 

zen-aku, good J *" evil, 
zeni, coin, coppers. 
zennin, a virtuous person. 
zenry5 (na), virtuous, good, 
zentai, properly the whole body ; 

more often usually, generally, 
zentorumen, a corruption of the 

word " gentleman." 


[557 ] 



zetcho, the summit of a mountain, 
zo, Tin interjection : see pp. 239 

and 55. 
zoliei-kyoku, a mint. 
zokin, a duster, 
zoku, commonplace, vulgarity : 

zoku na^ vulgar. 
zoku, a brigand, a rebel. 
zokug^o, a colloquial word, the 

spoken dialect. 
zombun, a sentiment : zornbun ni 

suru, to do as one likes (with a 

zonji, knowledge ; used in such 

phrases as go zonji desu ka ? do 

you know ? zonfi-nagara, I must 

own that... 
zosji-yori, an opinion, 
zonjiru (3), to know, 
zori, a kind of straw sandals 

worn indoors. 

zosa, difficulty: always with a 

negative, as zosa mo nat\ there is 

no difficulty. 
zotto sum, to start with surprise; 

abp to be natural or pleasant. 
ZU, termination of the negative 

gerund, seep. 169. 
zubon, trowsers. 
zuibun, a good deal, pretty 

(adverb), very, 
zure, see tsurg. 
zuru, a verbal termin., see p. 

zutsu, (one, etc.) at a time, apiece, 

each, as mitsu-zutsu, three at a 

zutsu, a headache : zutsU ga suru^ 

to have a headache, 
zutto, straight, quite, a great 

deal. 4^^/,^^ <1.^.. 





(When several references are given, the most important reference is placed first. 

Subjects having only Japanese names, such as the Kana^ the Nig»ri^ and the 

various Postposition?, are not inserted here. They must be looked 

up in the Japanese-English Vocabulary, p. 474 et seg.) 




\ (form in shi), 121 

Accusative, 91, 2or, 224. | 



Constructions (preference 


(gerund of), 128, 181. 

for), 205, 216, 266, 278 ; 57, 58. 


(in beki)t 121, 122; 41. 

Adjectives, 120 ; 44, 78, 225, 260, 


(in ««•), 129, 130, 139, 


168, 170, 171. 


(adverbial form), 123 ; 


(in rashii\ 133. 

120, 124, 126, 129. 


(in sUi\ 128, 134. 


(attributive form), 117, 


(in iai\ 165, 183; 133, 

121, 126, 138, 140. 



(comparison of), 144; 


(indefinite form), see 


adverbial form. 


(compound), 131. 


(inflections), 120, 128. 


(conclusive form), 121, 


(irregular), 126. 

122, 126. 


(negative), 129, 130, 168, 


(derivative), 131. 



(desiderative), 165, 183 ; 


(of probabmty), 137, 

133, 134, 204. 

165, 183. 


(form in «), 120, 123, 


(paradigms of), 126, 128, 

124, 126. 

129, 130. 


(form in kt), 121, 179. 


(predicative form), 120, 


(form in ku\ 122 ; 91, 

121, 126, 138, 140. 

123, 126, 138,231. 

, , 

(primary inflections), 


(form In kitba)^ 91. 

120, 126, 127. 


(form in or m), 120, 


(quasi-), 135- 

126, 128,222. 


(reduplicated), 134. 



Adjectives (secondary inflections), 
,, (stems), 125 ; 124, 126, 

127. 134, 226. 
„ (tense and mood in), 

„ (verbs formed from), 134. 
Adverbial Phrases, 236 ; 84, 220, 

230. 233. 
Adverbs, 231, 52; 45, 75, 82, 99, 

Adversative Constructions, 67, 83, 

88, 93. 
Affirmation, 234 ; 85. 
Agglutination, 5, 29, 129, 134, 149— 

151, 153, 161, 165^170, 193, 210, 

222, 226. 
Aino Language, 5. 
Altaic languages, 5. 
** Although " (how rendered), 243. 
Ambiguous Constructions, 58, 60, 

" And " (how rendered), 242. 
Animals (how addressed), 240. 

„ (names of young), 32, 33. 
Antithesis, 85, 91. 
Aphseresis, 192. 
Apposition, 77. 
Article, 11. 

** As '* (how rendered). 70, 184, 243. 
Aston (Mr. W. G.), Fref,, 66, 153, 

167, 168. 
Attraction, 5. 
Attributive Constructions, 56, 57, 

76, 99, 120, 121, 132, 138, 140, 

I4», 275. 
Augmentatives, 32, 143. 

Auxiliary Numerals, 107, 113, 114, 

„ (verbs), see Verbs. 
B (letter), 21, 25, 162, 163. 
Baby Language, 240. 
Bad Language, 239. 
Bases of Verbs, 151 ; 149—152, 154 

—160, 161, 165, 167. 
" Because " (how rendered), 70. 
" Become " (how rendered), 136, 

185, 204. 
Book Language, see Written Lan- 
Brinkley's Dictionary, 12, 93. 
" But " (how rendered), 186, 243. 
" Can " (how rendered), 202, 206, 

" Cannot " (how rendered), 202—3. 
Causatives, 212. 
Certain Past, 166, 175; 57- 

„ (of negative), 169, 204. 

Certain Present or Future, 165, 
172 ; 152, 154—160; also 57, 75, 
132, 153, 222, 230. 
Certain Present or Future (of nega- 
tive), 169, 176, 195. 
Ch (letter), 21, 25, 163, 164. 
Changes in the Language, 6, 22, 23, 
24, 25, 35, 101, 103, 117, 118, 121, 
122, 124, 135, 151, 161,163— 5, 
172, 180, 184, 231, 260. 
Chinese (characters), 7, 225, 245. 
„ (influence), 6—9, 34, 36, 

61, loi, 170, 242, 271. 
„ (pronunciation of), 7. 
„ (terseness), 8, 33. 
„ (words), 6-8, 21, 22,03, 



33, 34, 35. 37, 54, 103— 

Conjugations (interchanged), 164, 

106,111, 112, 113, 117, 


142, 170, 225, 226, 246, 

„ (of adjectives), 128 



Classical Japanese, see Written Lan- 

„ (of verbs), 152—160. 


(second), 156, 152, 

Classifiers, 107. 

153; also 132, 198, 

Comparison, 144; 90, 121. 

199, 206, 207, 2X2, 

Compound (adjectives), 131. 

213, 214, 228, 229. 

„ (noons), 31. 

(third), 157, 152, 153; 

(tenses), 155, 191. 

also 132, 164, 198, 


207, 212, 228, 229. 

Compounds, 31, 131, 217 ; also 17, 

Conjunctions, 242^ 41, 42, 99, 230. 

21, 22, 44, lOI, I02, 

Consonants, 16, 25. 

108, 125, 137, 143. 

(double), 18. 

(Chinese), 21, 22, 33, 

„ (peculiarities of certain), 

34, 35. 37. 

25. 164. 

(co-ordinated), 33, 34, 

Construction, 260 ; 34, 35. 


„ (synthetic tendency 

(hybrid), 35, 106. 

of), 280—2. 

„ (in word-building), 35. 

Continuative Tenses (in te iru, etc.). 

Concessive (idioms), 187. 

155 ; 141. 

(mood), 166, 167, 186, 

Contractions, 26,^104, 155. 


Correlation of Clauses, 178—181, 

„ (mood negative), 169. 

261, 264 — 6 ; also 123, 196. 

Conclusive Forms, 121, 122, 132. 

"Could" (how rendered), 186. 

Conditional Base, 152, 167, also 

Court Language, 241. 

154—160, 153, 166. 

D (letter), 21, 25, 163. 

„ (base negative), 169. 

Days of Month (how counted), 1 1 7. 

(mood), 166, 167, 184; 

Dependent Clauses (how placed), 

123, 175. 


„ (negative), 169. 

Desiderative Adjective, 165, 183 ; 

Conjugations, 152—160; 128. 

133. 134, 204. 

(first), 154, 161— 5, 

Dialects, 8. 

152; also 132, 164, 

Dictionaries, 12, 18, 153, 243. 

198, 206, 210, 212, 

Diminutives, 32, 143. 

214, 226, 228, 229. 

Diphthongs, 15. 



Dutch Inflaenoe, 26. 

Gerand (of adjectives), 128, 181. 

"Either... or" (how rendered), 69, 

„ (negative), 169. 179. 


"Get*' (how rendered), 198— aoo. 

EUsion. 14, 104, 154. 15s. 185. 194. 

II (letter), 16, 25. 

EUipsis, 268, 186 ; also 68, 83, 87, 

« Had better " (how icndcredy, 177. 


Hepburn (Dr. J. C), 12, 93. 

Emphasis, 18, 19, 43. 8$. 86, 87. 88, 

Hoffmann's Japanese Grammar, 

90, 91, 97, 118, 122. 169,19s, 


237--9, 268. 

Honorifics, 244; 11. 37, 47, i43, 

Emphatic Particles, 73, 79, 136. 

165, 189, 275, 276. 

English Inflaence, 5, 6, 22, 26, 60. 

(meaningless), 245, 248. 

Enumeration, 75, 80, 81, loi, 102, 

„ (used objectively), 247. 

• 224. 

Hours (counting of), 118. 

Epenthetic Letters, 18, 24, 106, ^99. 

Humble Phraseology, 46, 249—257. 

Equals (how addressed), 244—257. 

Hyphens, 35, 106. 

Errors (common), 11,50, 125, 142. 

Hypothetical Mood, 184; 166. 

Euphony, 23, 26, 1 05, 129, 152. 

"If" (how rendered). 84, 91, 

Europeanisms, 5, 26, 280. 


Exclamatory Particles, 85, 87, 93, 

Illative Tenses, 193. 

237. 239. 

Imperative Mood, 167, 189, 252—4, 

Expletives, 237—240. 

277; also 129, 151, 

F (letter), 16, 25, 164—5. 


Feminine, 27, 28. 

(honorific), 252—4. 

Frequentative Form, 167, 188; 128, 

(negative), 168. 


Impersonality, 50. 

(of negative), 169. 

Impossibility (how expressed), 202 

Future Tense, 165, 168, 172, 190. 


„ (compound), I91. 

Improbable Past, 169. 

G (letter), 16, 21, 162—3. 

„ (Present or Future), 

Gender, 27, 28, 30, 32, 121. 

168; 81. 

Genitive, 66, 76, 260. 

" In order to " (how rendered), 75. 

Gerund, 165, 178, 180, 265 ; also 60, 

Indefinite Form, 165, 178, 264—6; 

70, 100, 147, 190, 191, 

also 31, 43, 60, 75. 88, 93. 1 10, 122, 

192, 193, 194, 196,203, 

132. 137, 150. 152, 153. 154—160, 

214. 230, 233, 261, 269. 


„ (emphasised), 166, 182 ; 

Indicative Mood, 154-160, 172; 


abo 57. 



Infinitive Mood, 178 ; 153, 179. 
Inflections (of adjectives), 120. 

(of verbs), 149. 
Integration of Sentences, 280 — 2, 
Interjections, 236 ; 87, 92, 234. 
Interrogation, 278; 51, 52, 68, 87, 

93. "3. 
„ (negative), 235. 

Inversion, 270; 118. 
Irregular Verbs, 158-160, etc (see 

Isolating Particle, 85. 
" It would seem that ' - (how render- 
ed), 183. 
J (letter), 21, 25, 163. 
Jesuit Grammars, 164. 
**Just as " (how rendered), 42, 
K (lettei*), 21, 162. 
Korean Language, 5, 169. 
Kyoto Dialect, 8, 125, 163, 164, 223, 

"Let " (how rendered), 213, 215. 
Letter-changes, 20, I04, 161— 5, 

168, 171. 
" Let us " (how rendered), 189, 
Literature, 6, 9, 10, 448. 
Long Sentences, 280 ; 3, 269. 
Luchuan Language, JPr^f,, 5, 36, 

M (letter), 24, 162—3. 
Masculine, 27, 28. 
"May" (how rendered), 69, 174, 

188, 207. 
Memorising (necessity for), 4, 5. 
"Might" (how rendered), 69. 
Military Words of Command, 189, 


Months (names of the), 116, 117, 
Mood (in adjectives), 128, 130, 178. 

„ (in verbs), JS4— 160, 165, 
172, 178, 
Mr., Mrs., Miss, 258 — 9. 
« Must " (how rendered), 174—5 » 

122, 132, 183. 
"Must not" (how rendered), 183. 
N (letter), 17, 18, 23, 24, 25, 162^ 

168, 169. 
Names (family), 36, 259. 

„ (men's), 36, 259. 

„ (of dogs), 125. 

„ (of places), 36, 40, 41, 126. 

„ (of shops)t 40. 

„ (of trees), 40, 

„ (personal), 36. 256, 259. 

„ (women's), 259. 
« Need not " (how rendered), 188. 
Negative (syntax of), 271—4. 

„ (adjective Ma), 129, 130, 
168, 171. 

„ (base), 152, 154—160, 167; 
also 153, 198, 212. 

„ (conjugations), 129, 130, 

15s— i60i 
„ (question how answered), 

„ (tenses how formed), 167 

—170; 153. 
„ (voice), 153, 155—160, 
168, 179.219,272. 
" Neither. . .nor" (how rendered), 72. 
Ng (sound of), 16. 
Nominative, 66, 89 ; 76, 86, 91, 201. 
Nouns, 27 ; also 97, loi, 260, 269. 
„ (abstract), 37, 38, 136. 



Nouns (collective), 27. 

„ (compoand), 31, 137. 

„ (How yerbiUsed), 2tt$. 

„ (humble). 256. 

„ (in ^' and j^), 40. 

.. (in w»), 38. 

„ (in sa), 37, 38, m- 

» (in ya), 40. 

„ (plain and honorific), 256 

„ (used as adjectives), 44, 135 

—140, 142. 
„ (used as adverbs), 45, 231 

„ (used as postpositions), 97. 
„ (verbal), 43 ; 31. 
Number, 27, 29, 30, 32, 121, 149. 
Numerals, loi. 

„ (auxiliary), 107. 

„ (cardinal), loi, 115, 116. 

(Chinese), 103—7; in, 
112, 113, 115, 116. 
„ (fractional), 118; 115. 

„ (multiplicative), 118. 

„ (ordinal), 115, 116. 

Object (of verb), 260, 268. 
"One" or "ones'* (how rendered), 

78. 96. I3S» M4- 
Onomatopes, 236 ; 82, 240. 
„ Or " (how rendered), 69, 93, 224. 
„ Ought" (how rendered), 41, 57, 

P (let««r), 21, 22, 23, 25, 236. 
" Pair *' (various words for), 114. 
Paradigms, ^2, 1 26, 1 28 — 1 30, 1 54— 

160, 162, 229. 
Participle-, 165. 

Particles, see Postpositions. 

Farts of Speech, 10, 230, 231^ 

Passive, 198, etc ; see Verhs. 
Past Participle, 165. 
„ (lenses), 166, 175, 184, 186 ; 
also 141. 
Person, 46, 149, 244—6, 249. 
Personification, 279. 
Phonetic Decay, 22, 151, 161, 166, 

168, 202, 233. 
Place-names, 36, 143. 
Pleonastic Constructions, 1278. 
Plural, 27, 29, 30, 48, 49- 
Politeness (influence on grammarX 

244 ; 46—7, 160. 
Portuguese Influence, 236. 
Positive Voice, 153, 154, 156 — 160. 
Possessive, 76. 

Postpositions, 62 ; 10, 27, 49, 230^ 
232, 260, 269, 27P. 
. „ (combined), 94; 76, 77; 

Pot«itial yerbs, see Verbs. 
Predicative Constructions, 66, 77, 
89, 90, 91, 121, 122, 138, 140, 141, 
142, 143,266,274. 
Prefixes, ay, 30, 37, 170. 
Present Tense, see Certain Present. 
Probable Past, 166, 175. 
„ (of negative), 169. 
„ present or future, 168. 
• „ „ (of negative), »68. 

Pronouns, 46, 257. 

.„ (demonstrative), 51, 82. 
„ (indefinite), 51, 52, 55, 

„ ( interrogative), 5 1 . 



Pronouns (personal), 46, 245, 257, 
(possessive), 49. 
„ (reaective), 51. 

(relative), 56. 
„ (substantive and adjec- 
tive forms), 53. 
Pronunciation, 12; 7. 
Prosody, 448. 

" Provided " (Ijow rendered), 242. 
Quantity (vowel), 12—13, 448. 
Quasi-adjectives, 135. 

„ (inj^/a),i42;i4i. 

„ (in so na)y 137. 

Quasi-postpositions, 97. 
Question and Answer, 235. 
Quotation, 275. 
R (letter), 17, 152, 162, 163. 
Reduplication of Consonants, 18, 

23, 24- 
(of stems), 134. 
„ (of words), 29, 230, 

232, 240. 
Reflective (pronouns), 51. 

„ (verbs), 211. 
Relation'(ideas of), 27, 62, 77. 
Relation to Other Languages, 5. 
Relationship (degrees of), 28, 

Relative Constructions, 56. 
Rodriguez' Japanese Grammar, 150. 
Romanisation, 12. 
Roots of Verbs, 149— 151, 209, 210. 
S (letter), 17, 21, 25, 162, 164. 
Satow and Ishibashi's English- 
Japanese Dictionary, 153, 243. 
Satow (Sir Ernest), 22, 35. 

" Self** (how rendered), 51, 21.1. 
Self-depreciatory Terms, 46, 244, 

250—1, 255—7. 
Semi-colloquial, 124, 125. 
Sentence (structure oO, 260. 
Servants (how addressed), 47, 

Sh (letter), 25 ; 21, 162, 164. 
"Should" (how rendered), 41, 132, 

177. 186. 
Silent Vowels, 14. 
" Since " (how rendered), 70, 94. 
Singular, 27, 29, 49. 
•* Sir" (no equivalent for), 258. 
Slang, 8. 

«*So" (how rendered), 148, 
Spanish Influence, 26, 236. 
Special Phraseology, 240 — 2. 
Stems (of adjectives), 124—7, '34* 

„ (of verbsX 149—152, 190, 210, 
214, 228. 

„ (reduplicated), 134. 
" Still more " (how rendered), 146. 
Subject (of sentence), 261, 266; 

Suffixes, 5, 10, 29, 30, 38,48, 120— 

2, 133, i34» 149. 150. I53» 161, 

165— i7o> 190, 193,210,219,222, 

225, 226, 261. 
Superiors (how addressed), 244— 

Superlatives, 145, 146. 
Supposition (how expressed), 184 — 

Surds and Sonants, 2a 
Surnames, 36, 259. 



Syntax, 260. 

Verbs (compound), 217. 

Synthesis of Contradictories, 34. 


(conclusive form), 132. 

T (letter), 25, 162, 163, 164. 


(final omitted), 268. 

Tense (anomalous use of), 176. 


(formed from adjectives), 134, 

„ (compound continuative). 


»55» 191; MI. 


(honorific), 249—254; 160, 

„ (illative), 193. 

171, 189. 

„ (in adjectives), 128, 130, 177, 


(humble), 251; 249, 250. 



(in aru\ 190, 210. 

„ (in verbs), 154—160, 165, 


(in em), 190, 210. 

172; also 57, 149,178,191. 


(in^r«), 134. 

„ (negative),i67— 170, 191, 195. 


{injiru\ 226. 

"Than" (how rendered), 94, 145. 


(in suru), 225. 

"That" (conjunction), 82. 


(in iagaru), 134. 

"There is," etc. (how rendered), 


(inchoative), 204, 218. 

221, 222; 98. 


(inflections of), 149 — 152. 

"They say that" (how rendered). 


(intransitive), 205, 208; 191, 

58, 183. 


"Though" (how rendered), 186. 


(irregular), 158—160, 170 ; 

Tities, 258. 

also 133, 198, 212. 

Tokyo Dialect, 8, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 


(liable to be confounded). 

20, 21, 23, 128, 163, 164, i68, 223. 


Tones, 19. 


(may take postpositions). 

"Too" (how rendered), 148. 


Transitive and Intransitive Pairs of 


(nature of Japanese), 149. 

Verbs, 208, 228. 


(passive), 198, 203—5, 278 ; 

Transliteration, 12, 225. 

also 57, 58, 75, 133, 134, 

Ts (letter), 25; 21, 164. 

190, 191, 207, 208, 213, 

Unfinished Sentences, 268 ; 82, 83, 

216, 219, 227, 266. 

237, 253. 


(periphrasis with), 191 — 7. 

Verbalisation of Nouns, 225. 


(plain and honorific), 249, 

Verbs, 149 ; 260, 261. 


„ (auxiliary), 190 ; 155, 223. 


(potential), 201, 207, 219, 

„ (bases oQ, 151; 149—152, 


154—160, 161, 165. 167. 


(prepositional), how rendered, 

„ (cannot be omitted), 71. 


„ (causative), 212; 75, 134, 219. 




Verbs (stems of), 149 — 152, 190. 

83, 107, 122, 124, 161. 


(substantive), see Verb «* to 

W (letter), 17, 25, 164-5, 


Western Peculiarities, 15, 17, 21, 


("to Be"), 221; also 62—5, 

163, 168. 

71, 98, 120, 124, 126, 128, 

"When" (how rendered), 41, 42, 

129. 136, 138, 190, 191, 



" Whether '* (how rendered), 69. 


("to Do"), 224; 195. 

"While" (how rendered), 41, 42, 


(" to Have "), 221; 203, 216. 



(transitive), 206, 208, 214, 

"Without" (how rendered), 129, 

215, 227, 279. 



(used as adjectives), 135, 140, 

Women (words peculiar to), 47, 




(used as nouns), 31, 43, 149. 

Women's names, 259. 


(used as other parts of 

"Wonder" (how rendered), 175. 

speech), 230. 

Word-boilding, 35. 


(with so suffixed), 137, 183. 

" Would " (how rendered), 186. 


(with stems in j), 210, 214. 

Writing (system of), 9, 

« Very " (how rendered), 147, 148. 

Written Language^ 9, 10; also 46, 

Vowels, 12, 25. 

51,52,57,60,73,76,91.93, 112, 


(crasis of), 15, 124. 

118, 121, 122, 124, 132, 135, 136, 


(harmony of), 5. 

161, 164, 165, 166, 168, 169, 178, 


(long and short), 13, 168. 

180, 184, 185, 202, 203, 212, 224, 


(quiescent), 14. 18, 19. 

226, 239. 241, 257. 


(stems), 124, 162, 163, 164. 

Y (letter), 17,25, 


(strengthening of), 24, 

Year-names, 116. 


"Yes" and "no," 234. 

Vulgarisms, 8, 15, 18, 19, 46, 48, 64, 

Z (letter), 18, 21, 25. 




Page 104, line 10, and Vocab. s. v. — Some modern 
authorities take (7i^« in the sense of '*one hundred 
millions," and chd in the sense of ** one oku of oku^* 
i.e. apparently io,ooo,ooo,ocx),ocx),cxx). 

Page 142, line 18. — For smnoriy read tsumori. 

Page 188, line ?• — For Iwanakue read Iwanakute, 

Page 194, line 7.— For '' 1 289," read '' 1 298." 

Page 198, bottom. Serareru is often contracted to 

Page 202, fourth example.— For gozaimasu, read 

Page 242, line 18.— For shltey read shtte. 

Page 326, line 6 from end. — For sugy read sugi. 

Page 330, line 6 from end. — For tatte, read tatete. In 
last line of ditto, the sense would be still clearer 
were the word sakan inserted after naka-naka. 

Page 332, line 3. — For attate, read atatte. 

Page 384, line 3 from bottom.— For Gondaiyu, read 



Page 461, s. v. "L^^— For wata^shi, read watakushi. 

Ditto, s. V. " June," for r^>6«-^a/^« read roku-gwatsu. 

Page 474. — The first word of the Vocabulary should 

be, not ^, but d. 

On ditto, for ai-nikui read ai-niku. 
Page 540, S. v. Sugiru. — Correct segiru to sugiru. 

To the Japanese — English Vocabulary (pp. 474 
et seg,) add the following : — 

asai, shallow. 
be086, a villa. 

hXto-tsubu-dane, an only child. 
hon, sometimes eqaiv. to Aonto, 

true : Aott no, true, quite, mere. 
kimaru, to be fixed, 
kitte, a ticket, a stamp. 
kizukai, anxiety. 
k6be, the head. 

kocli6, a mayor. 
kokoro-zashi, intention. 
koxni-agreru (2), to retch, also to 

have a sadden impulse, e. g. of 

ku, a stanza of poetry, 
mirai, the future. 
nazo, or nanzo, same as ttado. 


Things Japanese, i Vol., 3rd Edit. 

The Classical Poetry of the Japanese y i Vol. 

A Romanized Japanese Reader (Modern Written 
Style), 3 Vols., viz. Vol. I, Japanese Text ; Vol. II, 
English Translation ; Vol. Ill, Notes. 

Essay in Aid of a Grammar and Dictionary of the 
Luchuan Language, (Published as Supplement to 
Vol. XXIII of the '* Transactions of the Asiatic Society 
of Japan.") 

The Language^ Mythology y and Geographical No- 
menclature of Japan, Viezued in the Light of Aino 
Studies, I Vol. (Published as a Memoir of the Litera- 
ture College of the Imperial University of Japan.) 

A Translation of the '' Kojiki,'' or ^^ Records of 
Ancient Matters,^' with Introduction and Commentary^ 
I Vol. (Published as Supplement to Vol. X of the 
"Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan.'*) 


'' Ei Bunten'' (an elementary English Grammar), 
I Vol, 5th Edit. 

** Nihon Shdbunten " (an elementary Japanese Gram- 
mar), I Vol. 

In Collaboration with W. B. Hasoiii Esq. 

Murray's Handbook for Japan, i Vol., 4th Edit. 

Printed by tbb Shuteisha, TSkyCsi 

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